Klio # 10 (154) 2019





Mundt L.A. (Schaffhausen, Switzerland). Relations between the USSR and Switzerland on the eve and during the Second World War 1939–1945 in the press of two countries ………………………………….. 13

LARISA ANATOL’EVNA MUNDT — Applicant, Russian State University for the Humanities (RSUH). 8200, Switzerland, Schaffhausen, Meisenweg, 18. E-mail: laraveselovaa@gmail.com

The article gives an insight of USSR – Switzerland relationship prior to and during the Second World War (1939–1941) in both countries’ press coverage. The study is conducted based on the content of the Soviet and Swiss daily newspapers such as “Pravda”, “Izvestia”, “Tages-Anzeiger” and “Neue Zürcher Zeitung”. There were found the key events of USSR – Switzerland relationship. Some of the key events of that time found different interpretations in each of the mentioned daily newspapers along with the image perception change of a foreign county. It was proved that Swiss press have shown higher interest to USSR then opposite and also this country was the initiator of rapprochement. Therefore, single event showed different degree of media coverage in both countries depending on the importance of that event to the public and to the country’s interests as whole.

Keywords: World War II 1939–1945, Soviet-Swiss relationship, Swiss press, Soviet press, neutral countries, image of enemy, image of USSR, image of Switzerland.





Bychkov M.A. (Moscow). Ireland and the Versailles peace conference: problems of historiography …………….. 20

MAXIM ALEXEEVICH BYCHKOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Humanities and Natural Sciences, Moscow Institute of Economics. 109388, Russian Federation, Moscow, Kukhmisterova St., 8–154. E-mail: maxbychkov80@gmail.com

The article analyzes the historiography of Ireland’s participation in the Versailles peace conference. This question was the object of research in the national history. Domestic historians were able to create a complete picture of the event, but it can’t be recognized as complete. This is due to the fact that the researchers were limited to the consideration of Ireland’s relations with the UK, France and the United States. These countries played a leading role in the conference and were key players in addressing the “Irish question”. Despite the fact that the representatives of Ireland have not achieved recognition of the country’s independence from the leading countries, they were able to establish informal contacts with the European States. Therefore, an analysis of all these events is desirable to create a complete picture. As an example, the author of the publication considers the contact with the Vatican, which, although informal, played a positive role in the further independence of Ireland.

Keywords: Vatican City, Versailles peace conference, the historiography of Irish history, Sean O’Kelly.





Dubrovskii V.V. (Moscow). American Anthropologists and the WWI: Development of Applied Military Anthropology and Interdisciplinary Conflicts ………………………………………………….. 24

VLADIMIR VLADIMIROVICH DUBROVSKII — Ph.D. Candidate at Department of Ethnology, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Teacher of history and social science at SBEI «Kurchatov School». 123098, Russian Federation, Moscow, Marshal Vasilevsky St., 9/1. E-mail: vdubrik@rambler.ru

The article examines the history of the interaction of several American cultural anthropologists with the US Office of Naval Intelligence and their espionage activities during the First World War in Central America. The main goal is to characterize this interaction and identify the impact of this conflict on the formation of applied military anthropology. The main objectives were: 1) the study of espionage itself and its effectiveness; 2) the analysis of the protest of Franz Boas against this phenomenon and the reaction to this protest by the anthropological community of the USA; 3) the author tries to trace the connection of these events and interdisciplinary conflict in the American Anthropological Association, based on sources and research literature. The author comes to the conclusion that the events of the First World War and the interaction of anthropologists and the US Armed Forces were the prerequisites for active cooperation in the following years; at the same time, the criticism of Franz Boas would become the starting point for future doubts about the possibility of combining the ethical principles of anthropology and the state’s military efforts. Research methodology – historiographical analysis of textual sources and research literature.

Keywords: applied military anthropology, American Anthropological Association, First World War, Central America, Franz Boas, Silvanus Morley, ethics of anthropology.


