Klio # 8 (152) 2019





Lebedeva V.G. (Saint Petersburg). History of happy family in USSR chronotope ……………………………………. 13

VALENTINA GEYNRIKHOVNA LEBEDEVA — Honorary Worker of Professional Education of the Russian Federation, Doсtor of Culturology, Associate Professor, Professor of the Social and Political Sciences Department, Saint Petersburg State Forest Technical University. 194021, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Institutskiy Pereylok, 5. E-mail: lebvagen@yandex.ru

The memoirs of V.G. Lebedeva are dedicated to the fate of the Volga region German family in USSR history chronotope. Significant time distance from the described events permitted the author to narrate experienced events rather objectively. In the center of story is the family head fate, astonishing by unpredictable and excessive tests fell to his lot. An early father’s death, Chapaev division warrior, 1921–1922 years of starvation; children’s home life and the fate of farm laborer after his liquidation; the work at a military factory and “regular army” service, the work at Komsomol committee and at a public prosecution office in Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republik of Volgagermans, arrest of 1937; the fighting to survive at a timber-felling in North Petchora “labour army” and long 18 years of “rights defeat” – up to the end of 1950 years. Yet despite all these trials he realized himself as a person, citizen and father, created ‘his home – his fortress’. Happy family, which emerged from the great love, lived in accordance with the laws of honour, human dignity and conscience defense. The author recollects as a happy time the childhood after war in ancient Siberian small town rear hospitals, invalids hous, horse-drawn transport, ‘market days’, mutual assistance and many-hours queues for the most necessary things. An independent hero of the story was a “yard life” of numerous inhabitants of the great barrak where indigenous Siberians, people with vague past, Kalmyks, “Russian Germans” and other persons lived side by side. Despite the mixed character they had something that may be defined by meaningful formula “Soviet people”.

Keywords: Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republik of Volgagermans, Autonome Sozialische Sowjetrepublik der Wolgadeutschen (German), International Committee of the Red Cross, American Relief Administration (ARA), labour army, special migrants.





Alieva L.V., Antonova L.V., Khrishkevich T.G. (Pskov). Contemporary research on social cohesion: a comparative historical analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………… 38

LUDMILA VLADIMIROVNA ALIEVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Russian History Department, Pskov State University. E-mail: zemkod1922@gmail.com

LIDIA VLADIMIROVNA ANTONOVA — Ph.D. in History, Senior Lecturer of the Department of World History and Area Studies, Pskov State University. E-mail: antonova.lidia.24@yandex.ru

TATIANA GEORGIEVNA KHRISHKEVICH — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of World History and Area Studies, Pskov State University. E-mail: faschoda@mail.ru

The article deals with the development and current state of the Russian and Western research on the social cohesion. The authors discuss the prospects for studying the concept of cohesion in the historical context. They also compare the main approaches to the definition of the term “social cohesion” and indicators used to measure its level. The analysis of the documents published by various international organizations allows to identify the theoretical justification of using the social cohesion concept as a state or supranational strategy. It is concluded that most of the studies on this subject are devoted to sociological issues. The authors emphasize the research capacity of a historical retrospective analysis that deals with the problems of solidarity and unity. This can give answers to questions concerning weakening of the existing bonds and consequences of the cohesion changes for the society. tudying social cohesion in a historical context will also allow to expand our understanding of new opportunities to ensure the required level of identity, solidarity, trust and participation.

Keywords: social cohesion, historiography, welfare state, cohesion practices, social indicators.





