Klio #1 (109) 2016

Address from the Editor in Chief, Professor S.N. Poltorak to readers and authors of journal for scientists «Klio» Journal for scientists «Klio» – an international scientific issue ………. 9

Actual interview 

Interview of A.S.Gogun (Berlin, Germany) with Professor David Engerman (Brandeis University, USA) «Putin isn’t waging the Cold War» ………. 10

ALEXANDER SERGEEVICH GOGUN – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Doctoral student at the Free University of Berlin,  Friedrich Meneke Institute, Germany. Koserstr. 20, 14195 Berlin, Germany.

E-mail: a.gogun@fu-berlin.de

An interview with one of the leading experts on Soviet foreign policy, Professor David Engerman of Brandeis University, discussed American ideas about the Soviet Union in 1920s–1930s, and then during the Second World War and the Cold War. The 1920s–1930s intellectuals believed that the lazy and «dark» Russian people could not make progress without violence, coercion, and even extermination. In the 1950s, the image of Soviet Communism changed dramatically as university scholars became more prominent as analysts of the USSR; they were staunchly anti-Soviet, to be sure, but sought to apply social-scientific tools to understand the Soviet Union. The interview also discusses various myths about the Kremlin’s foreign policy: in particular, many in the West still exaggerate the extent of Soviet economic assistance to the Third World. In fact, socialism was influential in the Third World because many people there sincerely thought that the state sector in conjunction with heavy industry could solve the economic problems of their poor and backward states. According to Professor Engerman, Maoist China in the international arena acted more actively and decisively than Brezhnev’s Soviet Union. Present-day Russian authorities are not, however, fighting the Cold War since they do not dream of global domination.

Keywords: foreign policy of the USSR, American academic world, American myths about the Soviet Union, Cold War, Sovietology, Russian Studies.



I.Ya. Shabunin. From the notes of military doctor. The publication of G.V. Mikhaylovskaja (Moscow) ………. 16

GALINA VIKTOROVNA MIKHAYLOVSKAJA – Architect-restorer, Member of the Union of Architects, Member of the Chamber of Architects. 123001, Russian Federation, Moscow, Granatnihyj per., 12.

e-mail: mihaylovskaja@mail.ru

This publication which was prepared by G.V. Mihaylovskaja – great-granddaughter of the author of these memories – contains information of the author I.Ya. Shabunin about his study in Military-MedicalAcademy in St. Petersburg and further military service. Described events happened at the turn of the IXX–XX and were original picture of Russian army military doctor activities. Great value constitutes the information about famous scientists of that time: S.P. Botkin, I.P. Pavlov, K.A. Rauhfus, N.A. Viljyaminov, V.M. Behterev and also some information about F.I. Shalyapin and the funeral of Alexander III. Information of author’s service in Bessarabia and Far East has a great value. I.Ya. Shabunin in details describes the features of life of military-medical staff and people relations of that period of time.

Keywords: I.Ya. Shabunin, S.P. Botkin, I.P. Pavlov, K.A. Rauhfus, N.A. Viljyaminov, V.M. Behterev, F.I. Shalyapin, Alexander III, Military-Medical Academy, Tiraspol, Far East.



G.M. Ippolitov  (Samara), S.N. Poltorak  (Saint Petersburg). Early Soviet historiography of Civil War in Russia. 1918–1922 ………. 43

GEORGIY MIKHAJLOVICH IPPOLITOV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Researcher at Institute of Russian History, Russian Academy of Sciences (Samara), Professor of Department of Philosophy at the Volga State University of Telecommunications and Informatics (Samara). 443101, Russian Federation, Samara, Novomolodezhnihyj pereulok, 21, #58.

E-mail: pfiri@ ssc.smr.ru; gippolitov@rambler.ru

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of journal for  scientists «Klio», Professor of Department of History and Regional Studies, Bonch-Bruevich Saint Petersburg State University of Telecommunications. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskij pr., 11.