Sheludko V.O. (Ussuriysk). Russian police in Northeast China in the late 19th – early 20th centuries ………….. 32

VITALY OLEGOVICH SHELUDKO — Ph.D. in Juridical Sciences, Senior Lecturer, Department of General Legal Disciplines, Vladivostok Branch of the Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation. 692502, Russian Federation, Primorsky Krai, Ussuriysk, Okhotnich’ya St., 1A. Е-mail: mr.sheludko@mail.ru

Тhe article on the basis of a detailed analysis of archival sources, legal acts, memoirs of contemporaries and scholarly research article studies the phenomenon of the spread of Russian police structures to foreign territories in the late 19th – early 20th centuries, when a significant part of Northeast China was in the sphere of influence of Russia. This found expression in the organization of the Chinese Eastern Railway and the Kwantung region, as well as in the establishment of the Russian police in these territories. The functioning of the Russian police on the territory of a foreign state determined the peculiarities of its legal status, structure, competence and methods of recruitment. The legal status of the Russian police in China was determined not only by Russian, but also by Chinese laws, Russian-Chinese treaties and the charter of the Chinese Eastern Railway. The police were subordinate not only to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, but also to the Russian War Ministry and the Ministry of Finance, the Chinese Eastern Railway Society. Its structure was simplified, but taking into account the specifics of the population

(introducing translators into the staff and creating freelance posts). This police were staffed in a variety of ways – both through voluntary recruitment and by conscription.

Keywords: China, Manchuria, the Chinese Eastern Railway, Kwantung Oblast, Port Arthur, Harbin, the Russian police, security guards, the Zaamur border guard district, police surveillance of the Chinese Eastern Railway, the Gendarme police department of the Eastern Chinese Railway.


Aurilene E.E. (Khabarovsk), Krotova M.V. (Saint Petersburg). Secret life of Russian Harbin: Bureau of Russian Emigrants in the Manchurian Empire (BREM) against Consulate General of the USSR (1934–1945) …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38

ELENA EVLAMPIEVNA AURILENE — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Member of Society of Historians of Domestic Special Services. 680020, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Lenina St., 43–16. E-mail: elena_aurilene@mail.ru

MARIA VLADIMIROVNA KROTOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of International Relations, Media Studies, Political Science and History, Saint Petersburg State University of Economics. 191023, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Sadovaya St., 21. E-mail: mary_krot@mail.ru

The article presents some aspects of the activities of the Soviet and Japanese special services on the territory of the puppet state of Manchukuo. On the basis of unpublished archival materials, the authors investigate the confrontation of intelligence, methods of recruitment of agents and forms of their activity in the special atmosphere of Harbin. Created by the Japanese Military Mission, the Bureau of Russian Emigrants’ in the Manchurian Empire (BREM) performed not only administrative job but was engaged in intelligence and counterintelligence activity. Consulate General of the USSR was the main object of the Bureau secret work. Consulate General, in turn, was engaged in intelligence activity in Manchuria. One of the aims of the soviet special services was to decompose the white Russian colony, to transform “whites” into “reds”. In the battle of secret services during the Second World War soviet intelligence defeated its Japanese enemy. Soviet agents worked successfully in the BREM as well as in the Japanese Military Mission and other organizations. In 1944 the head of the BREM secret service M.А. Matkovsky was recruited by the soviet intelligence.

Keywords: Soviet intelligence in Manchuria, Manchukuo, Harbin, emigration, Consulate General of the USSR, Bureau for Russian emigrants in the Manchurian Empire (BREM).





