Klio # 4 (136) 2018





Uvarov P.B. (Chelyabinsk). Historiosophical constructions of the Orientalist Vyacheslav Rybakov………………………13

PAVEL BORISOVICH UVAROV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Russian History and the Law, South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical University. 454091, Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk, Lenin’s Ave., 69. E-mail: pbuvar@mail.ru

The study addresses the question of expert and prognostic potential of the historical scholarship. The author states that in modern scholarship, historical pragmatics as an ability to understand at the expert level actual socio-cultural processes and consciously regulate them, practically remains beyond the limits of historical knowledge and education. The author notes that this potential is fully realized in philosophy of history reasoning of the Orientalist Vyacheslav Rybakov, whose insights of the ancient Chinese legal system prove the significant influence of Confucianism on the mindset and social and cultural relations in the Chinese society. Confucianism postulated a model of an ethical person that, becoming embodied in the tradition, defined a uniformity of the Chinese society and potentials for its intensive development. The study ends with potential prospects for further development of the national historical scholarship.

Keywords: history, culture, tradition, social pragmatics, Confucianism, historical scholarship, forecasting, expertize, ethical model.





Podchasov N.A. (Moscow). Political position of the princes Trubetskoy in the late period of the reign of Ivan the Terrible: based on materials of the Books of Ranks………………………………………………………………………………………18

NICKOLAY ALEKSEYEVICH PODCHASOV — Postgraduate student of the Source Studies Department, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 117463, Russian Federation, Moscow, Novoyasenevsky Pr., 32/3, 288. E-mail: nickpodchasov@yandex.ru

The article explores the question of political situation of the princes Trubetskoy in the last decade of the reign of Ivan IV. The scarcity of the source base led to the absence of special research conducted on the matter. Meanwhile, at the end of the 16th century princes Trubetskoy took an active part in the life of our country. After the death of Ivan IV, princes Trubetskoy had a significant influence on the course of the political struggle, which ended with the accession of Godunov. All the mentioned facts lead to conclusion about the relevance of studying the history of the rise of the Trubetskoy family under Ivan IV and the peculiarities of their position during that period. To overcome the shortage of the source base is possible thanks to the publication of the Books of Ranks by Viktor Buganov. This paper makes it evident that the political and military significance of princes Trubetskoy could have been more significant than it was previously believed.

Keywords: Book of Ranks, princes Trubetskoy, Ivan IV, aristocracy, military and political elite, nobility.


Krylova E.N. (Saint Petersburg). The governmental press at the beginning of the 20th century (on the example of “The Rural Bulletin”)…………………………………………………………………………………………22

ELENA NICKOLAEVNA KRYLOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Advertising and Public Relations, Pushkin Leningrad State University. 196605, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10. E-mail: hellennak@yandex.ru

The article is dedicated to the governmental newspaper “The Rural Bulletin” at the beginning of the 20th century. The particular attention is given to the process of newspaper’s formation and transformation from “The Governmental Bulletin’s” supplement to the independent newspaper. The author shows the evolution of the newspaper from its foundation in 1881 to its reorganization in 1905. The religious and moral aspects, peasant household and agricultural issues were the main content of the articles in “The Rural Bulletin”. The articles about the tsar family promoted the image of the tsar who took care about his subjects. Established to inform about governmental agricultural policy the low-income population and to improve educational level of peasants in the Russian Empire the newspaper was unprofitable and needed the governmental support. Analyzing the issues of newspaper “The Rural Bulletin” the author comes to the conclusion that during 25 years period from 1881 to 1905 the editorial policy of newspaper did not endure the significant changes. Only when the Revolution struck the government reorganized the newspaper, doubled the information impact, changed the newspaper’s design, multiplied columns and lines on the page but did not change the content of the newspaper. The author considers it as a sign of crisis of governmental system.

Keywords: the governmental press, the media, “The Rural Bulletin”, “The Governmental Bulletin”, A.G. Bulygin, the public opinion.


Borisova N.A. (Saint Petersburg). The B.L. Rosing archive in the A.S. Popov Central Museum of Communications…………………………………………30

NINA ALEKSANDROVNA BORISOVA — Ph.D., Science Director, The A.S. Popov Central Museum of communications. 190000, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Pochtamtskaya St., 7. E-mail: borisova@rustelecom-museum.ru

The A.S. Popov Central Museum of Communications (St. Petersburg, Russia) stores the archive of Rosing, the Russian scientist, physicist and inventor, the founder of electronic television. It represents the most informative set of sources on the little-known Soviet period of life and activity of Rosing (the 1920th). The analysis of documents has shown that when mechanical television had been blossoming, Rosing consistently had been proving advantages of electronic television. He was making reports, writing articles and books. Rosing’s professional life was developing the way that he couldn’t experiment constantly with the electronic television, except for the small period in 1924–1925, which finished by filing five patents, three of which Rosing considered essential.

Keywords: electronic television, electric telescope, cathode ray tube, founder, inventor, Boris Rosing, The A.S. Popov Central Museum of Communications.


