Klio # 7 (115) 2016




Meeting of the editorial staff of the journal “Klio” with Chinese colleagues………………..13





I.Ya. Shabunin  From the notes of military doctor. The publication of G.V. Mihaylovskaja (Saint Petersburg) (continuation, the beginning in “Klio” № 1 (2016)……………………………….15

Galina Viktorovna Mihaylovskaja – Architect-restorer, Member of the Union of Architects, Member of the Member of Architects, St.Petersburg. 123001, Russian Federation, Moscow, Granatnyi per. 12.                            e-mail: mihaylovskaja@mail.ru

The continuation of medical officer I.Ya. Shabunin’s memoirs have been prepared for publication by his great-granddaughter G.V. Mikhaylovskaya. The author talks about the period after the end of the Russo-Japanese War. A new appointment brought I.Ya. Shabunin to the Balkan Peninsula where he witnessed the events in 1912, which was tragic for all Europe – the assassination of George I, King of Greece. The descriptions of life of Russians in Thessaloniki, his work in the hospital and his travel across Europe in July 1911 is of great interest. I.Ya. Shabunin brightly describes the features of military-medical personnel’s lives, relations between people of that time, and cases from his medical practice.

Keywords: I.Ya. Shabunin, N.V. Charykov, A.M. Petryaev, I.I. Mechnikov, V.I. Lenin, King of Greece George I, Tiraspol, Constantinople, Thessaloniki, Athos, Paris, Dresden, «Union of the Russian people», Red cross, Esperanto.





V.M. Shadrova  (Saint Petersburg). Nomadic military service as a motivator writing communication of the family (continuation, the beginning in “Klio” № 6 (2016)……………28


Valeria Mihailovna Shadrova – Candidate of Philosophy, Associate Professor, Department of Public Relations, Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University «LETI». 198152, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Primakova 4, #35. e-mail: valeriashadrova@gmail.com


Nomadic nature of military service as a motivator for written communication within the family

The letters in this publication were written between May 1940 and November 1943. Their author, M.A. Shadrov, after graduating from “Vystrel”, the Higher Professional Advancement Centre for the military officers (Solnechnogorsk, Moscow Region), got a new assignment – to fill up the vacancy of a teacher/trainer of topography at the Centre for Military Instruction where senior party cadres were sent from various regions of the Soviet Union to get basic education in military disciplines. The Centre was established in April 1940, by the order of the People’s Comissariat for Defense. The necessity for it became clear to the Soviet leadership after the analysis of recent “Winter war” with Finland. The palace and the territory where the Centre was stationed (Maryino, Kursk Region) until the revolution of 1917 was Count Baryatinsky’s familial property. In 1941, three months after Germany’s invasion in the Soviet Union, the Centre was transferred to the town of Menzelinsk, about 300 km east of Kazan. Shadrov’s family was evacuated to Kazan two months earlier. The letters describe various aspects of everyday life and activities of the military officer and his family members during peace and wartime, and contain both factual and emotional assessment of events within and outside the ‘family circle’.

Keywords: military officer, letters, M.A. Shadrov, Red Army, Great Patriotic war, evacuation.





D.E. Levin (Saint Petersburg). Mysteries of publication of diary of F.I. Doze, the prisoner of the Peter and Paul Fortress: from the archives of the magazine “History Herald”………..……….61


Dmitriy Emmanuilovitch Levin – Librarian of the National Library of Russia, Awardee of the Russian Ministry of Culture in 2004. 191069, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Sadovaya ul. 18. Е-mail: dem.levin@yandex.ru


It’s the first time that the published letters of N.I. Petrov, N.A. Belozerskaya and S.N. Shubinsky from the S.N. Shubinsky journalist’s archives proved the identity of the first published Russian memorial source – “Doze’s Diary”, written by the political prisoner of Peter and Paul Fortress at the time of Alexander’s II emperorship. The Diary was published with grossest violations of archeographical rules and traditions. The reasons of such abnormalities were found. Doze’s Diary was handed over by F. Shcherbakova, widow of a Kiev Collector M.G. Shcherbak, to the direct author of “History Herald” N.I. Petrov, professor of the Kiev theological Academy, who sent it to the editor office. Anonymous memoirs about Doze, introduced in text, were written by translator and writer N.A. Belozerskaya (born Gen); N.I. Kostomarov suggested to Shubinsky ask her. The author of the Diary of F.I. Dose was acquainted with the family Gene; N.A. Belozerskaya and her brothers are mentioned in the “Diary” under encrypted initials.