Semenov A.M., Semenova O.A. (Saint Petersburg). Hiring servants by the Jews in the Russian Empire at the end of the 19th – early 20th centuries ………………………………………………………………………….. 45

ALEKSEY MIKHAILOVICH SEMENOV — Independent Researcher. 196605, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10. E-mail: ivanova.olga.al@mail.ru

OLGA ALEKSANDROVNA SEMENOVA — Research Assistant of the Scientific and Educational Center for Historical Research and Analysis of the Pushkin Leningrad State University. 196605, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10. E-mail: ivanova.olga.al@mail.ru

The article discusses the issue of hiring Jewish and Christian servants by the Jews, focuses on the legislation of the Russian Empire relating to them and public discussion about these laws, provides statistical data based on the 1897 population census. The authors conclude that there were two main problems: hiring Judaists by the Jews and hiring Christians by Jews. The first issue is related to legislative gaps, and the second led to public discussion. Thereby, society drew attention to the socio-economic, labor, cultural and religious interaction of Jews and Christians, and revealed a number of unregulated issues in the laws of the Russian Empire.

Keywords: national question, servants, Jews, Christians, conditions of employment.


Korolyov M.Y. (Moscow). Administration of the imported equipment supply for the oil industry of the USSR in 1939–1945 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51

MAKSIM YUR’EVICH KOROLYOV — Postgraduate Student, Department of State and Municipal Management, Faculty of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119992, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27/4. E-mail: zauer123@gmail.com

The article dedicated to the organization and conducting of import supplies for oil industry of the USSR in 1939–1945. The time limits of the research are chronologically divided into pre-war and war period. The border of those periods is the first day of the Great Patriotic War. The paper considers evolution of the management and organizational aspects of the equipment supply for the oil industry to the Soviet Union, as well as the expansion of trade and technical cooperation in the development of the oil industry between the USSR on the one hand and the USA and Great Britain on the other. The author analyzes the demand to purchase equipment abroad and the impact of import supplies on the further development of the domestic oil industry. Considerable attention is paid to the issue of ordering, designing and supplying oil refineries for the USSR in the USA, and their adaptations for the oil industry of the Soviet Union.

Keywords: USSR, USA, oil industry, People’s Commissariat of the Oil Industry, People’s Commissariat of Foreign Trade, the Great Patriotic War, Lend-Lease, import, purchasing commission in the USA.


Ippolitov G.M. (Samara). From the history of the process of organizational, structural and functional development of the State Committee of Defense as the highest emergency authority in the USSR with unlimited powers (June 30, 1941 – May 9, 1945) ……………………………………………………………… 58

GEORGIY MIKHAYLOVICH IPPOLITOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Philosophy of the Volga State University of Telecommunications and Information, Professor of the Department of National History and Archeology of the Samara State Socio-Pedagogical University. 443010, Russian Federation, Samara, L. Tolstoy St., 23. E-mail: gippolitov@rambler.ru

The Great Patriotic War became a test of strength for the Soviet state and its people. And this test was passed with dignity and honor. Our victory in that terrible war is natural, no matter how the so-called scholars from the “liberal history school” would try to prove the opposite. One of the necessary conditions for victory in the Great Patriotic War was the transformation of the Soviet Union into a single military camper. A huge role in this process was played by the State Defense Committee (GKO) – this unique historical phenomenon, which has no analogs in the history of our Fatherland, was the highest emergency authority in the USSR with unlimited powers. His appearance is natural. It is determined by the concrete historical situation that developed at the beginning of World War II. The State Defense Committee was able to respond promptly to the dynamics of changes in the military-political, strategic, operational-tactical situation that developed during the Great Patriotic War, and to make the necessary adjustments to its multifaceted activities. This is the key to successfully playing a historic role in the victorious battle with the “brown plague”. The authors of this article attempted to analyze one of the most complex and interesting aspects of the history of GKO: its organizational, structural and functional development as the highest emergency authority in the USSR with unlimited powers from June 30, 1941 (that is, from May 9, 1945 To this end, we lapidally substantiated the historical need for the creation of GKO, and then analyzed the process of its organizational, structural and functional development. The article proves that the dynamics of changes in the process of organizational, structural and functional development was under control. All adjustments made here were logically justified. One of the serious shortcomings that took place in the process under consideration – elements of bureaucracy in the work of the State Defense Committee – the inertial phenomena inherent in the Stalinist command-administrative system created in the USSR in the prewar period were also revealed.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, crisis of the system of state power and control in the Soviet Union, State Defense Committee (GKO), the highest emergency authority in the USSR with unlimited powers, the Soviet military art, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Council of the People Commissars of the USSR, the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), some elements of bureaucracy, I.V. Stalin, G.K. Zhukov, V.M. Molotov, A.I. Mikoyan, L.P. Beria.