E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Soviet historical science was created in the period of Civil War in Russia (1918–1922). Authors of this article, made in the genre of historiography with the certain problems and themes, show a process of first attempts of understanding the history of Russian Civil War. The article represents analysis of materials. Authors’ ambitions don’t influence on examination of considered problem. This article deals with the Russian historiography on Civil War in Russia within two periods. The first period is 1918–1920, second – 1921–1922. First of them is characterized with authors’ schematic approach to events. The second period penetrates much deeper in the problem. Features of historiography of that time are highly ideologization of published materials and also the fact that authors of publications were participants and contemporaries of the Civil War in Russia.

Keywords: Russian Civil War, historiography, factors influencing on study of history of Russian Civil War, historiographic sources, military historiography, Party political activity in Red army, V.I. Lenin, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, main historiographic tendencies.


History of Russia 

Barinov D.A. (Saint Petersburg). Students’ national corporations of the St. PetersburgUniversity in the beginning of the XX century ………. 61

DMITRIY ANDREEVICH BARINOV – Researcher, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Medeleevskaya linia, 5.

E-mail: barinovdima1990@yandex.ru

The students’ movement of the Saint PetersburgStateUniversity in the second half of the XIX–beginning of the XX century was in the center of political life of the Russian Empire. Numerous representatives of people from the outskirts among the students often considered that movement as a national liberation one. As a major education center, the Saint PetersburgUniversity supported the formation of the national identity of the Empire’s people as well as the preparation process of elites for the future independent states. Special role in that process belonged to national students’ corporation of the Estonian, German and Polish young men. Also this article considers the government policy towards these self-governed organizations. Despite the fact that from the 1901 such corporations were able to exist legally, they always faced obstacles, created by the government, which opposed to the students’ movement.

Keywords: national corporations, history of Higher Schools, St. Petersburg University, Students’ Movement, studentship.

V.A. Berdinskikh  (Kirov). Letters of great epoch: sisters Yudin and collapse of the Russian Empire (epistolary novel) ………. 68

VICTOR ARKADJEVICH BERDINSKIKH – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of Department of Russian History, Vyatka State Humanitarian University. 610912, Kirov, ul. Kazanskay, 86, 4.

E-mail: bva.prof@mail.ru

The article paid attention to the letters of daughters of Petrograd well-known artist Alexey Yudin, Sofia (1895–1942) and Helen (1902–1942), dated to 1916–1919. This is a unique and one-of-a-kind source of the history of St. Petersburg of the period of Revolution 1917 and the Civil War. Letters of Yudin sisters are not only the most valuable historical source, but a literary masterpiece. Moreover, both of them died in Leningrad Siege in 1942. Bright Russian language, transformed by the cruel epoch, is coming to us with unusual music through the pages of the letters … More than 200 letters show us in details the private life of Petrograd family in conditions of hunger and blockade of the Civil War. In the center of these letters – everyday life of labor family, placed on the edge of life and death in the 1918–1919 – and this family was in conditions of incredible hunger, cold, and other hard events of the Civil War, in the agonizing and «scatter» Petrograd. This material is a unique and one-of-a-kind in that terrible and critical epoch of the life of Russia!

Keywords: Civil War, private letters, mentality of the era of the blockade of Petrograd.

V.Yu. Gessen  (Saint Petersburg). History of establishment and liquidation of the YusupovPalaceMuseum in Petrograd (1918–1925) (continue) ………. 93

VALERIY YUL’EVICH GESSEN – Candidate of Economic Sciences, independent researcher. 196233, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya ul. 11/ 2, #140.