Keywords: Doze Fedor Ivanovich, prisoner of Peter-Paul Fortress; Diary 1862; Larinsky Gymnasium; Shubinsky Sergey Nikolaevich; Petrov Nikolay Ivanovich, professor of the Kiev theological Academy; Belozerskaya Nadezhda Aleksandrovna; Shcherbak Michail Grigorevich, “Osnova” magazine writer.



L. A. Falaleeva  (Volgograd). The role of the Pioneer newspaper in the ideological education of children (based on materials of the Volga Germans Republic)…………………..…………….78


Lyudmila Aleksandrovna Falaleeva – Postgraduate student at the Department of National History, Volgograd State University. 400062, Russian Federation, Volgograd, Universitetskiy pr. 100. e-mail: Ludailina25@inbox.ru


The article is devoted to insufficiently studied aspects of the life of Russian Germans in the Soviet period. Author reveals state methods of ideological education of children of the Volga Germans in the second half of the 1920s basing on unpublished archival documents, periodical press materials. Special attention is given to the practice of political-educational activities with the rising generation. The local population’s reaction to the ongoing policy is characterized. The content of the main categories of the Pioneer newspaper «Sei bereit» («Be ready») is revealed, its significant role in the ideological education of children in the Republic of the Volga Germans is identified. The article highlights the strengths and weaknesses of children’s periodicals of the second half of the 1920s, and emphasizes the specifics of the work of the editorial board and correspondents on the example of the newspaper «Rote Jugend» («Red Youth»).

Keywords: Volga Germans, ideological education, political-educational activities, Pioneers, periodicals, pioneer newspaper, «Sei bereit», «Be ready».





V.A. Yakimov  (Saint-Petersburg). Problems of Russian federalism in the works of Russian researchers in the early 1990s-2000s………………………………………………………….86


Vladimir Alexandrovich Yakimov – Postgraduate student of the Department of the Regional History Studies, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University199034, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya 5. e-mail: VladimirYakimov1985@yandex.ru


This article focuses on the views of local researchers on the problem of the formation and further development of federalism in Russia in the early 1990s. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence on the political map of the world the new Russia, were a catalysts for a broad review of domestic research issues related to the federal structure of the state, and gave rise to heated discussions on the issue which model is the most suitable for the Russian version of federalization. The author presents two main directions of domestic scientific thought on this issue. The dispute of the two directions set the tone for discussions on the issue of federalism in Russia, review and analysis of the views of local researchers on the federal structure, as well as identifying the strengths and weaknesses of different opinions, seemingly quite relevant in light of recent events occurring in the world. The main conclusion of the article is that academic researchers, unfortunately, due to various political factors, were subjective in their conclusions. As a result, many studies on this topic become excessive political color, to the detriment of the scientific research component.

Keywords: Soviet Union, Russia, constitution, federation, “gubernisation” ethnicity, unitarianism, ethno-federalism.





L.V. Nikitin, O.Yu. Pavlova  (Chelyabinsk). British banks in the U.S. domestic market: past and present……………………………………………………………….92

Leonid Vitalyevich NikitinCandidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of World History, Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University; Department of International Relations and World Integration, South Urals State University. 454080, Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk, pr. Lenina 69.                                       e-mail: lnd2001nikitin@mail.ru
Olga Yuryevna Pavlova
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages, Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University. 454080, Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk, pr. Lenina 69.
e-mail: o.yu.pavlova@mail.ru

The article is focused on difficult and controversial history of activities of the British banks in the US domestic market. Analysis of statistical and other sources shows that, in spite of several historical connections, vigorous expansion of British financial groups to the USA began just in the 1950–1960s under new political and economic circumstances. However, the position of these corporations in the US market remained volatile even in the later period: it resulted in two successive cycles of growth and steep decline of their business activity. The beginning of the first of these cycles was closely associated with strengthening of the UK position in the transnational finance since the mid-XX century, while its completion – with sharp intensification of competition in the US banking market in the 1980s. The next wave of activity, up from the first half of the 1990s, ended as a result of the global financial crisis of the 2007–2008.