Vikulova N.O. (Moscow), Filatov E.A. (Krasnoyarsk). Upper Paleolithic settlement Fomichevo (West Trans Baikal): new data and perspective of investigations ………………………………………… 76

NATALYA OLEGOVNA VIKULOVA — Postgraduate student, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27/4. E-mail: natasha_vikulova@mail.ru

EGOR ALESKEEVICH FILATOV — Associate Researcher, Scientific Production Association «Krasnoyarskaya Geoarkhaeologiya». 660017, Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk, Prospekt Mira, 25–1. E-mail: egorphylatov@gmail.com

This article presents the results of a study of the ancient settlement of Fomichevo, located in the Krasnochikoysky district of the Transbaikal Territory. The authors pay special attention to the characterization of the Upper Paleolithic horizons (“A” – “G”) related to the Kargin pedocomplex (MIS-3). In these layers, an expressive collection of stone products and osteological material is revealed. The abundance of finds, a clear stratigraphic reference of cultural layers makes the monument promising for further study in the framework of the Upper Paleolithic of Western Transbaikalia. The stratigraphic structure of the monument is especially interesting for the formation of a holistic view of the stratotype of the III floodplain terrace of the Chikoi River, a full section of which is a rare occurrence for the territory of the Baikal region. Radiocarbon dating performed for a series of horizons of the Fomichevo multilayer monument will also complement the regional cultural-chronological periodization.

Keywords: West Trans Baikal, Upper Paleolithic, Karginsky pedocomplex, river terrace, stratigraphy, stratotype, stone implements, Kunalei Upper Paleolithic culture, faunistic material, absolute dating.


Razinkov M.E. (Voronezh). The state power, socio-political organizations and peasants in 1917: the possibility of constructive interaction………………………………………………………………………………. 80

MIKHAIL EGOROVICH RAZINKOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Social Sciences and Humanities, Voronezh State University of Forestry and Technologies named after G.F. Morozov. 394029, Russian Federation, Voronezh, Tsiolkovskogo St., 8, ap. 207. E-mail: razinkov_mihail@mail.ru

In this article explores the forms of dialogue and cooperation of the peasant population with government bodies and socio-political organizations, as well as various social groups (workers, soldiers, landowners) on the materials of the Voronezh and Tambov provinces. It is indicated that the peasants actively appealed to the authorities with requests and demands, took part in the formation of local self-government bodies, tried to influence political reality by organizing themselves in peasant councils and contacts with socialist parties. We can almost see, that there were social groups in the village who were not interested in escalating the conflict with the Provisional Government. In turn, local authorities and zemstvo throughout 1917 searched for options for a peaceful resolution of conflicts in the countryside, organizing the work of land committees, conducting outreach and mediation activities.

Keywords: revolution of 1917, peasantry, power, peasant congresses, councils of peasant deputies, political parties, dialogue, cooperation, peace settlement.


Posadsky A.V. (Saratov). The experience of studying the sanitary situation in the White South (Tsaritsyn town in the second half of 1919) ……………………………………………………………………………. 88

ANTON VIKTOROVICH POSADSKY — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor, Department of History of State, Law and International Relations, Volga Institute of management, branch of RANEPA. 410028, Russian Federation, Saratov, A.N. Radishcheva St., 4/6–64. E-mail: Posadav68@mail.ru

The article offers a look at the sanitary condition of a large city in the South of Russia – Tsaritsyn under the authority of the commander-in-chief of the Armed forces in the South of Russia. Chronologically, this is the second half of 1919. Tsaritsyn was a major industrial center. Since the second half of World war in the city there was a dysfunctional epidemic situation. Since June 1918, the city was in the center of military and political events, experienced the red terror. As a result, the white power established in the city in the summer of 1919 found itself in the face of an extremely unfavorable medical situation. On the basis of archival data not previously introduced into scientific circulation, the article offers a picture of the sanitary state of the city, outlines and characterizes the measures of the authorities to combat epidemics, the sanitary situation in the prison, the activities of the medical management bodies. In conclusion, it is concluded about the effectiveness of a relatively long civil administration of a large city by the white power.

