Klio #1 (61) 2012

Theoretical treatment

Losik A.V., Shcherba A.N. (Saint Petersburg). On Black-Sea Rus and Carpathian (Ugorskaya) Rus in the scientific conception of S.A. Gedeonov (On the interpretation of archival manuscripts of the Russian historian)………. 3

The article specifies the problems of the Ancient Rus history and, in particular, little-studied aspects of its southern part’s development, ethnically and politically linked to Novgorod-Kievan Rus.


Diaries, memoirs

Chetverikov B.D. (Saint Petersburg). “Stezhky-dorozhky” (“The pathways”) (continuation) ………. 8

Katukova E.S. (The Moscow Region).  Something to remember (continuation)………. 19


Source studies

Malkova T.N.  (Saint Petersburg). An analysis of the archive of Florentine bank Uzzano (1363–1386)………. 32

The archive of Florentine bank Uzzano is extremely valuable and needed for scholarly research in the spheres of economics, accounting and financial analysis. Documents are stored in the archives of Saint Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences.



Lozbenev I.N. (Moscow). Problems of the NEP historiography as the object of historical research (the 1920s–the beginning of XXI century)………. 38

The article contains the analysis of the views expressed by the Soviet and post-Soviet period historians, encyclopedic editions after 1939, textbooks and manuals on New Economic Policy that was held in the 1920s by the Soviet government. The author analyzed the ideological basis of the views expressed by historians during the Soviet times and the expansion of the scope of this issue’s study in the post-Soviet period that allowed reconstructing the events of that time more substantially. The author outlined his vision of many processes going on at those times.


General history

Zaporozhets V.M. (Moscow). In the struggle for the regional leader status. Lessons from the Seljuk era of Asia Minor in XII–XVIII centuries………. 43

The article describes the activity of Seljuk dynasty in Asia Minor during the period of its highest power; their achievements
in the civil and military spheres as a phenomenon similar to the struggle for the status of the regional leader are analyzed.

Bogolyubova N.M., Nikolaeva Y.V. (Saint Petersburg). Sport and politics: the origins of the Olympics politicization……….. 49

This article is devoted to the study of the origins of the politicization of modern sport and the Olympic Games. It specifies the reasons why the Olympics have become the object of interest of politicians and states. Analyzing different views on the time of the inclusion of the Olympic sport into the political sphere, the authors express their own, unique opinion.

Dzhumaev T.A. (Saint Petersburg). S.A. Niyazov’s foreign policy on the legal status of the Caspian Sea………. 53

The article provides the study of the relations of Turkmenistan with other countries during the presidency of S.A. Niyazov connected to the legal status of the Caspian Sea, as well as to the controversial issues of the oil fields.

Balayan A.A. (Saratov). Foreign policy strategy formation of George W. Bush administration after the events of September 11, 2001………. 56

The article investigates the transformation of U.S. foreign policy after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 with special emphasis made on exploring new approaches to the implementation of American foreign policy under the administration of George W. Bush.


The history of Russia

Simonyan R.Z. (Kursk). On solving the problem of enhancing the quality of the Russian Empire prosecutorial supervision in the civil court in the second half of XIX–early XX century………. 59

This article is devoted to the participation of a prosecutor in civil proceedings in the late XIX–early XX centuries. It is emphasized that judicial statutes of 1864 considerably restricted the scope of Public Prosecutions in the civil process, changed the methods of its implementation that in practice (along with the increasing role of the prosecutor in criminal proceedings) turned this area of Public Prosecutions into a secondary one.

Volkov V.V.  (Novoselie, the Leningrad Region). On the agrarian overpopulation in Russia during the late XIX–early XX centuries (dedicated to the 110th anniversary of the “Center Commission” launch)……….. 61

The paper investigates the problem of agrarian overpopulation prevailing in Russia in the second half of XIX–early XX centuries. Based on the various methods of “relative land shortage” study analysis, it is concluded that the agricultural sector in Russia at that time had a surplus of workers not absorbed neither with the factory industry nor with other areas of hired labor application.