Dianova E.S. (Saint Petersburg). Memoirs of V.М. Primakov as a source on the history of the Chinese Revolution of 1925–1927………………………………………………………………………………38

ELENA SERGEEVNA DIANOVA — Postgraduate student, Department of International Relations, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. 193079, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Oktyabrskaya Emb., 94–1–4. E-mail: lenadianova@inbox.ru

The study examined war memoirs of Vitaliy Markovich Primakov, participant of the Chinese Revolution of 1925–1927, published in 1927. The following tasks were set in the framework of the research: the definition of memoirs as a historical source; comparison of first publication of V.М. Primakov with subsequent reissues; analysis of the impact of censorship on the content of memoirs; changes in memoirs in connection with the internal policy and foreign policy of USSR and China. The main sources used by the author in the article are memoirs of V.M. Primakov published in different years, archival materials of publishing houses “Priboy” and “Lentogiz”, published archival documents. The relevance of the study is determined by the absence of a comprehensive study of memoir literature of the Chinese Revolution of 1925–1927 from a historiographical point of view. Comparison of texts of the first publications with their reprints allows one to trace the influence of a number of factors on the content of memoirs, their political and agitational component.

Keywords: memoirs, Soviet military specialists, Chinese Revolution of 1925–1927, soviet military assistance, Communist Party of China, Kuomintang, publishing houses, agitational literature.





Fediushin V.V. (Moscow). On the Sources of Surplus Extraction of Maya Nobility of the Late Postclassic Period (13th — 1st half of 14th century)………………………………………………………………………44

VLADISLAV VALER’EVICH FEDIUSHIN — Postgraduate student of the Department of the Ancient History, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Pr., 27. E-mail: vladfedyushin@gmail.com

Both market and non-market sources of the Maya political elite enrichment during the Mayapan and post-Mayapan periods (13th to the middle 14th century) are discussed. The author distinguishes five types of such sources: tribute and corvée labor from the subordinate commoners; slave- and land-owning (the latter is true for the most profitable land lots); and trade connections both on regional and supraregional levels. This questions a notion still widespread in the Russian scientific community of the nome states as the polities whose rulers could relay only on a limited variety of surplus extraction sources. Also, this can support that the division between the local and long-distance, redistributive and trade exchange was not so unbridgeable as was believed until quite recently among the Mesoamericanists influenced by K. Polanyi’s school.

Keywords: economic and non-economic sources, Maya, Mayapan post-Mayapan periods, slave- and land-owning, tribute, surplus extraction sources trade exchange.





Kuznetsov V.N. (Saint Petersburg). Entrepreneurship Northwest Russia: the specificity of the development, structure, sources of formation (the second half of the 19th century)……………………………………………………………………..54

VLADIMIR NIKOLAEVICH KUZNETSOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of History and Personnel Management, Saint Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation. 192281, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Malaya Balkanskaya St., 14–1–133. E-mail: kvnguga@mail.ru

On the basis of statistical and archival materials, the author reveals the dynamics of changes in the number of capital and provincial businesses, the number of Guild tickets and trade certificates chosen by entrepreneurs of the North-West of Russia in the period under review. The issue of changes in the number and structure of the capital’s entrepreneurship is developed in detail in the works on the history of the capital’s business world. However, the analysis of these changes is based on the results of urban censuses of 1869, 1881, 1890, 1900, the all-Russian census of 1897, data of reference books on issue of merchant certificates for 1865, 1880 and 1898. The author’s analysis of the quantitative and qualitative parameters of entrepreneurs of St. Petersburg, the capital, Novgorod and Pskov provinces in a common ten-year amplitude for the North-West region, revealed both General trends and specific features of the development of entrepreneurship, the dynamics of changes in the number and structure of the entrepreneurial class in the regional, Metropolitan and provincial scale in the unity of its hierarchical levels, the main professional and social groups.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, business world, structure, modernization, General and specific factors, especially development.


Krasovskaya L.P. (Saint Petersburg). Revolution and constitutional development of Russia……………………………64

LYUDMILA PETROVNA KRASOVSKAYA — Ph.D. in Law, Associate Professor, Professor the Department of State and Legal Disciplines, St. Petersburg’s Law Institute (branch) of the Academy of the General Prosecutor’s Office of the Russian Federation. 191104, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Liteiny pr., 44. E-mail: krasovskaj@mail.ru

The uniqueness of the Great Russian Revolution of 1917 lies in the fact that from the very first days two types of statehood began to be formed in the country: a bourgeois-liberal republic headed by a provisional government and autocratic-popular led by the Soviets of Workers’, Peasants’, Soldiers’ Deputies and others. the energetic actions of the Bolsheviks, the program for the transformation of the Russian state, worked out by V.I. Lenin, the Soviets managed to come to power on the wave of the February revolution. The Provisional Government Decree of September 1, 1917, and the Concept of State Power of the Bolsheviks provided for a republican form of government in Russia, a bicameral parliament, contained the idea of autonomy for Finland and other regions of Russia. The author studied the decrees of the Soviet government, which formed the basis of the Constitution of the RSFSR in 1918 and analyzed the patterns of organization of state power in the transition period and the formation of a new constitutional order based on the creation of the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation. The Constitution of the RSFSR of 1918 became the basis for the rational organization of society and the state in accordance with the goals of political forces in power.

Keywords: Great Russian Revolution, Constitution, decrees of the Soviet power, constitutional order.