Keywords: history of banks, UK, USA, cross-border business, competition, globalization, neoliberalism.




Yastrebov A.O. (Venice, Italy). Venetian Greeks in the Russian Service in the XVII–XVIII…98


Alexey Olegovich Yastrebov – Candidate of Theology, Doctor of Philosophy, Archpriest, Rector of the parish of the Myrrhbearers (Venice, Italy), Administration of the parishes of the Moscow Patriarchate in Italy, Russian Orthodox Church. 30171, Italy, Venice, Via Monte Piana 40. e-mail: mirofore@gmail.com


The article studies the contribution of the Venetian Greeks to the building of the new Russia in the era of Peter the Great. It also researches their role in the Russian-Venetian diplomatic relations.

The Greeks were called in the service of Russia both within its territory and in the capacity of agents of influence in Europe and in Turkey.

Several Venetian and Ionian Greek families, united by kinship of blood and faith, formed an influential union in Saint Petersburg and Venice, which existed the whole XVIII century. This union competently and faithfully served its new motherland in the field of medicine, military science, diplomacy and commerce.

The Greeks acted as consuls of Russia in Venice and in other cities of the Most Serene Republic. In fact, such local Greek families as Bocci, Marucci and Felici often associated with Saint Petersburg served as the Russian trade and diplomatic representatives.

The mutually beneficial trilateral Russian-Greek-Venetian cooperation allowed to make the Most Serene Republic of Venice an important stronghold of the Russian diplomacy and commerce in the Adriatic and on the Apennines.

The first Russian diplomatic representations in Italy – the Consulate in 1711 and the Embassy in 1783 – were opened in Venice, which is a great achievement of the Venetian Greeks.

The article does not address the aspect of the Russian-Greek religious relations, in which the share of the natives of Venice who served in Russia as theologians or clergy was also very high.

Keywords: Peter the Great, Russia, Venice, Greeks, University of Padua, Flanghini College, Bozzis, Cassis, Skiadas, Melissino.


K.V. Minkova  (Saint Petersburg). «To lay the basis for peaceful economic collaboration between different economic worlds»: discussions on economic issues in the US-Soviet relations (1945-1946)………………………………110


Kristina Vladimirovna Minkova – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Head of the Scientific Department, Journal for scientists «Klio». 195220, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Grazhdanskiy pr., 11.                                   e-mail: kristina_minkova@mail.ru


The present article, written on the basis of Soviet and American documents which have not yet been included in the scientific circulation, considers for the first time in the national historiography the Soviet-American negotiations of 1945–1946 regarding a number of economic issues: the settlement of the post-war deliveries under the Lend-Lease Master Agreement, granting the Soviet side of the credit for the economic recovery, the USSR membership in the International Trade Organization and its participation in Bretton-Woods institutions – the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

It analyzed in detail the position and the views of the negotiators on both sides, correspondence of V.M. Molotov and his deputies, A.I. Mikoyan and his deputies, the Soviet charge d’affaires, then ambassador to the United States N.V. Novikov with U.S. Secretaries of State and their assistants (J. Byrnes, W. Clayton, D. Acheson,), the U.S. Charge d’affaires in the USSR Averell Harriman, and a number of other US officials. The positions of each of these officials in respect of the development of Soviet-American relations in the first months after the end of hostilities in Europe, and then the end of the Second World War are carefully considered. Special attention is paid to the interests of the Soviet leadership in international cooperation and the reasons of delaying and dragging of respective negotiations by the Soviet side.

Keywords: USA, USSR, ITO, IMF, IBRD, Land-Lease, credit.


B.V. Yablokov  (Moscow). Influence of Czechoslovak Events 1968 on the Economic Reforms in GDR…………………………………………………………………………………………117


Boris Vladimirovich Yablokov – Research Assistant,  Faculty of History, State Academic University for the Humanities. 119049, Russian Federation, Moscow, Maronovskii per. 26. E-mail: b-yablokov@yandex.ru


The events of the Prague Spring of 1968 were a turning point in the history of the international Communist movement, deepening split emerged a decade earlier. Moreover, the crisis of the Czechoslovak reformism questioned the prospects of economic reforms undertaken in the 1960s in a number of Eastern European socialist countries, including the GDR. The local party nomenclature considered the new economic system of planning and management and the decentralization of the economic process as a potential threat for political stability in the GDR and the SED monopoly on power. In this article the author has attempted to determine on archival material the role of the 1968 crisis in the economic reforms reversal in the GDR.