E-mail: gessen27@mail.ru

This article continues the theme of previous one, printed in «Clio», no. 12, 2015, which considered the historical events, related to the repossession of property by the Bolsheviks from YusupovPalaceMuseum in general. The article analyzes the events connected with different types of art objects which were in the Palace. Also it describes individual rooms of the Palace, collections of paintings with more detailed history of the fate of two famous works of Rembrandt. The author pays special attention to confiscated jewellery, forwarded to the State Bank, many objects of applied art, especially snuff boxes and miniatures, household items, including wardrobe of Yusupov princesses, valuable furniture. The article provides a list of many collections of different kinds of objects (musical instruments, canes, clocks, lace and flasks) and permission of seizure of vehicles. It pays attention to the Yusupov archive, getting its documents, related to Pushkin.

Keywords: Petrograd, Yusupov, Palace, liquidation, household items, paintings, sculpture, applied arts and crafts, seizure of equipment.

V.A. Ivanov , N.V. Koloshinskaya  (Saint Petersburg). «Vaccination» of suspicion and its consequences (Soviet approach to the large-scale filtering the ex-prisoners of war in Leningrad and Leningrad region during the spring–summer season of the 1945) ………. 106

VIСTOR ALEXANDROVICH IVANOV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of Department of Russian Modern History, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 197227, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, pr. Ispytatelei, 28, #3.

E-mail: iva0603@mail.ru

NATALIA VIKTOROVNA KOLOSHINSKAYA – Candidate of Legal Science, Associate Professor, Acting Head of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law, V.B. Bobkov Saint Petersburg Branch of  Russian Customs Academy. 197227, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Komendantskiy pr., 7, korp. 1, #211.

E-mail: nata_ivanova_75@mail.ru

This article deals with the issues that are beyond the process of repatriation in 1941–1945 of the Soviet citizens, including former soldiers, who were prisoners. Many modern domestic and foreign scholars know the content of the USSR legal model of repatriation, built in the years of War and adjusted in the postwar period, and the general outcome of its implementation. However, the issues of social adaptation to the realities of the Stalinist ideological system and military regime, and labeling of the former defenders of the Homeland, silently giving them status of unreliable members of the society, were outside the scope of the detail scientific analysis. The hostile environment was already set at the time of the people registration at the collecting points, PFP, PFL, NKVD and labor battalions, and during the primary investigation, subsequent questionings, confrontations, etc. Complex of guilt and responsibility for being in captivity, deeply rooted in the minds of the repatriated, were further intensified by the suspicion of the authorities. In attempt to obtain truthful testimony from «the filtered», many special services employees, dealing with the background investigation of the Soviet POW, committed gross violations of the law.

Keywords: repatriation, filtration, research and identification group, KRO «Smersh» division of the USSR NKO, agent-operative work, PFP, NKVD PFL, background checking and filtration committee.

A.N. Kashevarov  (Saint Petersburg). 1000 years of Christening of Rus and the beginning of process of returning of the relics of saints of Russian Orthodox Church ………. 115

ANATOLIY NIKOLAEVICH KASHEVAROV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honored Worker of Higher School of the Russian Federation; Professor of Department of History of Journalism, St. Petersburg State University; Professor of Department of History, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. 199004, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 1-th line of Vasilievskiy Island, 26.

E-mail: kashevar12@mail.ru

The article shows that on the eve of the 1000th Anniversary of Christening of Rus there was a need to reconsider the policy of the Soviet government towards Russian Orthodox Church and other traditional confessions. It’s possible to see that since 1987 there was a gradual softening of position of Council for Religious Affairs. At the same time leaders of Council were afraid of complications of internal political situation which could appear because of celebrating the 1000th Anniversary of Christening of Rus. Up to beginning of this celebrating it was continued to issue large amounts of atheistic literature. The authors of these editions aimed in any way underestimating the merits of Orthodox Church which were done in the process of development of the Russian culture and statehood and proving that coming anniversary had a limited, purely ecclesiastical value. However celebration of the 1000th Anniversary of Christening of Rus turned out the event of national character and was a major landmark in changing of relations between state and Church in the period of restructuring. Before the official beginning of anniversary celebrating by Russian Orthodox Church the process of transferring the relics of saints, located in country museum collections, began. Local authorities did not recommend clergy and believers arranging a solemn procession with the returned relics, because times of ideological monopolism weren’t finished yet. Changing the form of returning of relics of Church saints began only after the celebration of anniversary, when previously appearing positive changes in relations between Church and state had the real traits. Notification about act of this changing was carried out via media, religious processions and etc. During the restructuring, when was conducted the celebration of the 1000th Anniversary of Christening of Rus and following substantial changes in relations between state and Church, i.e. since 1988 up to collapse of the USSR in December 1991, according to the author, Church got back the relics of 72 saints. The process of the second finding of saint relics continued after the collapse of the USSR.