Gorlova N.I. (Moscow). The history of formation and development of the soviet system of voluntary work………………71

NATALYA IVANOVNA GORLOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Tourism and Sports Industry, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. 117997, Russian Federation, Moscow, Stremyanny Per., 36. E-mail: Gorlovanat@yandex.ru

The author draws attention to the little studied problem of the formation of the practice and ideology of volunteer labor in the Soviet state, revealing the socio-cultural specifics of this phenomenon at various stages of the development of this system: mass, organization, directive, stimulation of participation. The results of a study of public initiative of Soviet citizens in the system of mass voluntary organizations are presented. Some aspects and methods of propaganda work, forms and methods of activity of mass public organizations, their structure are considered. The questions of development of own sector of volunteers and principles of organization of volunteer work are studied on the example of the activity of the Society “Down with illiteracy!”, the Society for Saving on the Water, the All-Russian Voluntary Fire Society, the All-Russian Society for the Conservation of Nature, the All-Russian Society for the Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments, etc. In addition, the role of societies in the development of the specialized institutional directions of the country’s volunteer movement is shown.

The conclusions of the article also allow to expand the possibilities of analysis and generalizations in the study of the history of the development of volunteer practices in the system of mass voluntary organizations in Soviet society, to better understand the specifics and features of the development of this sphere of the population.

Keywords: volunteers, volunteer work, voluntary community workers, volunteer movement, public organizations.


Krylova M.S. (Moscow). Organisation of cultural heritage protection by public authorities of Moscow in 1992–2002………………………………………………………………….78

MARGARITA SERGEEVNA KRYLOVA — Master of History, Researcher, Lecture of the School of Public Administration, Department of history of state and municipal management, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 172306, Russian Federation, Tverskaya oblast’, Zubtsovskii r-n, d. Stolipino, Molodezhnaya, 27. E-mail: rita_krilova@mail.ru

The author outlines the main directions of activities of government authorities for the protection of historical and cultural monuments of Moscow in 1991-2002: registration and control of preservation; financial preservation; popularization of knowledge about objects of cultural and historical heritage. The main focus was appealed to architectural objects, which was connected with measures to create an aesthetic appearance of the city to celebrate the anniversary in 1997. The key role in this activity was played by Department of State Control of Protection and Use of Monuments of History and Culture of Moscow as a specialized body in the structure of the City Government. Speaking about the systematic work on the part of the state authorities of the capital in the sphere of monuments preservation, contradictions and inconsistencies in some aspects (for example, the demolition of cultural monuments within the city development) are noticed.

Keywords: Department of State Control of Protection and Use of Monuments of History and Culture of Moscow, the object of cultural heritage, cultural heritage, protection of monuments, heritage preservation, cultural policy, cultural history.


Burkov V.G., Meshcheryakov K.Y., Zotova A.V., Shamgunov R.G. (Saint Petersburg). To the issue of the collapse of the USSR……………………………………………………………………………………………87

VLADIMIR GERMANOVICH BURKOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of the Post-Soviet Studies, School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Smolny St., 1/3, Entrance 8. E-mail: burkeg@rambler.ru

KONSTANTIN YEVGENIEVICH MESHCHERYAKOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Deputy Head of the Department of the Post-Soviet Studies, School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Smolny St., 1/3, Entrance 8. E-mail: mesce@mail.ru

ANASTASIYA VALERYEVNA ZOTOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of the Post-Soviet Studies, School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7–9. E-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

RUSLAN GABDRASHYTOVICH SHAMGUNOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of the Post-Soviet Studies, School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Smolny St., 1/3, Entrance 8. E-mail: ruslan.shamgunov@gmail.com

The article provides a comprehensive analysis of the causes of the collapse of the USSR. It reconstructs the picture of the country’s domestic policy and socio-economic development in the latest half of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. It pays a special attention to the numerous problems faced by the Soviet Union in the last years of its life: a deepening economic crisis, destruction of political regime, aggravation of interethnic antagonisms, and growth of separatism, while the Union leadership was totally incapable to handle the situation and suppress disintegrative tendencies. The authors suggest that the main responsibility for the SU demise lies with the General Secretary of the Communist Party’s Central Committee, the first and last president of the USSR, Mikhail Gorbachev, unable to save his state, and the Chairman of the Russian Federation Supreme Council, the first Russia’s president Boris Yeltsin, who purposefully led the country to the collapse. The authors believe that the way of liquidation of the Union State chosen by the leaders of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus which signed the Belovezhsky agreements on December 8, 1991 contradicted the norms of all-Union and republican legislation, violated the will of the Soviet citizens expressed in the referendum held on March 17, 1991, and outraged the leadership of the other Union republics, which left behind the newly created Commonwealth of Independent States. From the very beginning, the latter circumstances made the CIS unviable and did not allow it to become a ‘new USSR’.

Keywords: Perestroika, collapse of the USSR, Novo-Ogaryov process, Belovezh agreements, Commonwealth of Independent States, Russia, post-Soviet states, Gorbachev, Yeltsin, Kravchuk, Shushkevich, international relations in the post-Soviet space, interethnic conflicts.





Maslov G.F., Tarasov O.Y. (Khabarovsk). Legal customs (conventional right) and its reflection in the toponymy of the Far East: a brief historical and cultural review……………………………………………………………………………………96

GRIGORY FEDOROVICH MASLOV — Ph.D. in Legal Sciences, Associate Professor, Director of the Khabarovsk Infocommunications Institute (branch of the Siberian State University of Telecommunications and Information Sciences). 680013, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Lenina St., 73. E-mail: secret@hiik.ru

OLEG YUR’EVICH TARASOV — Ph.D. in History, Lecturer of the Khabarovsk Infocommunications Institute (branch of the Siberian State University of Telecommunications and Information Sciences). 680013, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Lenina St., 73. E-mail: oltar-1972@mail.ru

The basic forms of primitive law characteristic of the peoples of the Far East are considered. Important directions of their preservation until the beginning of the twentieth century have been analyzed.