Kholyaev S.V. (Yaroslavl). The last clash of the revolution (on the peasant radicalism and the right course of the Bolsheviks)………. 68

The article states that the peasant uprisings of 1921, often defined as the great peasant war, shouldn’t be considered only as a struggle of desperate people for physical existence. It was a confrontation between two most radical revolutionary forces; each party hoped to take a leading position in the country. The peasants were the largest social group in the Russian society and, according to the author, expected to obtain complete freedom from the state in the course of the revolution. The realization of the centuries-old peasant dream inevitably led to the disintegration of Russia.

Kalashnikov A.A. (Saratov). The importance of the Russian project Nord Stream implementation for the Russian Federation………. 71

The article is devoted to the identification of goals and the analysis of the importance of the Russian project Nord Stream implementation for the Russian Federation. Special attention is paid to the identification of Russian Joint-Stock Company “Gazprom” participation in solving important tasks of Russian foreign policy.


The history of Russion regions

Golubev A.A. (Petrozavodsk). Institutional framework of the Joint Stock Company of Olonetskaya railroad activity………. 76

The practice of railway construction in Russia was carried out by entrepreneurs on contractual terms set forth in charters.
In this paper on the example of the Charter the organizational structure of a private company – Joint Stock Company of Olonetskaya railroad – is revealed. The legal framework of its activities on the construction of a line from Zvanka (Volkhovstroy) to Petrozavodsk is shown as well as the procedure of interaction of the state with a private company in accordance with the laws of the Russian Empire in the beginning of the twentieth century.

Dianova K.A. (Petrozavodsk). Succession issues of pre-revolutionary and Soviet regional studies in the 1920s (on the example of the European North of Russia)………. 81

The article investigates the contradictions in the use of pre-revolutionary experience of the local history work in the development of Soviet regional studies on the European North of Russia in the 1920s. The author draws attention to the politicization of the nascent Soviet regional studies in connection with the emergence of Istpart institutions and the evaluation of historical events in the light of the Bolshevik methodology, including the pre-revolutionary activities of local history societies.

Pilishvili G.D. (Kursk). The organization of national militia (narodnoe opolcheniye) units during the first months of World War II in Voronezh, Kursk and Tambov regions………. 85

In this article, with the attraction of the extensive archival material, the authors analyzed the creation of national militia (narodnoe opolcheniye) units in the Central Black Earth region in June–August 1941. The conclusions were made about the effectiveness of the work done by the party bodies of Voronezh, Kursk and Tambov regions in the formation of the national militia.

Serebryanskaya G.V., Perchikov Y.A., Sakovich N.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). Authorities and health care in 1941–1945 (on materials of the Gorky region)………. 88

This article gives a brief historiography of the matter, indicates new studies, and summarizes the facts drawn mainly from the collections of Nizhny Novgorod archives, some of which were not previously included in the publication of the selected topic.



Sorokin P.E. (Saint Petersburg). On the prospects of keeping the Nyenschantz fortress as a landscape archaeological site………. 94

The article is dedicated to the history of the Swedish fortress Nyenschantz after its capture by the troops of Peter
he Great in 1703. It summarizes the documents of XVIII–XX centuries and the data obtained from
archaeological excavations, indicating a high degree of preservation of the Nyenschantz fortifications throughout
all this time. The following conclusion is made: the complete safekeeping of the fortifications found during the excavations in 2006–2009 and the creation of a landscape archaeological museum on the Okhtinsky Cape are necessary.


The history of science and technology

Timchenko B.D., Zubenko D.Y. (Saint Petersburg). LITMO-1, LITMO-2, LITMO-3………. 99

The article describes the history of Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics’ Department of Computer Science formation, its employees, and computers created by these employees with specifications that corresponded to the level of foreign models of that time.


Cultural history

Lebedev Y.V. (Saint Petersburg). “Round table of the oval shape”………. 102

This article analyzes the origin of the phrase “round table of the oval shape” in one of the most famous works of F.M. Dostoyevsky.


Military history

Grebenshchikova G. A. (Saint Petersburg). On the birth date of the Black Sea Fleet………. 103

Catherine II played a significant role in establishing the fleet in the south of Russia. During all subsequent Russian monarchs rule the Black Sea Fleet was an effective tool for achieving the goals of domestic and foreign policy. Its role in the Russian state is enormous, as well as the contribution of Black Sea sailors to the defense and protection of maritime boundaries.