Artemenkova K.P., Petrova A.A., Pleshkov V.N., Pozdeeva M.A., Ushakov V.A. (Saint Petersburg). The Periodical Press of Russia as a Source on the Early History of America: Experience and Prospects of Use in the Works of the National Researchers (North, Central, South America and the West Indies) ……………………………………………………………….. 47

KSENIA PAVLOVNA ARTEMENKOVA — 3rd year student of baccalaureate, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskay line, 5. E-mail: artemen-ksen@mail.ru

ARIADNA ALEXANDROVNA PETROVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskay line, 5. E-mail: a.petrovs@spbu.ru

VIKTOR NIKOLAEVICH PLESHKOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Saint Petersburg Institute of History, Russian Academy of Science. 197110, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Petrozavodskaya St., 7. E-mail: vn-pleshkov@mail.ru

MARIA AVKSENTYEVNA POZDEEVA — Postgraduate student, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskay line, 5. E-mail: pozdeeva.m.a. @ Yandex.ru

VLADIMIR ALEXANDROVICH USHAKOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskay line, 5. E-mail: v.ushakov@spbu.ru

The authors of this article have examined in detail the options for the use of the Russian-language newspapers and magazines published in the Russian Empire in the 18th century and in the first decades of the 19th century as an important source on the overall early history of Latin America and its largest regions – North, Central, South America and the West Indies. The article has examined the works of several generations of soviet and modern Russian Latin American researchers. Considerable attention has been paid to the papers of soviet (Russian) authors who wrote about the development of liberation trends and movements in North, Central and South America, tracked the course of revolutionary wars of Latin American peoples for freedom and independence and reported about momentous, revolutionary changes and transformations in the life of nations who von freedom and created new states. The article also characterizes the activities of the two major centers of American and Latin American studies that were established during the years of the soviet power in Moscow and Leningrad (St. Petersburg), highlighted the contribution of several generations of historians and most active scientists in expanding the source base on historical research, including their efforts to use the Russian periodicals press as sources of information. The article identifies the reasons that complicated more extensive use of the materials presented by the Russian-language newspapers and magazines for coverage and in depth study of the history of Latin American nations and the history of international relations in the 18th–19th centuries. In conclusion the authors have compared the results, yielded by the specialists in the history of Latin American countries and obtained by their colleagues-specialists in the history of the USA, and outlined the prospects and directions of historical research that would beneficially use the materials of Russian periodical press.

Keywords: Latin America, North America, Central America, South America, the West Indies, Spain, Portugal, the USA, Simon Bolivar, Francisco de Miranda, Latin American studies, American studies.


Tkachev K.S. (Moscow). Transformation of the positive image of the «administrator» in youth magazines of the USSR in 1985–1991 ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58

KIRILL SERGEEVICH TKACHEV — Postgraduate student, Department of History of Russia in the 20th–21st centuries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 125252, Russian Federation, Moscow, Alabyana St., building 15. E-mail: KirillTkachev94@mail.ru

The article attempts to recreate the positive image of the “administrator” (leader, head), which appeared in the period 1985–1991 on the pages of the all-Soviet Union official youth magazines. The formulated issue has not received sufficient coverage in historiography yet. Reconstructing this image, the author tries to discover what could be the one of the ideological guidelines to young readers offered by the official soviet journalism in a period of perestroika in the USSR. Considering the types of “administrators” of different levels, the author highlights the characteristic features of the collective positive image and traces the process of their changes during the period of perestroika in the USSR. In addition, the article examines the relationship between the transformation of features of the positive “administrator” image and the sociopolitical context. According to the author, during perestroika, the positive image of the “administrator” promoted political concepts, which were coming from the power, and it was used as the tool of information support for the transformations.

Keywords: perestroika in the USSR, bureaucracy, positive image, transformation, mass media, all-Soviet Union youth magazines, party-state control over the press, glasnost.