In general, the article addresses the peculiarities of reflecting aspects of the legal custom and national traditions of the peoples of the Far Eastern region in the toponymy. Authors identified the main areas of customary law characteristic of the indigenous peoples of late settlement areas and options for reflecting the “legal field” in the toponymic picture. In addition, the issues of direct and indirect interrelation of the values of geographical names and “primitive justice” are highlighted, vivid examples of explicit fixation on geographical space and briefly indicate legends and the history of the origin of indirect names related to the early legal system. The research’s imperative is the possibility of comprehensive use of toponymic information in history.

Keywords: toponymy, legal custom, ethnic history, reflection of etymology by toponyms in history, jurisprudence, ethnography.


Dolidovich O.M. (Krasnoyarsk). Irkutsk in the fight against the crisis of food supply during the First World War……………………………………………………………….100

OLESYA MIKHAILOVNA DOLIDOVICH — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Modern Educational Technologies, Siberian Federal University. 660041, Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodny Pr., 79. E-mail: dolidovich@mail.ru

The article discusses the causes of the food supply crisis in Irkutsk and the activities of the city government in overcoming it. It is shown that before the First World War the Irkutsk province was a large market for manufacturers and agricultural producers in European Russia and Western Siberia. The agrarian colonization of the region continued, but its own production did not allow to provide the population with adequate food. In addition, there was a shortage of enterprises for processing agricultural raw. When the railway communication with the western regions of the country was broken, food prices began to rise in Irkutsk. But in general, as in other Russian cities, the food supply crisis was a consequence of the disorganization of the country’s economic life. The most difficult situation was in 1916, when the townspeople experienced an acute shortage of bread, sugar and many essential goods. Efforts by local authorities to address the food insecurity of the population (price rationing, food purchases, cooperation with consumer cooperatives, etc.) could not yield tangible results in the absence of effective measures on the part of the government to reduce inflation, speculation, regulate commodity turnover between regions, ordering of transportation, implementation of food supplies for the army.

Keywords: city public self-government, Irkutsk, the crisis of food supply, the First World War.


Karpova V.V. (Saint Petersburg). «Severopomoshch’» and organization of the pupils’ labor squads in the Vilna educational district in 1916…………………………………………………………………………108

VERONIKA VIKTOROVNA KARPOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of History of Russia, Pushkin Leningrad State University. 196605, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe sh., 10. E-mail: nika7676@mail.ru

The article tells about organizations and activities of the pupils’ labor squads during the Word War I. The pupils’ labor squads is one of the forms of charitable activities, which relates to 1915. They were formed to provide labor assistance in implementation of agricultural (mainly field) works in the fields of the families of the reserve soldiers and militias. The involvement of these students was given great educational value. With the growth of the labor shortage, pupils’ squads became economically important. As a result, there were proposals to use their work not only on fields of the peasants, but the landlords’ farms for a pay. One of the first examples of the practical implementation of this idea was the organization of labor squads organization «Severopomoshch’» on the territory of the Vilna educational district, Belarus. This article describes how successful the experience was and how the idea was perceived by the public.

Keywords: pupils’ labor squads, «Severopomoshch’», Vilna educational district, Word War I, charity, the Minsk province, the Vitebsk province, the Mogilev province, gymnasium students.


Varakin S.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). Activities of the League of Militant Atheists among the peasantry in the early 1930s (on the materials of Nizhny Novgorod region)……………………………………………………………………………………….114

SERGEY ALEKSANDROVICH VARAKIN — Assistant of the Chair of History, Philosophy, Pedagogy and Psychology, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. 603950, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Il’inskaya St., 65. E-mail: legenda-ork@inbox.ru

The article on the materials of the Nizhny Novgorod region analyzes the atheistic activities of the League of Militant Atheists in the Soviet village in the early 1930s. On the basis of general scientific methods, the structure of the League of Militant Atheists cells, the forms and methods of anti-religious propaganda are analyzed. Features of the work of atheists among collective farmers, farm laborers and individual poor peasants, as well as among village youth and national minorities, are considered. Of no small importance was the atheistic agitation among women, aimed at rethinking her role in the life of Soviet society. The activities of atheists were oriented toward combating the vestiges of the past, which hampered the cultural development of the rural population. Based on the results obtained, a conclusion is drawn about the specifics of the anti-religious work of the League of Militant Atheists in the village and its impact on the peasant’s consciousness.

Keywords: the League of Militant Atheists, anti-religious propaganda, world view, village, collective farm, poor people, religion, mass work.


Zakharov G. A. (Saint Petersburg). The creation and organization of the work of the Leningrad House of Peace and Friendship with the peoples of foreign countries in 1965–1991………………………………………………………………119

GRIGORY ALEXANDROVICH ZAKHAROV — Postgraduate student, The Bonch-Bruevich Saint Petersburg State University of Telecommunications. 191186, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, nab. R. Moika, 61. E-mail: zakharovgrisha@yandex.ru

In the article, based on documents from Russian archives, questions are raised about the appearance in Leningrad of the House of Peace and Friendship with the Peoples of Foreign Countries. The problems with which the head of the Leningrad branch of the Union of Soviet Societies of Friendship and Cultural Communication and the party leadership of Leningrad had to be faced when solving the question of the establishment of the House of Peace and Friendship. The procedure for the approval of the states, the provision of premises, the implementation of financing, the structural subordination of the organization, the procedure for interaction with the leaders of the of the Union of Soviet Societies of Friendship and Cultural Communication in Moscow and the party leadership in Leningrad are analyzed. The main directions of activity and results of the work carried out for the period of existence studied, the impact on the activities of the House of Peace and friendship of political decisions adopted by the party leadership of the country are considered in detail; The problems that arose during the functioning of the House of Peace and Friendship, and the ways to solve them. The author seeks to show how the evolution of the House of Peace and Friendship has evolved over time, and how his work influenced further work with foreigners arriving in Leningrad.