Keywords: the 1000th Anniversary of Christening of Rus, Russian Orthodox Church, Council for Religious Affairs, relations between state and Church, museum collections, relics of Orthodox saints, clergy, believers, temples, monasteries.


History of Russian regions

V.A. Cholakhyan (Saratov).The impact of the First World War on the industrial development of Saratov Volga region ………. 124

VACHAGAN ALBERTOVICH CHOLAKHYAN – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Institute of History and International Relations, Saratov State University. 410012, Russian Federation, Saratov, Astrahanskaya ul., 83.

E-mail: vcholakhyan@yandex.ru

This article analyzes features of the industrial development of Saratov region during the First World War. The author examines the structure of region industry before the war and the impact of war on the industrial development of the region. Based on new archival data and using modern methodological principles it studies the causes of the expansion of industrial production in heavy industry sphere and recession in all other sectors of the economy. There are analyzed changes in staff and dynamics of the salary during the war. Based on archival materials the author shows a significant increase in the employment of women and adolescents in the region’s industry. The militarization of the industry in the years of the First World War led to increasing injuries at the workplace and the general fall of the standard of living 2 or more times. Using modern methodological principles allowed the author to prove that, despite the great pressure on the country during the war, the paralysis of economic and financial activities in Saratov region is clearly not observed.

Keywords: First World War, industry, militarization, female and child labor, salary


History of International relations 

N.D. Kozlov , V.N. Benda (Saint Petersburg). «Foreigners» and their influence in the Russian army and the state and changing the state policy towards foreigners on the Russian service after the reign of Peter the Great until the beginning of 60s of the XVIII ………. 130

NIKOLAY DMITRIEVICH KOZLOV –  Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,  Professor of Department of History, Pushkin Leningrad State University. 196240, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 5th Predportovyi proezd., 10, korp. 2, #5.

E-mail: koznik49@yandex.ru

VLADIMIR NIKOLAYEVICH BENDA – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the interfaculty Department of the History, Pushkin Leningrad State University. 188300, Russian Federation, Gatchina, ul. Gagarina, 16, #4.

E-mail: bvn.1962@mail.ru

The history of Russian state has the periods, when the Institutions of the state and Arms Forces Administration even on the highest leading positions had great number of so-called «foreigners». The military literature and other sources represent the fact that the factor of «foreign influence» did not always lead to prosperity and development of Russia and defending its national interests in the international arena. This article analyzes the affairs with participation of foreign personnel in the Russian army in the period of reign of Anna Ioannovna, and measures, undertaken by government of reign of Elizabeth Petrovna, to limit the influence of «foreign factor» on the issues of control of state and its military organization. Also earlier not published archival sources are introduced into the scientific circulation.

Keywords: XVIII century, Russian army, «foreigners», influence of foreigners, Anna Ioannovna, Elizabeth Petrovna, Osterman, Minikh, Russian citizenship, oath.

M.A. Kindinov (Gorno-Altaisk). Voyage of the Vice-Chancellor M.I. Vorontsov to Europe in 1745–1746 as a factor of formation of Russian foreign political course in the period of the reign of Elizabeth Petrovna ………. 137

MIKHAIL ALEKSANDROVICH KINDINOV – Postgraduate Student, Department of the Russian History, Gorno-Altaisk State University. 649113, Russian Federation, Gorno-Altaisk, Manzherok, ul. Beregovaya, 1.