Galkina Y.M. (Yekaterinburg). Commemorative practices of the fiftieth anniversary of the First World War in France (1964–1968) ………………………………………………………………………… 66

YULIYA MIKHAILOVNA GALKINA — Teaching assistant, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Ural Federal University. 620000, Russian Federation, Yekaterinburg, Lenin Ave., 51. E-mail: galkinskaya@gmail.com

The article is devoted to the ceremonies of the 50th anniversary of the Great War in France and its significance for the French. The article is based on the documents of the Charles de Gaulle’s dossier (National Archive of France). The author demonstrates how the current political situation influenced on the organization of the commemorative activities, which innovations were realized in the ceremonial part of the jubilee, and what semantic charge performed these ceremonies. The author considers only national ceremonies with the participation of the President Charles de Gaulle (the mobilization day of 1914, the anniversaries of the battles of the Marne and Verdun and the Armistice Day). The author concludes that in the 1960s the image of the First World War was transforming from a self-valuable event into the political tool of the public authorities, political opposition, etc. The central idea of the 50th jubilee was the unity of the nation; it was important in view of the traumatic background of the Second World War and Algerian War. At the same time, the construction of the national myth was coming into antagonism with the idea of European integration; de Gaulle aspired to maintain both the spirit of French patriotism and the idea of a united Europe.

Keywords: the Fifth Republic, commemoration, policy of memory, First World War, jubilees.





Vinogradov S.E. (Moscow). Nikopol-Mariupol Mining and Metallurgical Society in creating armor for the Russian Imperial Navy, 1911–1917 ……………………………………………………………………………. 76

SERGEI EVGEN`EVICH VINOGRADOV — Ph.D. in History, Senior Researcher at the Central Museum of the Armed Forces of the Ministry of Defense of Russian Federation. E-mail: sergei101000@mail.ru

The article represents the first attempt in the historiography of the industrial forces of Russia in the early 20th century to research and systematize the activities of the Nikopol-Mariupol Mining and Metallurgical Society for the production of armour protection for battleships and cruisers of the Russian Imperial Navy on the eve and during the First World War. After the adoption in 1911–1914 dig naval shipbuilding programs with warships of all classes, the Russian Naval Ministry required, in addition to state Izhora Armour Plant, another large specialized enterprise of a similar type. The choice fell on a private company, which quickly built up and launched the largest armour plant, having tool it up with the most modern equipment, in order of large orders for ship’s armour. The armoured production of the Nikopol-Mariupol Plant, which was developed in the shortest possible time, was a significant help in the implementation of naval shipbuilding programs until 1917.

Keywords: Nikopol-Mariupol Mining and Metallurgical Society, armour manufacturing, battleships and cruisers of the Imperial Russian Navy.


Akhmadullin V.A. (Moscow). The study of the peculiarities of the Islamic life of the Soviet Union by the state bodies of the USSR in the first post-war decade …………………………………………………….. 86

VYACHESLAV ABDULOVICH AKHMADULLIN — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Senior Research Scientist of the Russian Council of Muftis, Senior Researcher of the Moscow Islamic Institute. 129090, Russian Federation, Moscow, Vypolzov pereulok, 7. orcid.org/0000-0003-4441-2384, E-mail: slavaah@yandex.ru

In May 1944, the USSR government created the Council for Religious Affairs under the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR, which became the most public body of the Soviet state to interact with Muslim spiritual departments in matters of domestic and foreign policy, as well as to solve various problems facing Muslim spiritual departments, above all, recreating the system of pilgrimage, Islamic education and the publication of Muslim literature. From the first days of its work, the Council for Religious Affairs sought sources and ways to obtain information about the activities of the supervised confessions in order to use their potential in socialist construction. At the same time, there was an increase in the activity of believers in the country, which greatly hampered the work of the Soviet government bodies in solving the task of reducing the level of religiousness of society.

Keywords: Council for Religious Affairs, Muslim religious board, mosque, Islamic rites, Muslim holidays, Uraza Bayram, Kurban Bayram, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Uzbekstan, Turkmenistan.