Keywords: Leningrad House of peace and friendship with the people of foreign countries, The Union of soviet society of friendship, the regional committee of the Communist party of the Soviet Union, foreign delegations, states and budget.





Smirnov S.V. (Ekaterinburg). Russian Military Émigrés in Tianjing (1920s — early 1940s)………………………………127

SERGEI VIKTOROVICH SMIRNOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Ural Institute of Humanities, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin. 620002, Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg, Mira St., 19. E-mail: smirnov_sergei@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the life of the Russian military emigration in Tianjin, the third after Harbin and Shanghai in the Russian émigré population centers of China, received virtually no coverage in the historical literature. Based on the documents of Russian and American archives, the author describes the process of formation, organizational structure, the characteristic of military expatriates in Tianjing. The paper focuses on the problem of the consolidation of military organizations on anti-Soviet basis, taken by the supporters of Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich in the second half of 1920s – beginning of 30-ies. The failure of the Russian All-Military Union in the consolidation of the military emigration spurred similar attempts on the part of their ideological opponents, making a bet on cooperation with Japan. In the 1930s with the strengthening of positions of Japan in North China to the fore in the life of a military emigration out Pro-Japanese circles, completing the process of consolidation of emigrant military organizations in enforcement. In the years of the Pacific War accelerated the process of degradation and demoralization of the military emigration on the background of the growth of Patriotic sentiment in émigré circles. The final disappearance of the Russian military emigration in Tianjing was connected with the ensuing processes of repatriation and re-emigration, typical of emigrant communities in China in the second half of the 1940s.

Keywords: Russian military emigration, the Union served in the Russian Army and Navy, Russian All-Military Union, the Brotherhood of Russian Truth, the Far Eastern Military Union, the Union of Cossacks in the Far East, Tianjing, China.


Budaeva L.A. (Moscow). “Your Own Country is a Strawberry, Another’s — a Blueberry”: the Soviet Ambassador A.M. Kollontai and the Peculiarities of relations between the USSR, Sweden, Finland during the Winter War of 1939–1940………………………………………………………………………………………135

LINA ANDREEVNA BUDAEVA — Postgraduate student of the Department of the History of Social Movements and Political Parties of Russia, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Pr., 27/4. E-mail: linabudaeva7@yandex.ru

The article focuses on the personal contribution of the Soviet ambassador in Sweden A.M. Kollontai to the preparation of signing of the Moscow Peace Treaty of March 12, 1940, between the Soviet Union and Finland, which put an end to the Winter War of 1939–1940. During the Soviet-Finnish military conflict A.M. Kollontai, with the use of her personal contacts and with the help of political and diplomatic circles in Sweden, traditionally close to Finland, tried to accelerate the end of the war and the signing of a peace treaty. The article is written on the basis of the archival documents of the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation, the memoirs of A.M. Kollontai “The Diplomatic Diaries, 1922–1940”, her correspondence and memories of her contemporaries — intelligence agent Z.I. Voskresenskaya, diplomat V.I. Erofeev and others.

Keywords: anthropology of international relations of the 20th century, Alexandra Kollontai, Soviet-Swedish relations of the 1930s, Soviet-Finnish relations of the 1930s, Winter War 1939–1940, Moscow Peace Treaty of March 12, 1940, diplomatic negotiations.


Uchaev A.N. (Saratov), Zhukovskaya N.J. (Tambov). International Relations between Canada and the USA in the Military Sphere during World War II………………………………………………………141

ANTON NIKOLAEVICH UCHAEV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of History, Philosophy, Political Science and Sociology Saratov Socio-Economic Institute the branch of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. 410003, Russian Federation, Saratov, Radischeva, 89. E-mail: uchaevan@gmail.com

NATALIYA JUR’EVNA ZHUKOVSKAYA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of International Relations and Political Science, Tambov State University named after Derzhavin. 392008, Russian Federation, Tambov, Sovetskaja, 181-i. E-mail: zjukovskaya@yandex.ru

The article examines the specifics of diplomatic interaction between Canada and the United States in organizing the defense of North America and coordinating actions to participate in the Second World War. The authors analyze the process of Canadian foreign policy transformation in the period of the world conflict, and the integration of the dominion into the security system of the North American continent. Based on the diplomatic documents of Canada and the United States of that period, it is concluded that M. King pursues a policy of “liberal pragmatism”, combining liberal rhetoric with a pragmatic approach to realizing the interests of Canada in the emerging model of the “North Atlantic triangle”. The authors also came to the conclusion that the Canadian-American relations paradigm that took shape during the Second World War became the defining feature of the interaction between these North American countries until the end of the 20th century.

Keywords: Canada, USA, United Kingdom, World War II, diplomacy, Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Mackenzie King, “North-Atlantic Triangle”, Ogdensburg agreement.