Keywords: GDR, Czechoslovakia, USSR, COMECON, FRG, Prague Spring of 1968, economic diplomacy, New Economic System, SED, Walter Ulbricht.


M.S. Korolev  (Saint Petersburg). The evolution of the Polish foreign policy (2004–2010)……………..…124


Mikhail Sergeevich Korolev – Postgraduate student, Department of World Politics, School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Smolnogo 1/3, entrance VIII. e-mail: mechnik2004@mail.ru


The article is dedicated to the study of the evolution of the Polish foreign policy in the period from 2004 to 2010. As practice shows, the Head of State has significant impact on the foreign policy line of the government. That’s why the author analyzes the foreign policy activities of the Polish presidents for a specified period. The chronological framework of the study includes the period from accession of Poland to the EU in May 2004 to the end of President Lech Kaczynski’s leadership in April 2010. The author explores how EU membership has affected on the Polish foreign policy during the rule of two presidents.

Based on the analysis of the Polish foreign policy during the specified period, the author comes to the conclusion that it has undergone a certain evolution. The changes depended on the goals that the country political elite set itself and on specific persons involved in their realization. Thus, after joining the EU under Kwasniewski’s leadership Poland has gained some political and economic dividends, but has become a tool of the EU foreign policy. Under brothers Kaczynski’s leadership the Polish foreign policy had been skewed in favor of the United States and NATO, there had been pronounced nationalistic tendencies, which impeded the normal development of relations with other countries. The attempt of Donald Tusk’s government to improve the situation, weakening U.S. influence and settling relations with Russia, was not supported by Lech Kaczynski. These changes became possible to carry out only when President Komorowski came into office, who pursued a more balanced and pragmatic foreign policy.

Keywords: foreign policy, European integration, security, European Union (EU), NATO, countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), Poland.





B.L. Shapiro (Mytishhi, Moscow region). Relics of slavic cult of the horse in a funeral ceremony gosudarskie chin by Moscow tradition………………………………………………………133


Bella Lvovna ShapiroCandidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Lecturer, Department of museology, Russian State University for the Humanities. 125993,  Russian Federation, Moscow Miusskaja sq., 6; E-mail: b.shapiro@mail.ru


The article provides a summary reflecting the character of the Slavic horse cult in funerary practice of the Muscovite Russia. The study analyzes the tradition of studying horse worship in Proto-Slavic, Slavic and ancient Russian culture; as a secondary involved a materials of Indo-European unity era and Germanic, Baltic, Scandinavian, Turkic and Iranian peoples. There are identified a conservative and moving elements of this cult and its ethnic characteristics. The paper shows that the horse at different times has been the object of this cult and its attribute. In spite of the evolution of the ritual, there was a certain continuity of funeral practices, and the cult of the horse has been an integral part thereof. It sums up works, according to which in different periods of the Slavic history the horse was one of the most prestigious attributes of power; it always remained a symbol the governor.

Keywords: funeral rite, cult of the horse, history of horses, slavs, ritualism, Muscovite Russia, Peter the Great, attributes of power.




N.A. Gavrilina (Tula). The beginning of the ancient Russian charity and its Christian origins…………………………………………………………………………………………142


Nadezhda Afanasyevna Gavrilina – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Lev Tolstoy Tula State  Pedagogical University. 300026, Russian Federation, Tula, Mendeleevskaya ul. 7.                                      e-mail: frfd_TGPU71@mail.ru


The article is dedicated to the Christian roots of ancient Russian charity. John Chrysostom gave the characteristics of love, which are particularly important for investigators studying the Orthodox charity. The article defined charity as a great leader. At the beginning of the XI century preachers called to love our neighbor and give alms. The originator of Miscellany 1073 attaches great importance to alms. The principle of mutual love, kindness, and charity is the universal condition for ordering all spheres and levels of social relations. The article emphasizes that available alms tempted many people to leave working life and go begging. Therefore, charity tended to be organized, but in the development of begging it prepared against itself a negative reaction from the government.

The article focuses on the parish charity, which corresponded to the needs of the poor more than charity. Charity in the parishes was a civil charity and pursued goals of civic beautification.

In ancient country, parish organizations contributed to the development of philanthropy.