Baev E.V. (Moscow). Tasks and functions of wholesale fairs in the USSR (on the example of the All-Russian Wholesale Fair 1949) ………………………………………………………….. 93

EVGENII VIKTOROVICH BAEV — Intern Researcher, Department of History of State and Municipal Administration, Faculty of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University. E-mail: Baev@spa.msu.ru

The article on the basis of archival materials discusses the tasks and functions of wholesale fairs in the USSR. Questions are posed: “What was the reason for holding wholesale fairs in the USSR? What tasks did the organizing leadership set? What was the structure of the wholesale trade turnover at wholesale fairs?”. The history of the emergence and development of wholesale trade in the USSR before the Great Patriotic War is considered. The results of the All-Russian Wholesale Fair, held in Leningrad in 1949 – the most ambitious event of this kind – are analyzed. A note by the Minister of Trade of the RSFSR M.I. Makarov on the results of the 1949 All-Russian Wholesale Fair is being introduced into scientific circulation. The article shows how the Soviet wholesale fairs revealed and corrected economic imbalances, informed the country’s leadership about them, served as a “market shock absorber” of the planned economy.

Keywords: command-administrative system, planned economy, national economy of the RSFSR, wholesale trade, fair, state administration, Leningrad Affair, Stalin period.


Pu Jiang (Saint Petersburg). Training of Chinese personnel in the USSR for the leading branches of China’s heavy industry in the 1950s ……………………………………………………………………………….. 101

PU JIANG — Postgraduate student, Department of the Contemporary History of Russia, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5. E-mail: pujiang2012@yandex.ru

The article describes one of the most important areas of assistance to the USSR in restoring and strengthening China – the training of Chinese highly qualified personnel. At the beginning of its journey, the PRC sent its specialists to internship to a greater degree to the Soviet Union, and only later, when the first five-year plan was outlined, the flow of Chinese undergraduate and graduate students began to increase, prevailing over the number of trainees. Education of Chinese citizens in the USSR inevitably leads to the emergence of various kinds of difficulties and problems. For the Soviet side, it is difficult for Chinese trainees to have access to confidential information in factories

and enterprises of strategic importance. The Chinese Embassy in the USSR has difficulties in dealing with Chinese students with anti-Party and anti-Soviet statements, fatal accidents and cases of suicides of Chinese students, problems of inconsistency with the standards of education in the USSR with the requirements set by the future specialist of the PRC.

Keywords: Chinese students, studying in the USSR, the 70th anniversary of the PRC, 1950s, USSR assistance for the PRC, problems of Chinese students in the USSR.





Burlutskaya (Bannikova) E.V. (Orenburg). «Because of haste» and «because of forgetfulness». Merchants managing economic affairs of the city of Orenburg in the post-reform period ……………….. 107

ELENA VADIMOVNA BURLUTSKAYA (BANNIKOVA) — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Vice-Rector for Research Management, Orenburg State Pedagogical University. 460014, Russian Federation, Orenburg, Sovetskaya St., 19. E-mail: ida777@yandex.ru

The article describes how the articles of the City Statute of 1870 about the economic activities of the city dumas were executed at the regional level. The materials of the State Archive of the Orenburg Region and a number of published sources formed the basis of this study on how the Orenburg city government performed its duties. The emphasis in this article is on the participation of merchants in the discussion of city affairs. There are facts that prove that merchants were not very interested in rational management of the city economy. The author argues that the main reason why Orenburg merchants treated their public activities with obvious indifference bordering on criminal negligence was the disunity of the Orenburg merchant community. The merchants had different estate origins, they came to Orenburg from different regions of the empire, and often were followers of different denominations. The composition of the merchant class was inconstant, unstable. Under these circumstances, the merchants did not think of Orenburg as “their own” city, and, therefore, did not care about its condition.

Keywords: city, city economy, city government, merchants, post-reform period.