Lyubeznova A.O. (Moscow). The veneration of St. Herman of Solovky: dynamics and reasons for the changes of gravestone’s complex in the 15th–17th centuries……………………………………………149

ANASTASIA OLEGOVNA LYUBEZNOVA — Postgraduate student of the Department of History of Church, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119607, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lobachevskogo St., 100–3–645. E-mail: luni-ana@mail.ru

The culture of the Medieval Rus’ was based on religious views. If we want to study Russian medieval culture in complex, it’s necessary to know what the veneration of saints was based on and how it developed. The Solovetsky monastery is one of the biggest monasteries in Russia. It’s founders Zosima and Savvatiy was celebrated as a saints in 1547. Herman was also one of the monastery’s founders, but his veneration was developing in another way. It’s important to us to understand the reason of this difference. This research is devoted to the development of the veneration of the grave’s place of the saint. The article explores the development of the memorial complex of the saint Herman of Solovky from 1484 to 1692 when he was recognized as a saint. The research is based on the inventory books of the Solovetsky monastery. The “Live of the st. Herman” and the “Writing of the Solovetsky monastery” were also used as sources. The author comes to the conclusion that the veneration of St. Herman at the Solovetsky monastery started at the beginning of the 17th century. Throughout this century the veneration of st. Herman was quickly developing.

Keywords: history, culture, religion, medieval Rus’, monasteries, monasticism, veneration of saints, Solovetsky monastery, Herman of Solovky.


Panichkin A.P. (Saint Petersburg). The Reform of Theological Education under Catherine II. The Establishment of the Main Seminary in St. Petersburg……………………………………………………………155

ALEXANDER PHILIPPOVICH PANICHKIN — Candidate of Theology, Archpriest, Assistant Chief of the Military Educational and Scientific Centre of the Navy «The Naval Academy named after Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union N.G. Kuznetsov», Senior Priest of the St. Paul the Confessor and St. Righteous Warrior Feodor Ushakov Church in the Peter the Great Naval Corps (St. Petersburg). 192023, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Elizarova Pr., 10, apt. 282. E-mail: alpriest13@yandex.ru

The article tells about the church education reform carried out by Catherine II, about reformation of the Nevskaya Seminary into the Main Seminary. Assignments for the Main Seminary are indicated. The article informs about the new subjects that were introduced for studying at the Main Seminary. Administration composition is described in details: rector and prefect, professors and subjects they were teaching, as well as the institutions they graduated from, educational books prepared by them. The article indicates the number of students in different classes in different years of study. It informs about the careers that professors of the Main Seminary preferred to build afterwards. Many of them became monks, occupied the positions of priors and eparches, some of them moved to the secular service and became officials; others became involved into the secular science. The civil authorities particularly welcomed, if they went to medical secondary schools.

Keywords: Main Seminary, Metropolitan Gavriil (Kremenetskiy), rectors and theology masters, prefects and professors of philosophy, rhetoric, poetics, infima, syntaxeme, decrees of Catherine II and the church education reform of 1786.


Skurlov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Diplomatic gifts from His Majesty’s Cabinet to Eastern monarchies. Eastern vector of Russian diplomacy. The Japanese Empire. 1890–1917………………………………………162

VALENTIN VASIL’EVICH SKURLOV — Ph.D. in Art History, Independent researcher, Expert of the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation, Scientific Secretary of the Memorial Fund Faberge (Saint Petersburg). 199406, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Nalichnaya St., 37–3–47. E-mail: valentinskurlov@mail.ru

For the first time, the problem of forming the volume and assortment of Russian diplomatic gifts from His Majesty’s Cabinet for delivery to subjects of the Japanese Empire during 1881–1917 was considered. In the specified period there was no exchange of gifts and awards from the Cabinet only in 1903–1906. In the remaining years, the Cabinet issued and prepared awards and gifts to Japan almost every year. Factors influencing the collection of gifts have been identified, their diversity has been noted, a list of gifts and awards, and the personalities of Japanese awardees have been drawn up. Attention is drawn to the historical features and mentality, the Russian emperor and ministers took a personal part in drawing up the list of gifts. The index of names is 57 names, including 28 Japanese, 25 Russian and 4 foreigners. It was noted the need to further search for Russian gifts-awards in Japan, as priceless artifacts of their time, able to take a fresh look and strengthen the complex relations of the two great countries. The article will be of interest to specialists dealing with the issues of Russo-Japanese relations.

Keywords: Russian empire, Japanese Empire, diplomatic gifts, His Majesty’s Office, Russo-Japanese war, the Coronation of the Russian Emperor, Grand Duke George Mikhailovich.


Krivoshey D.Y. (Moscow), Skurlov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). To the history of the Russian Empire State institutions commissions from the Fabergé firm, 1908–1916………………………………………………169

DMITRY YUREVICH KRIVOSHEY — Independent researcher. 117279, Russian Federation, Moscow, Generala Antonova str., 4–1–172. E-mail: academicien@yandex.com

VALENTIN VASIL’EVICH SKURLOV — Ph.D. in Art History, Independent researcher, Expert of the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation, Scientific Secretary of the Memorial Fund Faberge (Saint Petersburg). 199406, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Nalichnaya St., 37–3–47. E-mail: valentinskurlov@mail.ru

This article is a continue of research and analysis of the most valuable source on activity of the Fabergé firm – “Fabergé’s bookkeeping book, 1909–1916” [1], a unique document on the firm, which is kept in the State Archive of the Russian Federation. Authors introduce into scientific circulation the new data about clients, which were until unknown – state institutions of the Russian Empire. Some Fabergé firm items, which will be mentioned in the article are already known to the researchers by some specific trappings and emblems, but the majority of performed items are firstly introduced into the scientific circulation, what will be an impetus for search of new items. Nevertheless, this article won’t be limited by only the list of customers and purchased items – we also have to understand the role of the Fabergé firm in the system of Highest gifts distribution and due to archival materials, we’ll try to establish the guideline, which was used during the orders for gifts or for the private usage on the workplace.