Keywords: Civil War, The White movement, town of Tsaritsyn, sanitary conditions, epidemics.


Barinov D.A. (Saint Petersburg). Latvian student organizations in St. Petersburg (late 19th – early 20th centuries) ………………………………………………………………………………………… 95

DMITRIY ANDREEVICH BARINOV — Ph.D. in History, Researcher, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5. E-mail: barinovdima1990@yandex.ru

The idea of pre-revolutionary studentship of St. Petersburg as an active proponent of academic freedom as well as a source of personnel for radical political parties (first of all, the Social Revolutionaries and the Bolsheviks), is generally accepted in Soviet and Russian historiography. However, the national liberation aspect of the student movement of those years has never been reflected in the historical studies. Meanwhile in the students’ community of the metropolitan Universities large associations of Belarusians, Estonians, Ukrainians, Poles, Latvians were formed. Students’ organizations of the last one will be discussed in the present article. The consideration will be given to the activities of three types of organizations – fraternities, scientific circles and corporations. We will try to draw attention to the characteristics of their activities and the stage of involvement in the political struggle.

Keywords: St. Petersburg University, student movement, Stuchka, Latvian national liberation movement, Fraternitas Petropolitana.


Vorobieva I.A. (Saint Petersburg). The class principle of the court personnel formation (based on the study materials of the Leningrad court system in the second half of the 1920s and early 1930s) ………………………………………………………………….. 100

IRINA ALBERTOVNA VOROBIEVA — Postgraduate student, Department of Russian History, Herzen State Pedagogical University, Kuibishevskiy District Court of Saint Petersburg. 191023, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Karavannaya St., 20. E-mail: vorobey22@mail.ru

Using archival materials, the author on the example of the personnel corps of the courts of Leningrad of the 1920–1930s shows the features of the formation of the Soviet judicial system in connection with the class requirements of the RCP(b). It is concluded that the filling of the posts of judges took place under the total control of the party, which set the goal of creating the Soviet system from scratch. The formation of a new judiciary took place at the expense of the most energetic part of the natives of the “lower classes” who proved themselves to be supporters of the Bolsheviks during the revolution and the Civil War. The ideological justification for this was the proclamation of the class role of the proletariat as the vanguard of the working people. Pre-revolutionary (“bourgeois”) judges were not allowed to participate in the work of the young Soviet court.

Keywords: Soviet court, court cadres, Leningrad, class approach, communist party.





Karliavina A.I. (Moscow). Reflection of the campaign to seize Church values in anti-religious posters of the 1920s …………………………………………………………………………………. 105

ANNA IVANOVNA KARLIAVINA — Postgraduate student, Department of Russian history of the 20th and 21st centuries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27/4. E-mail: effy754@gmail.com

The campaign to seize Church values was a powerful propaganda campaign, one of the objectives of which was to discredit the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) as the only remaining social institution in post-revolutionary Russia that could make ideological competition to the Bolsheviks. The subject of the study is the role of anti-religious posters in the campaign to seize Church values in 1921–1922. The Bolsheviks attached great importance to anti-religious propaganda, paying special attention to the use of artistic posters, which were one of the most relevant and effective means of propaganda in illiterate Soviet Russia. Famous illustrators of their time were involved in the work on anti-religious posters. The author examines the anti-religious aspect of the campaign to remove Church values, paying special attention to the propaganda value of anti-religious posters.

Keywords: propaganda, anti-religious poster, religion, the Russian Orthodox Church, the Bolsheviks, Soviet power, propaganda, poster, religious values, hunger.