The article shows the role of monasteries in the field of organizing philanthropy. According to the Charter Monks were required to provide assistance to those in need. It had a positive impact on the resolution of social problems in society.

Keywords: charity, Christian origins, social issues, civil improvement of public services.


E.A. Popravko  (Saint Petersburg). The influence of the military conflicts of the early XX century on the museum network of the Russian Far East……………………………………………..148


Elena Aleksandrovna Popravko – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of Social Sciences, St. Petersburg State University of Industrial Technology and Design. 191186, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Bolshaya Morskaya ul. 18. e-mail: elena_popravko@mail.ru


The article examines the influence of the military conflicts of the early XX century (Russo-Japanese, First World, Civil wars) on the museum network of the Russian Far East. The degree of influence of the military conflicts of the early XX century on the development of museum network in the Far East depended on the closeness of war theatres to the region. The Russo-Japanese War is caused by temporary cessation of activity and loss of the collections of the Aleksandrovsky post Museum. The influence of the First World War was the least. The impact of the Civil War was much stronger and it affected on all the museums in the region. That war influenced on the staffing situation, the replenishment of collections, the ability to work with visitors and etc., and it was accompanied by a change of owners of the museums (some of them were nationalized), as well as owners of the museum buildings.

Keywords: museum network, Russian Far East, military conflicts, Russo-Japanese War, First World War, Civil War.


E.V. Dianova  (Petrozavodsk). Cinema in cultural and educational work of northern cooperation…………………153


Elena Vasilyevna Dianova – Candidate of historical sciences, Associate professor, Department of National history, Institute of history, political and social sciences, Petrozavodsk State University. 185035, Russian Federation, Republic of Karelia, Petrozavodsk, pr. Lenina 33. e-mail: elena-dianowa@yandex.ru


The article examines film sessions by the cooperative unions of the European North; it shows a significance that was attached by cooperative figures to film art in the organization of reasonable entertainments and cooperative promotion; it surveys the actual problem of cultural and educational function of a cinema. On the basis of historical sources the relation of residents of northern villages and cities to various movies – to comedies, a newsreel or the melodrama becomes clear, specifics of perception of the images shown on the screen are noted. Much attention is given to the principles of selection of movies practicing in cooperative organizations when their art value, cultural and educational value, practical advantage, but not search of commercial benefit or an ideological orientation was regarded as of paramount importance.

Keywords: film, cinema, cooperation, motion picture, movies.





P.O. Trunov  (Moscow). Features of use of the Bundeswehr in the war zones: the concept of “discharge” and its practical significance……………………………………………..………162


Philipp Olegovich Trunov – PhD in Political Science, Lecturer, Faculty of World Politics, Moscow State University. 119991, Russia, Moscow, Leninskie gory 1, building 51. e-mail: 1trunov@mail.ru


The article discusses political and military experience of Germany when it uses Bundeswehr within the concept of “discharge”. It means the accommodation armed forces of NATO partners in Europe and back area in the conflict zones with the aim of their release for direct warfare. Features of this application of German armed forces are investigated during the military operations in Iraq (1991 and 2003), Afghanistan, Mali, Libya and Syria, organized by Western powers. In each case the article studies political and military implications of the actions and measures taken by the Federal Republic of Germanyin terms of issues of its membership in NATO. In the conclusion it is determined the role and the position of the country, which used the concept of “discharge”, in the military and political organizations (by the example of Germany as NATO member-state).

Keywords: the concept of “discharge”, the usage of armed forces, Germany, Bundeswehr, NATO.


I.A. Krasnoshchyokov  (Blagoveshchensk, Amur region). Military-political situation in the Far East of the USSR in anticipation of the Soviet-japanese war 1945…………………………….172


Ivan Aleksandrovich Krasnoshchyokov Ph.D. student, Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok). 675000, Russian Federation, the Amur region, Blagoveshchensk, Ignatyevskoye shosse 16.                                 e-mail: boss.buttery@mail.ru


World War II became the most tragic page in the history of mankind of the XX century. Against the changing geopolitical situation integrated to imposition of economic sanctions and pressure of the West upon Russia the conditions promoting to form of public opinion on review of separate historic facts and realities are created and also to the predominating role of the Soviet Union in the Victory. Today actions of government of a number of the East European countries which were released by Red Army supported by the American emissaries, continue to lead to destruction of the historical monuments established as a token of gratitude to the Soviet soldiers. These measures initiated by the USA are directed to strengthening of the influence in Europe, decrease in line items of the Russian Federation on the international scene and non-admission of recovery of the relations with the countries of the anti-Hitlerite coalition.