Kozlov A.P. (Saint Petersburg). Features of the agrarian policy of the bolshevists in the first ten years of the soviet government in Kazakhstan ……………………………………………………………………………… 114

ALEXANDR PETROVICH KOZLOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Legal Bases of Service and Applied Physical Training, Military Institute of Physical Training. 194044, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Bolshoy Sampsonievsky Pr., 63. Е-mail:petrovich138@yandex.ru

The article deals with the evolution of the Bolshevists’ viewpoints in solving the agrarian problem in the first ten years of Soviet government. According to the author, the Bolshevists, who did not have an actual agricultural program in order to expand their social basis, borrowed the agricultural programs of other political parties and movements, which was typical not only for the center, but also for the national suburbs. So in Kazakhstan, the Bolshevists took advantage of the agrarian program of the Alash movement, which, on the one hand, allowed them to attract the indigenous population of the Republic, on the other – led to serious social cataclysms, indignation of the Cossacks and the resettlement village, escalation of national relations in the region. By the end of the 1920s, the Bolshevists were forced to change the original course and move to a more balanced agrarian policy that took into account the interests of both indigenous and “alien” population.

Keywords: Alash, Alash-Horde, Alash-Horde denizens, Kazakhstan, agrarian policy, aul, Bolsheviks, Cossacks, peasants, resettlement village, village.


Ivanov S.V. (Sosnovo, Leningrad Region). From the history of socio-economic development of the Karelian isthmus: Sosnovo district at the 1940s–1960s ………………………………………………….. 120

SERGEI VLADIMIROVICH IVANOV — Postgraduate student, Department of History, Pushkin Leningrad State University. E-mail: johnson.tick@gmail.com

The purpose of this article is to examine the history of the development of the Sosnovo (Rautu) District of the Leningrad Region, which existed from 1940 to 1960. The appearance of the Rautu district was due to the division of territories that were ceded to the USSR after the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939–1940. During the existence of the region, there were many landmark events for the region: evacuation and resettlement during the Great Patriotic War, the establishment of Soviet power in the territory, the collection of farms, the development of agriculture and others. The relevance of this article is due to the fact that a retrospective study of the education and development of individual regions allows us to trace the dynamics of the socio-economic development of the region at that time as a whole, and in the context of improving administrative territories allows us to compare ways of transforming the country’s subjects.

Keywords: Karelian Isthmus, history of the USSR, Sosnovo District, Rautu District, Leningrad Region, socio-economic development.


Dorokhov V.Z., Zinatova M.N. (Khabarovsk). Issues of organization of passport and border regime by the internal affairs units of the Far East on the Soviet-Chinese border in 1950–1960s ………………… 124

VYACHESLAV ZHORZHOVICH DOROKHOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Deputy Chief of the Department of Social-Humanitarian and Economic Disciplines, Far East Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. E-mail: dorohova_elen@mail.ru

MARINA NIKOLAEVNA ZINATOVA — Ph.D. in Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor, Chief of Department of Social-Humanitarian and Economic Disciplines, Far East Law institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.

The article presents an overview of the state of affairs in the field of organization of the passport-border regime in the Far East from 1949 to 1966. The basis was the materials obtained in the 2 central and 8 regional archives of the Russian Federation, which allowed to form a fairly objective picture of what was happening. In the course of the study, it became clear that during the heyday of Soviet-Chinese friendship, almost all lines of contact – party, Soviet, security forces, in the field of passport and border regime – were observed to be careless, tolerant or completely indifferent to the implementation of statutory provisions, which some measure was also explained by the complacent position of the leadership of the USSR towards the young socialist state. The article based on concrete facts, documents presents the process of overcoming such inappropriate events near the state border, which turned out to be strictly due to the changed international agenda, when the People’s Republic of China not only took a stand-alone position criticizing Soviet domestic and foreign policy, but also made territorial claims on the USSR.

Keywords: Far East, China, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, KGB, internal affairs units, voluntary people’s squads, border guards, passport and border regime violations, foreign contingent, Koreans.