E-mail: Shikotus@mail.ru

The article considers a trip of the Vice-Chancellor of the Russian Empire M.I. Vorontsov to Europe in 1745–1746. It represents an analysis of the relationship between M.I. Vorontsov and the Empress Elizabeth, and Earl A.P. Bestuzhev-Riumin. The author focuses on the different views of two politicians and their confrontation. The article reveals the influence of the trip to Europe made by M.I. Vorontsov on the foreign policy of Russia in the middle of the XVIII. Special attention is paid to temporary staying in France and its influence on formation process of the concept of foreign policy views of future Chancellor. The article determined that because of trip abroad M.I. Vorontsov and «French party» lost their influence on Elizabeth. Chancellor A.P. Bestuzhev-Ryumin won out over the «French party» and its mastermind I.H. Lestocq, defined main directions of country foreign policy. Earl M. I. Vorontsov took the place of I.H. Lestocq and was a leader of the «French party». Based on the studied data, the conclusion is that exactly during the trip in Europe there were formed foreign policy preferences of the Vice Chancellor: a cornerstone of his policy was a desire to restore relations with France. The author of the study uses both published and unpublished archival sources.

Keywords: Russia of the mid-XVIII century, Elizabeth Petrovna, M.I. Vorontsov, foreign policy, international relations, Russian–French relations.

P.O. Trunov  (Moscow). Curtailment of Russia’s military presence on the territory of the «new Germany» (1991–1994): progress and consequences ………. 145

PHILIPP OLEGOVICH TRUNOV – Lecturer, Faculty of World Politics, Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, GSP-1, Leninskiye Gory, 1-52.

E-mail: 1trunov@mail.ru

The article discusses the problem of the withdrawal of the Western Group of Military Forces (WGMF) – the most powerful and effective mechanism of ensuring of interests in Europe after the Second World War – from the German territory after its reunification (1990). In this context it investigates a group or treaties, which regulated this process and were created with the active personal involvement of Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and German chancellor Helmut Kohl. The article examines the main difficulties of the withdrawal of Western Group of Military Forces by Russia, taking in account difficult internal situation and profound changes in the international situation in the first half of the 1990s. It analyses the consequences of curtailment of the presence of Russian troops on German territory for the security of the Russian Federation until the mid-2010s.

Keywords: Western Group of Military Forces, Russia, Germany, international security.

I.E. Nesterova  (Saint Petersburg). The problem of transboundary water resources in the context of the implementation of hydropower projects in Africa and BRICS ………. 155

IRINA EVGENJEVNA NESTEROVA – Candidate of Political Sciences, Senior lecturer at the School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Smolnogo 1/3, entrance 8.

e-mail: ira.irenanest@yandex.ru

The article touches upon the major issues of using the transboundary rivers in the framework of plans of constructing the large hydropower projects in Africa and BRICS. The author considers a special significance of the hydropower potential of the African continent and BRICS, especially in the condition of development of global water resource issues. Based on the analysis of a number of historical facts and recent events article identified the major «nodes contradictions» between states that seek to carry out their plans of using hydropower because «working» hydro potential makes the country-owner much less dependent on the deficits and price shocks of global market of hydrocarbon energy.

Keywords: hydropower, transboundary water resources, hydroelectric power, Africa, basins, Nile, BRICS.


Military history 

A.O. Verbovoy  (Saint Petersburg). The role of Danube military flotilla in Russian-Turkish war in 1828–1829 years ………. 161

ALEXEY OLEGOVICH VERBOVOY – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Researcher of the Science and Research Department-12, N.G. Kuznetsov Naval Academy. 197342, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Ushakovskaya nab., 17/1.