The article deals with the situation in the Far East of the USSR at the beginning of the Soviet-Japanese War and also historical experience of preparation of the Soviet military-political government and Red army to defeat of occupational forces of militaristic Japan in 1945.

Keywords: Soviet-Japanese war of 1945, Far East, soviet-manchurian border, military-political government, occupational forces of Japan.





Y.A. Molin, G.A. Vorontsov . (Saint Petersburg). Emperor Nicholas I: medical aspects of biography (The 220th Anniversary of the birth)………………………………………………178


Yuriy Aleksandrovich Molin – Doctor of Medicine, Honored Doctor of the Russian Federation, Deputy Chief, Leningrad Regional Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise, Professor at the Department of Forensic Medicine, I.I. Mechnikov North-Western State Medical University, Full member of IAIA (Ukraine) and IAME (USA). 198095, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Shkapina 36-38-40B. e-mail: expertfm@mail.ru

Georgiyj Aleksandrovich Vorontsov – Doctor of Medicine, Head of the Department of the Leningrad Regional Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise, Leningrad Regional Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise. 198095, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg,  ul. Shkapina, 36-38-40, B. E-mail: expertfm@mail.ru


This article gives the description of the state of health of Russian Emperor Nicholas I in different years of life. The authors emphasize a high level of health indicators supporting his intensive state activity.

The article consists a critical analysis of different versions of Nicolas I death which were suggested by historians, memorialists and researchers of non-medical professions. Great part of the aforementioned authors supposes that the Emperor death happened because of suicide (poisoning).

According to the strict medicine criteria the authors of the article, based on previously unpublished medical documents from funds of the Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA), express well-reasoned position on the death of Nicholas I of metagrippal pneumonia.

For the first time in the scientific literature this article uses the texts translated by the authors from old German language and shows the detailed analysis of examination protocols and materials of the embalming of the body of the Emperor.

Keywords: history of Russia, Emperor Nicholas I, state of health, cause of death.




A.R. Sarkisyan  (Moscow). The role of the Caucasus in determination of the geopolitical status of modern Russia……………………………………………………………………………….189


Ani Robertovna Sarkisyan – Ph.D. Candidate for department of Theory and History of International Relations, MSLU, lecturer at the Department of Linguistics and Professional Communication in the Sphere of Media Technology, member of the youth Department of the Academy of Geopolitical Problems,(SPIN-код): 3270-0034. 119034, Russian Federation, Moscow, Ostozhenka st., 38 (MSLU). E-mail: ani.sarkisyan@mail.ru; smilik1987@yandex.ru


Attention to the Caucasus is traditional in the foreign policy of Russia, as well as in the world of science. The role and importance of the Caucasian region for the geopolitical status of Russia is largely determined by its geographical location, ethno-cultural composition and economic potential, which, in turn, increase the power of Russia in the world system of States. The control of the Caucasus (together with the adjacent Caspian basin) plays a key role in preserving the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation and ensuring national security on its southern borders. It’s obvious that Russia will not leave the South Caucasus. Today, given the military operation in Syria, the South Caucasus is now strategically in the rear for Russia’s armed forces. Adjusting to a new reality, Moscow is obliged to strengthen its position in the region.

Keywords: geopolitical status, the Caucasus, international relations, national security, territorial integrity, the geo-strategic potential, foreign policy, ethno-cultural composition.




A.N. Malakhova  (Saint Petersburg). The New Biography of George Washington (Review on the book of E.V. Glagoleva «Washington». Moscow: Molodaya Gvardia, 2013)……………..197


Anastasia Nikolaevna Malakhova – Bachelor of History, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya 5. e-mail: malakhova.anastasya@gmail.com


The author of the article studies the biographies of American presidents and other famous statesmen as the principal constituent part of the American Studies in the Soviet Union and contemporary Russia. This article is a review in which historian describes the development of the biographical literature about George Washington as the most influential person among the «Founding Fathers» of the USA. In our country these books were mostly written after the Second World War. And in order to determine and examine the main common sides and features of such literature A.N. Malakhova chose two more complete and interesting biographies of the first president of the USA. These books were published by well-known Moscow publishing house «Molodaya Gvardia». The first book (of N.N. Yakovlev) was issued in 1973 and the second one (of E.V. Glagoleva) in 2013. A careful and comparative study of these issues make it possible to reveal the achievement and important scientific ideas of both authors, as well as their omissions, mistakes and other defects in these biographies. And also A.N. Malakhova concludes that the generations of Russian americanists have the right and the possibility to prepare books according to their convictions and in this way they may introduce new materials, scientific ideas and concepts.