Keywords: Russian history, Russian imperial family, house of Romanov, monarchic houses, Russian state institutions, Russian government, Ministry of the Imperial Court, Cabinet of His Imperial Majesty, gifts, Fabergé, phaleristics, award and honoursystem, jewelry, applied arts, badges, jettons.





Losik A.V., Popova V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Preparation of military and civil professionals for the needs of rocket artillery in the 19th century…………………………………………………………………………177

ALEXANDER VITALIAVICH LOSIK Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Senior Researcher Institute (military), Military space Academy named after A.F. Mozhaisky, Deputy Editor of the journal “Кlio”. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskii Ave., 11. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

VICTORIA VLADIMIROVNA POPOVA — Teacher of the 107 Department, Military space Academy named after A.F. Mozhaisky. 197110, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya St., 13. E-mail: victoriay@inbox.ru 

The article considers the beginning of the formation of a system for training qualified military and civilian personnel for working with rocket technology. This is done mainly on the example of the Military Artillery School and the Pyrotechnic School at the Okhta Gunpowder Plant for Civilians. The main features of training officers and soldiers of rocket companies are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the significant contribution to the training of rocket scientists and inventor A.D. Zasyadko. Participation in the development of the training system for rocket experts and associates of A.D. Zasyadko — one of the first domestic rocket A.P. Kozena and K.I. Konstantinova. The system of training civilian specialists for work in military production is also covered. On the basis of the conducted research, it is concluded that by the middle of the 19th century, in Russia, a definite system of training military and civilian personnel for the production and work with rocket technology was finally formed. And this, in turn, contributed to the development of rocket weapons.

Keywords: Artillery School, Pyrotechnic School, combat rocket, rocket training company, artillery, A.D. Zasyadko, military education, Military-laboratory department.





Markova A.I. (Moscow). Documentation of the Imperial Moscow Medical and Surgical Academy (1798/1808–1845): the initial phase of the publishing process………………………………………………181

ANNA IGOREVNA MARKOVA — Chief Librarian, Department of Rare Books and Manuscripts, Scientific Library of the Lomonosov Moscow State University. 103073, Russian Federation, Moscow, Mokhovaya St., 9. E-mail: anna-markova@hotmail.com

The article is based on archival sources and normative documents of the Imperial Moscow Medical and Surgical Academy and for the first time presents documentation on the publication of books on public funds in a higher educational institution of Russia. The Imperial Moscow Medical-Surgical Academy is one of the few Russian specialized medical schools in the first half of the 19th century. The documentation of this university is stored today in the Department of Documents Storage until 1917 of the Central State Archive of Moscow. The study of the composition of the archive fund, its history and safety showed that the documentation  presented in it allow to reconstruct the process of book publishing in this institution, the main feature of which was the absence of its own printing house. The publishing process consisted of three phases: preparatory, typographical and phase realization of book production. The decision to publish a book was an important component of the preparatory phase of the publishing process and was reflected in several types of documentation: reports of authors and translators, reports of reviewers-professors who examined manuscripts, “opredelenia” and representations of the governing body of the university-the Conference. The listed types of documents make possible the study the policy of the Imperial Moscow Medico-Surgical Academy in the field of book publishing, aimed at prepare specialists in scientific and educational literature.

Keywords: source study; book distribution; medical book; history of medicine; history of education in Russia; The Imperial Moscow Medical-Surgical Academy.





Belkin A.N. (Moscow). Historicism of the artistic journey of Fedor Osipovich Shekhtel……………………………………187

ALEXANDER NIKOLAEVICH BELKIN — Ph.D. in Architecture, Professor, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University). 129337, Russian Federation, Moscow, Yaroslavskoye Shosse, 26. E-mail: an.belkin@mail.ru

This article examines the work of Fedor Osipovich Shekhtel (1859–1926) through the prism of the historical path of architecture from Eclecticism to Art Nouveau and Proto-functionalism. It gives an assessment of the most characteristic buildings of each style he had practiced. The article traces a tendency to synthesize different styles. The article analyses architect’s works, starting from the early constructions executed in the Eclecticism style and ending with “high” Art Nouveau and late works close to Proto-functionalism. This article examines the architectural solutions most typical for Russian architectural Art Nouveau in general and for “Moscow Art Nouveau” in particular, which had found the most vivid expression in the buildings of Fedor Shekhtel.

Keywords: Fedor Osipovich Shekhtel, architecture, Art Nouveau, Historicism, Eclecticism, Gothic, Russian style, Proto-functionalism.