E-mail: a.verbovoy@mail.ru

Russian-Turkish war in 1828–1829 became the main stage of Russian history of the XIX century. During the war finally there was formed foreign policy of tsarist Russia that was being made in the period of reign of Russian emperors from Nicolas I till Nicolas II. The war against Napoleon aggression made Russian emperors Alexander I and Nicolas I to forget only on a few time about empire ambitions and annexing territories. The cause of it was a destiny of Napoleon and catastrophic of 1812 year. The Greek question, appeared in 1821, and made a problem for Russia – would it be worth to help brotherhood Christian people if that help was similar as a support of revolution movement that was an enemy of any monarchy. The last point in that question was wishing of Russia to save its dominant influence on Balkans for future controlling and trying to establish overlord on it. All of this leaded to military support of Greece and Russian-Turkish war in 1828–1829. During this war the main role in victory of Russian army on Danube played Danube military flotilla. Ships of flotilla were transporting weapons, missiles and projectiles, staff for active army. Often teams of flotilla ships took a part of sieging and assaulting of Turkish fortresses on Danube. After the war the flotilla wasn’t disbandment and went on the service. The cause of it was a wish of Nicolas I to own completely Danube states, Balkans and Turkey and this plan would realize the Romanov Byzantine project. After death of Nicolas I Byzantine vector of foreign policy was prevailing during the reign of Alexander II and Nicolas II.

Keywords: Russian-Turkish War, Russia, Turkey, Greece, liberation movement, Danube, river military flotilla, scowes, yawls, fireships, xebecs, gunboats.

A.A. Zdanovich (Saint Petersburg). Activities of foreign intelligence in Russia during the First World War ………. 167

ALEKSANDR ALEKSANDROVICH ZDANOVICH – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of Academy of Military Sciences. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskiyj pr., 11.

E-mail: zdanovich52@gmail.com

The article examines activity of intelligence agencies of Great Britain and France on the territory of Russia during the First World War. Author represents that there were experienced intelligence officers of Great Britain and France in Petrograd since the autumn of 1914. There was an information exchange and development of control system for foreigners’ entries and exits in Petrograd. Suspected of spying and other hostile activities was put on the record and if it’s necessary was taken into using by Russian counterintelligence and intelligence agencies of allies. Since the autumn of 1915 when crisis of domestic economy and policy was escalated they quickly activated their work trying to prevent Russian exit from the war. After collapsing the tsarist autocracy intelligence agencies of allies actively participated in falsification of materials which reported that Bolsheviks had allegedly got German money. Moreover French counterintelligence cooperated with several senior ministers of Provisional Government using them in some situations as agents of influence.

Keywords: political intelligence, foreign intelligence agency, network of agents, postal censorship, murder of G. Rasputin, propaganda.


Historical characters 

S.A. Man’kov  (Saint Petersburg). Colonel F.P. Ivashintsov (1768–1821): life and «hard» legacy ………. 174

SERGEY ALEKSANDOVITCH MAN’KOV – Deputy Director of the Literary-historical museum of the city of Pushkin, Member of the Governor’s Heraldic Council of the Novgorod region. 196240, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Pulkovskoye Shosse, 5, korp. 1, #385.

e-mail: mankov21@mail.ru

The article studies the biography of participant of the Napoleonic Wars and the Patriotic War of 1812 Colonel Feodosiy Petrovich Ivashintsov (1768–1821). He was a representative of the Kostroma noble family who made a quick career in the Russian cavalry: he was an officer of special assignments in the Ministry of War and a commander of the famous Irkutsk Hussar regiment. Future poet and dramatist cornet Alexander Griboyedov served in this Hussar regiment. Completing the military career of Colonel F.P. Ivashintsov was connected with the scandal of huge shortage of money in the regimental treasury, which was solved only after his death with the help of the widow, Caroline Karlovna Ivashintsova (nee Baroness Gerzforf). Separately, the article discusses the fact of awarding the F.P. Ivashintsov by Military Order of St. George the Great Martyr and Victorious.