Sverdlov M.B. (Saint Petersburg). Everyday life and inner development of the Slavs in 6th to 7th centuries …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130

MIKHAIL BORISOVICH SVERDLOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher, Saint Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 197110, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Petrozavodskaya St., 7. E-mail: sverdlovmb@mail.ru

This article provides a valuable synthesis of information about the everyday life of the Slavs of the 6th – beginning of 7th century. Emphasizes that the Slavs of that time lived a rich and varied spiritual life, as clearly illustrated by the vocabulary of the period. As a result of studies of Byzantine authors’ information about the Slavs in 6th to beginning of 7th centuries and of the Common Slavic vocabulary the author of the article concludes that their everyday life and inner development were complex. They were traditional for Indo-European peoples out of area of the Romance-Germanic synthesis. The Common Slavic vocabulary contains many names of things, food and drink, mode of life, social connections.

Keywords: Slavs, vocabulary, Proto-Slavic period, things, food, drink, mode of life, social connections, individual, society.


Tarasova N.S. (Moscow). Historical experience of the formation of economic culture in Russia (late 1980s – early 1990s) ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138

NATALIA SERGEEVNA TARASOVA — Postgraduate student, Department of History of State and Municipal Administration, School of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1. E-mail: adviser.tver@mail.ru

The article attempts to identify the features of the mechanism of state policy on the formation of economic culture. The mechanism of the emergence of economic culture and its functioning are considered in direct connection with state policy. The analysis of the economic culture that existed in the command-administrative system is presented, its detailed description is given. The article noted that the beginning of the transformation of economic culture was laid in the period of restructuring, the features of this period were determined. The author argues that the subsequent implementation of the concept of “shock therapy” in the early 1990s was closely linked with the previous period and represented a single stage of state policy on the formation of a new economic culture in the transition to market relations. Such an approach makes it possible to take a fresh look at the problem of implementing state economic policy in the period of the emergence of market relations in Russia. The article concludes that it is necessary for the state to participate in the processes of forming an economic culture among the population by means of a special policy in this direction.

Keywords: command-administrative system, “shock therapy”, restructuring, economic culture, market economy, state policy, values, economic thinking, economic behavior.





Ippolitov G.M. (Samara). «Cannes» for Hitler in the summer of 1944: to the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Jassy-Kishinev strategic offensive of the Red Army (August 20–29, 1944) ………………………….. 146

GEORGY MIKHAILOVICH IPPOLITOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Volga State University of telecommunications and Informatics, Professor of the history and archaeology department of the Samara public socio-pedagogical University. E-mail: gippolitov@rambler.ru

The article is made in the format of military-historical research, mainly in the context of military-historical review. The main aspects of the problem under consideration, which were disclosed in the article, were the following: a brief overview of the situation on the eve of the Jassy-Kishinev strategic offensive operation; plans of the command of the Wehrmacht and General Headquarters in the south by the middle of the summer of 1944; preparation of the operation, with relatively detailed coverage of the decisions of the commander of the 2nd Ukrainian front and the commander of the 3rd Ukrainian front to conduct it; the operation proceeds in two stages (the first stage is August 20–24, 1944, the second stage is August 25–29, 1944); results of the operation. It is briefly disclosed that the operation made a new contribution to the history of Soviet military art. The researcher, while developing his problem, fully relied on the historiographical developments of his predecessors, as well as on the appropriate source base. The article is dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the Jassy-Kishinev strategic offensive operation of the Red Army. The author does not claim to complete the coverage of the problem analyzed in the article. Only an attempt was made to briefly cover some of its main aspects.

Keywords: Jassy-Kishinev strategic offensive operation; The king Mihai, A. Hitler, I. Antonescu, J. Frisner,  I.V. Stalin, R.Ya. Malinovsky, F.I. Tolbukhin, S.G. Gorshkov.