Tarasova N.S. (Moscow). The role of state media in the formation of a market economic culture in the Russian Federation (1990s) ……………………………………….110

NATALIA SЕRGEEVNA TARASOVA — Postgraduate student, Department of History of State and Municipal Administration, School of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1. E-mail: adviser.tver@mail.ru

This article attempts to analyze the influence of the media on the formation of a new economic culture in the context of the transition to a market. The choice is due to the fact that in accordance with the concept of “shock therapy”, the media played a priority role in the process of forming economic knowledge, as the basis of economic culture. The author identifies and describes in detail the functions of the media: propaganda, motivational and educational. The article defines the secondary role of the educational function and the specifics of economic education of the population through the media. The article describes that in the context of the implementation of “shock therapy”, the main way of influencing the formation of an economic culture through the media was manipulation, which contributed to the emergence of an “economic person”. The article concludes with a conclusion about the need for a focused policy regarding the choice of means, methods and means of influence in the formation of an economic culture so that its functioning contributes to the development of the country’s economy.

Keywords: economic culture, economic thinking, media, market economy, “shock therapy”, economic education, manipulation.





Pozharov A.I., Kirmel N.S. (Moscow). Methodological approaches to the study of the succession of domestic special services ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 118

ALEKSEY IVANOVICH POZHAROV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate professor, Leading researcher, Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 117292, Russian Federation, Moscow, Ulyanova St., 19. E-mail: iriran@mail.ru

NIKOLAY SERGEEVICH KIRMEL — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Full member of Academy of military sciences, Military Pensioner. 119361, Russian Federation, Moscow, B. Ochakovskaya St., 10–1–144. E-mail: kirmel@bk.ru

In the article open up methodological approaches to the study of domestic security agencies in their contradictory development in different historical periods. The authors analyze different points of view of scientists who left a remarkable track in the historiography of the security agencies work. In the context of the methodological tools determination, in the historical researching the close interconnection in the work of the domestic security agencies (intelligence, counterintelligence, political search warrant) is revealed, from Preobrazhenskiy order and Secret office of the Russian Empire to VCHK-GPU-OGPU-NKVD-NKGB-MGB-KGB USSR and FSB of Russia. The main idea of the material is to scientifically justify the indissoluble connection in the security agencies work in providing state security. The article deals with the issues of the prerevolutionary and soviet security agencies succession. The authors attempt to justify their position by referring to the civilizational and formational approaches.

Keywords: gendarmes, counterintelligence, security officers, security agencies, special services, mentality, civilizational, formation, Civil War.


Saksonov O.V., Agaeva D.M. (Moscow). The Seven Years War 1756–1763. How many times they took Berlin? ……………………………………………………………………………………. 126

OLEG VIKTOROVICH SAKSONOV — Full Member (Academician) of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Leading Researcher of the Research center (fundamental military-historical problems) of the Military University of the Ministry of Defence. 125047, Russian Federation, Moscow, Bolshaya Sadovaya St., 14. E-mail: osaksonov@mail.ru

DIANA MAGOMEDOVNA AGAEVA — Researcher, Research center (fundamental military-historical problems) of the Military University of the Ministry of Defence. 125047, Russian Federation, Moscow, Bolshaya Sadovaya St., 14. E-mail: diana.agaeva.2012@mail.ru

The article, based on little-known documents and materials, examines the features of operations to capture the capital of Prussia, Berlin during the Seven Years War (1756–1763). A comparative analysis of two seizures of the city was carried out: the first – by Austrian troops; the second – by Russian troops. The role of military leaders in the preparation, planning and implementation of these operations is shown. The authors consider the balance of power, the characteristic and distinctive features of the hostilities of the warring parties. The political and military significance of operations for the further course of the war is investigated. Comparison of the material indemnities from the losing side to the Austrian and Russian troops, the ratio of combat losses of personnel are estimated. Various approaches of the Austrian command and soldiers, and Russian in relation to the civilian population, looting and robbery from the first and loyal from the second are shown. Traced the further fate of the main participants in military events.