Keywords: history of the Napoleonic Wars, Patriotic War of 1812, Feodosiy Petrovich Ivashintsov, Alexander Griboyedov, Irkutsk Hussar regiment, Order of St. George.


History of culture 

A.G.Vlasov  (Saint Petersburg). From the history of the «Saint Petersburg Estonian Orthodox Brotherhood in the name of the Holy Martyr Isidor of Yuryev», 1898–1911 ………. 178

ALEKSANDR GENNADYEVICH VLASOV – Historian, Chief of Department in The State Budget Institution of Leningrad Region «Center «Patriot».

E-mail: 79043310528@yandex.ru

The article shows the history of the formation of the diaspora of Orthodox Estonians of St. Petersburg. In St. Petersburg, especially in the pre-revolutionary period, religious institutions have played a significant role in the preservation of traditional culture. Thus, in the period of 1898–1911 years members of the «St. Petersburg Estonian Orthodox Brotherhood in the name of the Holy Martyr Isidore of Yuryev» managed not only uniting the Orthodox Estonians of St. Petersburg, but also building a stone temple in the name of the Holy Martyr Isidore of Yuryev. The temple was a center of religious life for all residents of the capital of the Russian Empire. The number of parishioners grew steadily and in 1911 amounted to 2543 persons. Most of the work was conducted by Brotherhood organizations, helping the poor, the elderly and children. At Brotherhood besides the functioning temple, have successfully worked: school, hostel, reading room, bookstore and church choir.

Keywords: St. Petersburg, Kolomna, diaspora, Estonians, Orthodoxy, national societies, temple, Isidore of Yuryev, Paul Kulbush.

T.D. Rakhmanova  (Saint Petersburg). Comedy genre transformations in Coen brothers films ………. 186

TATYANA DMITRIEVNA RAKHMANOVA – Lecturer at the Department of Dramaturgy and Cinematography, St. Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television. 191119, Russia, Saint Petersburg, ul. Pravdy 13.

E-mail: pevica@yandex.ru

The article focused on the phenomenon of so-called «pure comedy» (as opposed to «black comedy») films of American directors Ethan and Joel Coen. The article investigates its origins and specifics. The basis of Coen comedy is a farce. The farce, slapstick has its own system of absurdity, conditions, mask elements like a commedia dell’arte. The Coen comedy is characterized by antistructure, lack of causality, external conflict, conventional of characters, passive hero, nonlinear time, gamesmanship, rapid deployment actions, absurdist game of chance, spasmodic actors’ method and etc. Often comic feature arises in relations between pairs of masks: between rogue and coot, smart and stupid. Writing and directing theirs films, Coen brothers use different types of comic: from elegant burlesque typical for time after the 1940s («The Hudsucker Proxy»), from the whimsical paintings «mischief of Destiny» («O Brother, Where Art Thou?») to the trivial Hollywood gags («Intolerable Cruelty»), from romantic absurdities and complex internal conflict («Raising Arizona») to turning off classical masked structures («The Ladykillers»). However, Coen brothers exist in the terms of the farce, the most convenient genre for their creative expressions.

Keywords: Ethan Coen, Joel Coen, comedy, farce, slapstick, burlesque, buffoonery, commedia dell’arte, screwball comedy, romantic comedy, absurd, black comedy, American film, American comedy, USA, drama theory, film theory, art, The Hudsucker Proxy, The Ladykillers, Raising Arizona, The Big Lebowski, O Brother, Where Art Thou?, Intolerable Cruelty, Marx brothers, Charlie Chaplin, Woody Allen, Alexander Mackendrick, Howard Hawks, William Shakespeare.