Historical characters

Nikolaenko P.D. (Saint Petersburg). How happened that innocent V.N. Karazin was placed into Schlusselburg fortress by the imperial order………. 112

The article considers the circumstances that caused the arrest and imprisonment of a friend of Alexander I – V.N. Karazin (who had nothing to do with unrest in the Semenov regiment) in the fortress of Schlusselburg.

Smirnov A.G. (Nizhny Novgorod). The leftist-adventuristic revolutionarism of S.G. Nechaev and his condemnation by public opinion………. 116

The author analyses the leftist-adventuristic revolutionarism of S.G. Nechaev and the attitude of people towards him. Particular attention is paid to S.G. Nechaev’s “Catechism of the revolutionary” that sets out very harsh methods of dealing with the existing regime, as well as the principles of “People’s revenge”.

Bogomazov N.I., Mikhailov V.V., Puchenkov A.S. (Saint Petersburg). The end of the year 1918: General F.A. Keller and the Civil War in the North-West of Russia………. 117

The paper investigates the participation of General F.A. Keller in the Civil War in the North-West of Russia. Particular attention is paid to the political views of F.A. Keller, one of the most prominent monarchists – participants of the White movement.


The responces of official opponents

Lyubichankovsky S.V. (Orenburg). The review of the dissertation research by A.N. Biktasheva “Kazan Governorate in the first half of XIX century: anthropology of power”………. 123

The review of the official opponent contains the analysis of A.N. Biktasheva’s study of the history of Kazan Governorate in the first half of XIX century. S. Lyubichankovsky praised the work done and highlighted several weaknesses of the paper.

Pavlova O.K. (Saint Petersburg). The review of the dissertation research by Y.V. Bannikova “Daily life of a provincial merchantry (on the materials of Ural gubernias during the pre-reform period)”………. 127

The dissertation research is highly appraised in the review; the depth of the historiographical and source analysis of the problem is emphasized. An innovative approach to assessing the daily life of a provincial merchantry, the courage and validity of the author’s findings are underlined.


The reviews of scientific publications

Gogun A.S. (Berlin, Germany). The harvest of memoirs………. 131

In general the study of the Dutch scientist Karel Berkhof received a good rating in the review. At the same time several fundamental drawbacks are highlighted.

Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). “Not difficult” memories of the difficult past……. 135

The review praised the memoirs of I.S. Verblovskaya about her pre-war childhood, the siege of Leningrad, the evacuation, staying in the Soviet prison camps and much more. This book is an honest, sincere and, oddly enough, almost hilarious story about the life of an upright Soviet citizen in the Soviet Union.

Kan A. (Stockholm, Sweden). The review of the memoirs of L.Y. Slezkin “Before the war and at war”………. 138

The author of the review commended the memoirs of L.Y. Slezkin. In the review it is noted that the memories dedicated to the pre-war and war events are “a fascinating and enlightening reading.”

Somov V.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). On the role of the Soviets in the organization of management during the Great Patriotic War………. 141

This article is a review of the monograph dedicated to the activity of the Soviet management system during the Great Patriotic War.

Volkov V.S. (Saint Petersburg). The book that makes enthusiastic study possible………. 142

The review describes one of the “History of Russia” textbooks for the 11th grade of comprehensive schools, prepared by St. Petersburg scholars and recommended by the Ministry of Education and Science. Its high academic standard, novelty of content, consistent adherence to the principle of objectivity, the presence of the section “Views”, the principle of developmental education are highlighted. Simultaneously, the author gives a number of comments. In particular, he disagrees with a substitution of concepts “February” and “October” revolutions with the concept “The Second Russian Revolution of 1917–1921″ applying the term “modernization” to the events of 1930.

Burkov V.G. (Saint Petersburg). Sports as a new area of diplomacy and cultural and humanitarian cooperation………. 144

The review contains a positive ranking of a new monograph by Saint Petersburg researchers N.M. Bogolyubova and Y.V. Nikolaeva devoted to the analysis of the international sport movement as an integral part of international relations. On the basis of an extensive material the authors show how at various times sport served as an effective political and diplomatic tool, but also a way to draw public attention to humanitarian problems.


Scientific life

Upcoming scientific conferences………. 147


Index of articles published in “Klio” during 2011………. 149