Keywords: The Seven Years War, Frederick II, Elizabeth I, Berlin, Prussia, Russia, V. Fermor, G. Totleben, Z. Chernyshev, corps, artillery.


Shevchuk I.A., Arutyunyan L.V. (Sevastopol). Undergrounded military war in Sevastopol during the siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855) ……………………………………………………………………….. 132

IGOR ANDREEVICH SHEVCHUK — Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, the Sevastopol branch of Plekhanov Russian Academy of Economics. 299053, Russian Federation, Sevastopol, Vakulenchuka St., 29/4. E-mail: sevastopol@rea.ru

LARISA VAGARSHAKOVNA ARUTYUNYAN — Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Department of management, tourism and hotel business, the Sevastopol branch of Plekhanov Russian Academy of Economics. 299053, Russian Federation, Sevastopol, Vakulenchuka St., 29/4. E-mail: sevastopol@rea.ru

The Crimean (Eastern) War of 1853–1856 is devoted to many works of both domestic and foreign researchers. Nevertheless, there remain episodes of war that are not well understood. In this article, the authors highlight one of the stages of the heroic defense of Sevastopol in the Crimean War of 1854–1855, known as the underground mine war. Only separate chapters in the studies of individual domestic authors and eyewitnesses to the events of the eleven-month heroic defense of Sevastopol in 1854–1855 are devoted to the topic. The mine war in the history of the siege of fortresses has long been known. The work describes the methods and methods of its management, identifies the main leaders, among whom was the staff captain A.V. Melnikov. It is given the amount of work done under the ground, the number of explosions and the consumption of gunpowder, reflected the role of the underground warfare in the course of the fighting to protect Sevastopol.

Keywords: defense of Sevastopol, Crimean War, oberkrot, A.V. Melnikov, underground war, IV bastion, sappers.


Vinogradov S.E. (Moscow). Modernization of the Obukhov steel works in order to ensure production of large-caliber naval gunnery in 1908–1911 ……………………………………………………………………….. 138

SERGEI EVGEN`EVICH VINOGRADOV — Ph.D. in History, Senior Researcher at the Central Museum of the Armed Forces of the Ministry of Defense of Russian Federation. 127560, Russian Federation, Moscow, Konenkova St., 23-V, ap. 222. E-mail: sergei101000@ mail.ru

The revival of the Russian Navy after the war with Japan 1904–1905 coincided with a revolution in naval shipbuilding, one of the most significant aspects of which was the appearance of “dreadnoughts”, which differed from the battleships of the previous type in the first place by a multiple of the number of main 12-inch (304.8 mm) guns. Russia, following the global trend for the construction of dreadnoughts, was faced with the need to speed up the development of industrial capacities for the expanded production of such weapons, the decision was made to come to a new, larger and more powerful model within this caliber. Work on the retrofitting of the corresponding facilities of the Obukhov Steel Plant of the Naval Ministry, the principal manufacturer of naval gunnery in Russia, was deployed and successfully completed in a short time. This successfully allowed to equip both new dreadnought battleships and coastal batteries with the large-caliber artillery before and during the First World War.

Keywords: dreadnought battleships, 12-inch guns, naval weapons industry, Imperial Russian Navy, Obukhov Steel Plant.





Beknazarov R.A. (Aktobe, Republic of Kazakhstan). Islam and religious figures of the 19th century: on the example of Dosjan Ishan ………………………………………………………………………………………… 145

RAKHYM AGIBAEVICH BEKNAZAROV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of K. Zhubanov Aktobe Regional State University. 030000, Republic of Kazakhstan, Aktobe, A. Moldagulov Pr., 34. E-mail: r.beknazarov@gmail.com

The article discusses the issue of the spread of Islam in Kazakhstan, as well as the people, mullahs, ishanas, akhuns, hazrats, khojis who have done great work in religious enlightenment of the population of the Kazakh steppe, the construction of one of the objects of Islamic culture, as a Muslim house of worship – mosques, since the beginning of their construction in the Kazakh steppe of the 19th century up to the beginning of the 20th century. The article discusses the life and work of one of the initiators of the construction of mosques for Kazakhs in Western Kazakhstan, an active leader in opening a separate muftiate for Kazakhs – Dosjan Ishan, his role in educating the Kazakh population of the steppe, spreading the culture of settled peoples, preserving folk traditions, describes the cult and housing complex of Dosjan Ishan, consisting of a mosque and Kazakh poop.