Reviews of scientific publications 

A.I. Avrus , A.A. Goloseeva  (Moscow). Finish Historian about Russian Socialist (review on the monograph of Hannu Immonen «Dreaming about new Russia; Viktor Chernov, (1873–1952)» ………. 192

ANATOLIY IKHILYEVICH AVRUS – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor. 107076, Russian Federation, Moscow, Kolodeznaya street, 7, korp. 3, #12.

E-mail: avrus.anat@gmail.com

ANNA ANATOLYEVNA GOLOSEEVA – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Political Sociology, Russian State University for the Humanities. 125993, GSP-3, Russian Federation, Moscow, Miusskaya square, 6, korp. 5.

E-mail: goloseyeva@gmail.com

The review analyzes the monograph of the Finnish historian devoted to the life and work of prominent Russian political figure of the first quarter of the XX century V.M. Chernov. The advantages of the book are denoted: introduction of new materials to the scientific circulation, polemical character of the text, more detailed than its predecessors description of many events in the life of Victor Chernov. Attention is drawn to the author’s controversial statements and significant disadvantages of translation from English, which distort the meaning of the text.

Keywords: V.M. Chernov, Socialist-Revolutionary Party, revolution, terrorism, defeatism, disputed statements.

A.Yu. Plotnikov , V.V. Vasilik  (Saint Petersburg). «Vlasov movement» (1943–1945) or once more about the story of betrayal (Based on the analysis of the Doctoral Dissertation of K.M. Alexandrova) ………. 196

ALEXEY YURYEVICH PLOTNIKOV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of History and Geography of Foreign Countries, Moscow State Linguistic University; Member of Russian Association of Researchers of the World War II. 198099, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Oboronnaya ul., 22 #23.

E-mail: plotnikov@mail.ru

VLADIMIR VLADIMIROVICH VASILIK – Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor, Department of History of Slavic and Balkan countries, St. Petersburg State University; Member of the Academy of Military and Historical Science. 198099, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Oboronnaya ul. 22, #23.

E-mail: fvasilik@mail.ru

Authors deal with the Dissertation of K.M. Alexandrov for Doctor of Historical Sciences Degree «Generals and officers of military troops of the Committee of Liberation of Russian nation, 1943–1946». Based on the analysis of this dissertation, it’s considered the history of the so-called «Vlasov Movement» (1943–1945) and attempts of its justification nowadays in Russia and abroad. They prove methodological failure of attempts to represent the members of «Vlasov Movement» as purely ideological fighters against communism and protest a verdict of trial for them. Also authors show the independence of prisoners and level of collaboration from any social system.

Keywords: General Vlasov, «Vlasov Movement», ROA/RLA (Russian Liberation Army), Committee for Liberation of the Peoples of Russia CONR (CLPR), collaboration, Nuremberg Trial.


Scientific life 

V.A. Shorokhov , D.V. Gorenkov  (Saint Petersburg). Scientific and educational activities and expert activity in the area of historical and cultural legacy preservation held by the Military History Section of Leningrad Academics’ House (1953–1956) ………. 203

VLADIMIR ANDREEVICH SHOROKHOV – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Assistant of the Department of Regional Studies, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya 5.

e-mail: shorohov@spbu.ru

DENIS VLADIMIROVICH GORENKOV – Student of the Department of Regional Studies, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya 5.

Е-mail: denis08081994@gmail.com

The article examines the initial period of work of Section of Military History of the Leningrad Academics’ House (LDU named after M. Gorky) in the fields of studying, popularization and preservation of historical and cultural legacy (1953–1956). Based on new data from the LDU Archive the authors trace the history of Section formation, represent its structure and the most important directions of its activity. The article concludes that the Section was exemplary scientific and educational center considering its structure, aims and methods. However this Section had some problems which were typical for that postwar time. Despite this fact its experience in scientific cooperation, preservation of the cultural heritage, historical expertise should be considered as actual.

Keywords: cooperation in popular science and expert activities, Leningrad Academics’ House, Section of Military History, expertise of historical monuments.