Fortunatov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Petr Petrovich Bazaine was the second Chairman of the Committee for Structures and Hydraulic Works in Saint Petersburg (1824–1834) …………………………………………………. 160

VLADIMIR VALENTINOVICH FORTUNATOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department “History, Philosophy, Political Theory and Sociology”, Emperor Alexander I St. Petersburg State Transport University. 190068, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Moskovsky Pr., 9, office 4–311. E-mail: elena.fortunatov@mail.ru

Committee for Structures and Hydraulic Works, created by Emperor Alexander I in the year 1816 to turn St. Petersburg into a lovely and well-maintained city worthy of the capital of the Russian Empire, the winner of Napoleonic France, until 1824 headed by Lieutenant General Augustine Augustinovich Betancourt. His case was continued by Petr Petrovich Bazaine, which for 1824–1834 was the Chairman of that Committee, also was the Chief Architect of the city. Activities of P.P. Bazaine in this post deserves special attention, because it gives an idea of how numerous technical problems of town planning were solved, that usually remains in the shadows of descriptions of majestic plazas, avenues, palaces, bridges North of Palmyra. In the article on the basis of archival (Russian

State Historical Archive, the Central State Historical Archive of St. Petersburg) and other sources for the first time comprehensively, albeit in summary form, describes the role of the Chief City engineer P.P. Bazaine in the qualitative improvement of the conditions of everyday life of Petersburgers and functioning of complex mechanism of the big city, developed in difficult climatic conditions. This article shows how multifaceted, creative and successful efforts of engineers, graduates of the Institute of the Corps of Engineers of Railways, who are reliable, responsible executors of the will of the Emperor, leaders of the Committee for Structures and Hydraulic Works – A.A. Betancourt and then P.P. Bazaine.

Keywords: Committee for Buildings and Hydraulic Works, Institute of the Corps of Engineers of Railways, town planning, engineering school, architecture, ensemble, complex.





Sirota N.M., Mokhorov G.A. (Saint Petersburg). USA – Russia: dynamics of the image of the enemy ………. 169

NAUM MIHAYLOVICH SIROTA — Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of History and Philosophy Department, Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation. 190000, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Bolshaya Morskaya St., 67A. E-mail: sirotanm@mail.ru

GENNADIY ANATOLIEVICH MOKHOROV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of Humanitarian and Socio-Economic Disciplines Department, Military Academy of the Signal Corps named after S.M. Budyonny. 194064, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Tikhoretskiy Ave., 3. E-mail: g.mohorov@gmail.com

The evolution of the image of post-Soviet Russia in the minds of the US political elite and its use as a foreign policy tool in the formation of a polycentric world order with competing and coinciding interests of actors are considered. There is a connection between the specificity of the American perception of Russia and the nature of American-Russian relations. It is stated that at all stages of this evolution the initial message of the American perception of Russia has always been the thesis of antidemocracy and aggressiveness as its “genotype”. In the context of international political processes of the post-Soviet period, the transformation of moderately positive image of Russia, expressing the hope of American analysts to move the country in a democratic direction, in the image of a radically negative and ideologized the second half of the 2010s, burdened with anti-Soviet stereotypes. The authors used a wide range of publications of famous American international political scientists and documentary sources.

Keywords: image of the enemy, USA, Russia, “partner-opponent”, “opponent-partner”, post-bipolarity, polycentric world order, balance of power.


Chiganok A.V. (Moscow). Forest service activity from 1991 to 2013 on the territory of the Kursk region to protect the forest from illegal logging…………………………………………………….. 180

ANTON VIKTOROVICH CHIGANOK — Applicant of the Department of Russian History, Kursk State University. E-mail: pilishvili.georg@yandex.ru

The article shows the situation in the forest industry in the Kursk region from 1991 to 2013. The article used material from the archive of the Kursk region. This allowed to make a qualitative analysis of the state of the forest fund. The author pays attention to such a problem as illegal deforestation. The analysis process began in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union, with its system of forest management and the start of building a market economy. The researcher pays great attention to facts and society situations described by the media. This allowed to make a detailed analysis of the causes of logging by the population of the Kursk region from 1991 to 2000. The author reveals the role and importance of the activities of forest services in combating illegal logging. The role of the internal affairs bodies and the prosecutor’s office for the protection of the forest fund of the Kursk region is shown. Examples and assistance from the population living in areas of the region are given. The researcher concludes that, thanks to a focused policy of the federal government and the administration of the Kursk region, forest services from 1991 to 2013 managed not only to preserve forestry from cutting trees, but also to achieve the growth of the forest.