Keywords: Kazakhstan, Aktobe region, Islam, Dosjan Ishan, Kazakhs, mosques, religious figure.





Rostovtsev E.A., Sidorchuk I.V. (Saint Petersburg). «Nothing earthly exists without the heavenly»: to the history of teaching theology at St. Petersburg University ………………………………………………… 151

EUGENII ANATOLIEVICH ROSTOVTSEV — Doctor of History, Associate Professor, Professor, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University, Leading researcher of the Faculty of historical and political Sciences, Tomsk state University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, University Emb., 7–9. E-mail: e.rostovtsev@spbu.ru

ILIA VICTOROVICH SIDORCHUK — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Faculty of liberal arts and Sciences, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University, Senior researcher of the Faculty of historical and political Sciences, Tomsk state University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, University Emb., 7–9. E-mail: i.sidorchuk@spbu.ru

The research focuses on the main features of teaching theology at St. Petersburg/Petrograd University in the pre-revolutionary period, when it was a compulsory course for all students. The authors tried to identify the main ideas broadcasted by theology professors, their connection with the socio-political and cultural development of Russian society. The main sources of writing the article were the speeches of teachers of theology and the materials of their lectures. The authors concluded that there were two periods in the history of teaching theology at St. Petersburg/Petrograd University. If the pre-reform era was characterized by the dominance of propaganda of the principle of the importance of subordination to Imperial power in lectures and speeches, after 1860’s was a reorientation to the propaganda of enlightenment. In fact, University theology turned to ideals that served as a guide for the entire liberal professorship, primarily the sacralisation of scientific knowledge as a way to achieve the “common good”. Discourses, broadcasted in sermons and lectures from pulpit turned out to be part of the struggle for culture and popular education, which was led by the university corporation in the pre-revolutionary period. These conclusions can be relevant in the context of modern intensive discussions about the introduction of theology in the system of higher secular education.

Keywords: University history, theology, St. Petersburg University, history of higher education, student movement, science and faith, church and power.





Salmin A.K. (Saint Petersburg). Review of the dissertation of A.A. Osipov «Wedding of the upper Chuvash: interaction of the rite and music» presented for the degree of Ph.D. in History, specialty 07.00.07 – ethnography, ethnology and anthropology. Cheboksary, 2019. 252 p. ……………………………………….. 160

ANTON KIRILLOVICH SALMIN — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Leading Researcher, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera), Russian Academy of Sciences. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universinenskaia Emb., 3. E-mail: antsalmin@mail.ru

The publication is a review of the official opponent of the Ph.D. dissertation of A.A. Osipov, dedicated to the wedding of the upper Chuvash. The dissertation focuses on interaction of the rite and music. The aspirant confirms the similarity of the Chuvash wedding to the Gorno-Mari, Mordovian, Udmurtian and Kazan-Tartar weddings. Structurally, he divides the wedding into three blocks: pre-wedding rites, the wedding itself and post-wedding rites. Although all wedding events can be listed by chronology. In fact, we have an interdisciplinary study with the prevalence of the ethnographic comprehension of the phenomenon. In the opinion of the official opponent, the dissertation essay by Alexander Arkadievich Osipov “Wedding of the upper Chuvash: interaction of the rite and music” meets the requirements of the Higher Attestation Commission presented to the dissertations for the degree of the Ph.D. in History in specialty 07.00.07 ethnography, ethnology and anthropology.

Keywords: ethnography, wedding, Chuvash, rite, music, choreography, traditions, transformation.