Keywords: George Washington, Founding Fathers, USA, historiography, American Studies, biographical literature.


Izmozik V.S. (Saint Petersburg). Captured past (Review of “Indexed Album of Photographic Postcards «Petersburg-Petrograd-Lengingrad.1895-1945”)…………………………………..202


Vladlen Semenovich Izmozik – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of History and Regional Studies, The Bonch-Bruevich St. Petersburg State University of Telecommunications. 193232, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, pr. Bolshevikov 22/1. e-mail: izmozik@mail.ru


This review concerns the fifth volume of the “Indexed album of photographic postcards”, dedicated to the events that transpired in Petrograd in 1917-1924. The album is organized chronologically and thematically and consists of several parts. The first one contains artistic and photographic postcards, sorted by years: 1917, 1918, 1919-1924. The reproductions are preceded by a short summary of the events in the days and months depicted. This section also contains several short text inserts with commentary on specific video clips. The other sections of the book are: “Deltiologic description of the cards”, Indexes (“Topographical”, “Index of Photographers and of Publishers”), and a short article by V.P. Tretyakov “From the history of Petrograd’s photographic postcards of 1917-1924”. Due to the lack of postcards that could help visualize the events of October 1917, the volume includes a facsimile copy of L. Savelyev’s children’s book “Hours and Map of The October” (Leningrad, 1967).

Keywords: Indexed album, photographic postcards, Petrograd, V.K. Bulla, February 1917, Field of Mars, Kerensky, Smolny, Lenin, October 1917, Trotzky, Civil War, Petrograd Defence, NEP.



Krivenkov S.G. (Saint Petersburg). The sanctuaries on the islands of big lakes as places of the initiation rites……………………………………………………………………………….206


Sergey Gennadyevich Krivenkov – Candidate of Biological Sciences, Senior Researcher, G.A. Albrecht St. Petersburg Scientific and Practical Centre of Medical and Social Expertise, Prosthetics and Rehabilitation. 195067, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Bestuzhevskaya 50, e-mail: serg1954@zmail.ru


The article gives examples of major pagan shrines on the islands of large freshwater lakes, which was driven primarily by security considerations. In particular, the article talks about the island of Manitoulin in Canada, the island Ometepe in Nicaragua, Samosir island at Toba lake (Sumatra in Indonesia) and the island of Ukerewe at Victoria lake (located in Tanzania). In the latter case, on the shores of the lake in this area, there are menhirs. The author gives the materials based on personal experiences from traveling to Ukerewe island and to Samosir island, interviews with locals and a comparative analysis of the customs.

According to the author, the subject deserves a comprehensive study by historians, linguists, ethnographers, anthropologists, and archaeologists.

Keywords: island sanctuary, Tanzania, Ometepe, Nicaragua, Samosir, Toba lake, island of Ukerewe, Manitoulin, rites of initiation.





The 70th anniversary of Professor V. A. Zolotarev……………………………………………214


In the publication, devoted to the 70 anniversary of the birthday of prominent Russian historian and organizer of science V. A. Zolotarev, tells about many of his merits in the progress of history science in our country. Tells about the military service of Vladimir Antonovich, about his life’s path traversed from cadet to major-General and I class State Councilor of the Russian Federation. It is emphasized that the hero of the day – a major expert in the history of the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878., Eastern history in General, as well as the history of the First and Second world wars.

Notes the enormous work carried out by V. A. Zolotarev during his leadership of the Military history institute of Ministry of defense of the Russian Federation, the implementation of a number of ambitious survey projects, such as the 12-volume edition of “The Great Patriotic war of 1941-1945” and a 6-volume edition “The First World war 1914-1918”.

Keywords: V. A. Zolotarev, military history, history of the East, organizer of science.