Keywords: Russian Federation, Kursk region, Woody Code RF, wood (forest), woody fund, woody sector, logging, forest protection.





Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). War as a form of political struggle: between the past and the future (Review of the monograph by Academician A.A. Kokoshin «Problems of the applied theory of war». Moscow, Izdatel’skij dom Vysshej shkoly ekonomiki Publ., 2018) ……………………………………………… 187

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honorary Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation, Editor-in-Chief of the journal «Klio». 195220, Russia, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky pr., 11, office 913. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

The review highly appreciates the monograph prepared by A.A. Kokoshin. The reviewer notes that the monograph has innovative nature, contains a large amount of analytical material and allows to take a fresh look at the processes of war and peace. The monograph highlights 5 elements of the theory of war: war as a continuation of politics; war as a state of society and the state of a certain segment of the system of world politics; war as a clash of two or more government agencies and military vehicles; war as a sphere of uncertain, unreliable; war as a task of management (leadership). It is emphasized that the author successfully analyzed the methodology of war studying as a political and social phenomenon. The reviewer draws attention to the successful analysis of the military technosphere development and the transformation of military art.

Keywords: War, peace, theory of war, military technosphere, “hybrid” war.


Vasiliev Y.S., Kruglov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). A new study of the life and work of the outstanding Soviet designer of artillery systems (Review of the book of A.I. Mirenkov «Vasily Gavrilovich Grabin: Man, engineer, general». Moscow, Kuchkovo pole Publ., 2018) ……………………………………………….. 192

YURI SERGEEVICH VASILIEV — Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Chief Scientific Adviser of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. 195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya St., 29.

VYACHESLAV VIKTOROVICH KRUGLOV — Doctor of Military Sciences, Professor, Full Member of the Academy of Military Sciences, Honored Worker of the Higher School of the Russian Federation.

In the review of the monograph devoted to the outstanding Soviet gunsmith V.G. Grabin the high assessment is given. The authors of the review note that the book, based on extensive historiography and new archival documents, allows us to trace the dynamics of scientific thought of the outstanding designer. The conclusion is made about the colossal contribution made by V.G. Grabin to the development of Russian artillery.

Keywords: V.G. Grabin, Soviet artillery, Great Patriotic War, guns, Red Army, weapons designer.





Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). The legacy of Professor V.S. Memetov …………………………………………… 195

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honorary Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation, Editor-in-Chief of the journal «Klio». 195220, Russia, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky pr., 11, office 913. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

The author of the article reports about the death of a prominent Russian historian, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honored Worker of Higher School of the Russian Federation Valery Sergeyevich Memetov. V.S. Memetov possessed great talent as a researcher, was an outstanding organizer of science and a brilliant teacher, who trained dozens of doctors of historical sciences. Thanks to his efforts, the city of Ivanovo became the largest Russian scientific center for the study of the history of intelligentsia. On the initiative of Valery Sergeyevich, conferences on the history of the intelligentsia have been held annually at Ivanovo state University for many years. The magazine “Intelligentsia and the world”, of which he was the editor-in-chief, is one of the most authoritative scientific publications in Russia. The author expresses deep condolences to the relatives and friends of Professor V.S. Memetov.

Keywords: V.S. Memetov, intelligentsia, intellectual studies, Ivanovo State University, the journal “Intelligentsia and the World”.