Benda V.N., Kozlov N.D., Losik A.V. (Saint Petersburg). The contribution of Vilim Ivanovich De Gennin (de Hennin) in the development of artillery business, science, military special education and the mining industry in Russia in the first half of the 18 th century…………………………………………………………196

VLADIMIR NIKOLAYEVICH BENDA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Interfaculty Department of History, Pushkin Leningrad State University. 196605, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10. E-mail: bvn.1962@mail.ru;

NIKOLAI DMITRIEVICH KOZLOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of History, Pushkin Leningrad State University. 196605, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10. E-mail: koznik49@yandex.ru

ALEXANDER VITALYEVICH LOSIK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher, Baltic State Technical University “VOENMECH” named after D.F. Ustinov. 190005, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 1st. Krasnoarmeyskaya St., 1. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the outstanding scholar of mining and metallurgical production, artillery and engineering, the production of weapons and ammunition, Lieutenant-General of artillery V.I. Gennin, which almost his entire life devoted to serving the Russian state. V.I. Gennin was behind the founding of many Russian metallurgical and other industrial enterprises, the products of which went to Fund the Russian army and Navy with the necessary weapons, equipment and ammunition. The great merit of V.I. Gennin in the development of domestic arms production, to create a system of training workers and masters of mining and metallurgical production. In the mid 30s of the 18th century it produced a unique work that describes the plants built in the Urals and Siberia, as well as the issues of technical support and organization of mining production. De Gennin made a significant contribution to the development of artillery cases and improvement of military special artillery and engineering education of Russian Empire first half of the eighteenth century. This work is intended to complement and extend already existing in the national historiography information about the personality, life and activities of V.I. Gennin and to enter into scientific circulation previously unpublished archival and other sources.

Keywords: first half of the 18th century, Peter the great, V.I. Gennin, artillery and engineering, arms factories, ore mining and smelting trade, schools, training.


Koltsov I.A. (Saint Petersburg). Anatoly Vasilyevich Predtechensky: Scholar and Teacher. To the 125th anniversary of birthday (1893–1966)…………………………………………………………………………………207

IGOR ANATOLYEVICH KOLTSOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Philosophy and History Department of the Saint Petersburg Institute of Foreign Economic Relations, Economics and Law, Honorary Mental Worker of Russian Federation Vocational Education. 191014, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Liteiniy Pr., 42. E-mail: phi@ivesep.spb.ru

Scholarly, pedagogical and public activities of famous Russian historian Anatoly Vasilyevich Predtechensky are considered in the essay devoted to the 125th anniversary of his birthday.

Some little-known pages of his biography taken from the archives materials of St. Petersburg Historical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (f. 301 ― A.V. Predtechensky) and personal memoirs of the essay’s author, who had some meetings with A.V. Predtechensky in late 1950s ― the first half of 1960s are given for the first time.

Attention is paid to the fact that Anatoly Vasilyevich acquainted the essay’s author with scholarly heritage and biographical facts of famous Russian historians of the second half of 19th ― beginning of the 20th century, their names had been undeservedly forgotten for many decades: N.K. Shilder, N.F. Dubrovin, V.V. Tatischev, A.A. Kizevetter, A.E. Presnyakov.

History creation of “Historical Essays of Social and Political History of Russia in the first quarter of 19th century” by A.V. Predtechensky has place in this essay.

The use of creative heritage of A.V. Predtechensky in modern historical scholarship is analyzed, his contribution to elaboration of Decembrist’s problems (late 1920s ― early 1960s), to history of military settlements creation, editing and author taking part in fundamental work “Academy of Sciences of USSR History” is underlined.

In conclusion of the essay Predtechensky creative plans are done which are not realized: writing a book about artistic mastering of historical activity, artistic text meaning in historical research, publishing of monograph about military settlements history.

Keywords: A.V. Predtechensky, A.E. Presnyakov, social-political history of Russia, the first quarter of the 19th century, Alexander I, N.K. Shilder, T.N. Zhukovskaya, T.V. Sleptsova, military settlement.





Serdyuk M.B. (Vladivostok). «The outstanding organizer of material and technical (logistics) support»: Review of the papers of the interdepartmental scientific and practical conference…………………………………………………………218

MARIA BORISOVNA SERDYUK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Far Eastern Federal University. 690922, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Russkiy Island, Ajax Bay, FEFU Campus, 10, Bldg. S, S 406 Office. E-mail: serdyuk.mb@dvfu.ru

In the review it was analyzed articles published to papers of the interdepartmental scientific and practical conference «The outstanding organizer of material and technical (logistics) support (on the 125th anniversary of the birth of Army General A. V. Khrulev)», which was hold by the Army General A.V. Khrulev Military Academy of Logistics at the September 22, 2017. It was analyzed some articles, if it author introduced of new facts from historical documents and had a new point of view on some biographical facts, or author gave unaccustomed staging of the scientific research subject, or author researched a problem, which was little studied in historiography. It was noted that papers of the interdepartmental scientific and practical conference «The outstanding organizer of material and technical (logistics) support (on the 125th anniversary of the birth of Army General A. V. Khrulev)» is undoubtedly a milestone in the research of the Andrei Vasilievich Khrulev personality, sums up the current stage of researching activities of this military chief, and also reveals obvious gaps in historiography and outlines the ways forward for the work of historians.

Keywords: Army General A.V. Khrulev Military Academy of Logistics, historiography, military-scientific research, historical science.





Ippolitov G.M., Repinetskiy A.I. (Samara). Seventy years anniversary of Valery Yakovlevich Efremov………………..223

GEORGII MIKHAILOVICH IPPOLITOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Leading Researcher of Institute of Russian History RAS (Samara). 443001, Russian Federation, Samara, Studencheskyi Per., 3a. E-mail: pfiri@ ssc.smr.ru

ALEKSANDR IVANOVICH REPINETSKIY — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Leading Researcher of Institute of Russian History RAS (Samara). 443001, Russian Federation, Samara, Studencheskyi Per., 3a. E-mail: pfiri@ ssc.smr.ru

The publication dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the well-known Russian historian V.Y. Efremov tells about the scholarly career of jubilee, his contribution to the development of national scholarship.