Klio #1 (97) 2015

Spotlight interview

The Interview A. Gogun (Berlin, Germany) Had with a Head of the Department of Eastern and Western Slavic Philology of the Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, Professor A. Wöll (Greifswald, Germany) The Ukrainian studies without Ukrainians………. 3

An expert of the Czech and Russian literature, Alexander Wöll is in charge of the Association of German Specialists in Ukrainian Studies dwells on exceptionally closed nature of the German academic society, and on lack of experts in the Ukrainian Studies in the West Germany. Moreover, there is no Professor­Ukrainianist in other scientific areas in Germany. According to the experienced scientist, to take a position at one of the German universities, it is necessary to stake on a powerful scientific advisor in advance, diligently and thoroughly asking the colleagues about any opportunities to publish papers written in German only. Furthermore, a yearlong internship in Great Britain or USA paradoxically favors obtaining employment in Germany, as opposed to the Northern America, where flourishing Ukrainian Studies are greatly influenced by the local prosperous Ukrainian diaspora. In opinion of the German Slavonic Professor, numerous Ukrainians dwellers in the Western Germany do not want to be employed at the German universities, promoting their native culture with dancing and borsch instead.

However, Alexander Wöll mentions inadequate response of the German state system to the political events of the past decade as concerned with research into Ukraine.  Both revolutions in Kiev (2005, 2014), and defeat of the first one (2010) delivered the same results, namely, reduction of the Ukrainian Studies in the German science. By contrast, the Oriental and Arabian Studies obtained handsome donation and administrative support following the Arabian spring.

Keywords: German academic system, projection, telephone justice, German universities, Ukrainian Studies.


Contemporary memoirs

Brisker A. (Vero-Beach, USA) Sketches about War and Postwar Time………. 10

The sketches describe life of a boy from Leningrad during and after the Great Patriotic War. This is the beginning of the war in Leningrad, evacuation to Yaroslavl region (life in a collective farm) and to a Volga city Penza (where his father was assigned), and return to Leningrad. The postwar school­life is particularly associated with obtaining a school certificate. Failure to enter the LeningradStateUniversity, study at and graduation from the Leningrad Electrical Engineering Institute… The narration about that tight yet glorious time finishes with J.V. Stalin’s death. The material is of particular interest expecting the 70th anniversary of Victory in the Great Patriotic War.

Keywords: Leningrad, Great Patriotic War, evacuation, Penza, school, Leningrad Electrical Engineering Institute, children and war.


Source studies

Solodkin Ya.G.  (Nizhnevartovsk). About Early Sources of the Record Book of Tobolsk (Background Information about Siberian Chronicle Writing of the 17th Century)………. 29

The opening paragraphs of the Record Book – the oldest edition of the Siberian Chronicle Code that is available – have preserved a substantial amount of original evidence relating to the eve of the Russian acquisition of Siberia and the course of events in this campaign, as well as the foundation of the first Russian towns and stockaded settlements in the newly acquired lands. The evidence in question relates to the dating of the Cossack arrival in Siberia, the delivery of allowance to Cossacks by voivode Prince S. D. Bolkhovsky and Cossack chief I.V. Glukhov, Yermak’s death in a skirmish at the mouth of River Vaghai, the construction of the Ob town. Alongside the abovementioned evidence, a serious consideration should be given to the passages where the Old Siberia (Staraya Sibir) – Khan Kuchum’s former capital – is mentioned. Proceeding from these factors, the author proves that, together with the Yessipovsky Chronicle and the New Chronicle, another work of the chronicle­writing genre has to be included into the range of sources on which the edition of the Siberian Chronicle Code under consideration rests. This new source is most likely to have originated in Tobolsk, prior to the Tale of Siberia and the Siberian Acquisition by Tobolsk archbishop’s clerk Savva Yessipov. The evidence on the dating of Tyumen and Tobolsk was incorporated into the Record Book by way of another narrative source, most probably a short chronicle. The author of the Code’s edition under consideration referred to an early town chronicle of Verkhoturia, which was largely memory­based, but which proved highly informative as it provided the writer with substantial evidence on the foundation of the towns of Verkhny Tagil and Lozva and, subsequently, Verkhoturia itself as well as the governors of these towns. The local official records were also a valuable source, although their authenticity and reliability varies greatly. A comprehensive analysis of the Record Book’s relevant stratum is instrumental to dating the chronicle­writing tradition in Siberia back to the years prior to 1636 or potentially earlier, to the time when Yessipov’s anonymous predecessor was composing his work that followed the Commemoration Book of Yermak’s Cossacks.

Keywords. The Record Book, a chronicle­based early source of the Record Book and its localisation, Tale of Siberia and the Siberian Acquisition by Savva Yessipov, early Tobolsk chronicle­writing, chronicle of Verkhoturia, Yermak’s acquisition of Kuchum’s khanate, Russian town­building in Siberia in the late 16th century.

Kogan E. (New York, USA). About Baron von Brandis’s Album………. 34

This is an attempt to investigate the history and authorship of the little­known album The Amur, West and East Siberia, and the Urals, published by K.L. Rikker (St. Petersburg, 1870).  The present paper gives a short description of the album and of the 371 photo objects included in it by Baron Brandes, along with the biography of the first photographer of the Amur Region, V.V. Lanin, whose photographs specialists compare with those by Baron Brandes. The present paper looks at the features that place the album among the outstanding monuments of mid­nineteenth century book culture. The album deserves more detailed research by book historians and the historians of photography, with the view of calling greater attention to it on the part of various scholars.

Keywords: Amur River, Ussuri region, expedition, photo albums, Baron Brandis, V. V. Lanin, V. V. Stasov, V. I. Jozef, Lieutenant John Rogers, E. Kasinets.

Kazantsev V.P., Salogub Ya.L. (Saint-Petersburg). The System of Management of the Territories Leased (Chinese Eastern Railway, the Kwantung Leased Territory. Special Vicegerency on the Far East), from the 1890s through 1917. Analysis of the Sources Published……….38

In this article, the authors made a review of published sources, reflecting the formation of the Russia administrative system leased from China territories. In modern historical science learning management system leased territories, resulting from the construction of the Siberian railway in China is just beginning. Today, most of the source of reviews is the introductions, pre­dissertation research and monographs. Individual works devoted to the analysis of the sources of this branch of historical research, a little.

Methodological basis for the species classification of the sources was the approach proposed by scientists at the Russian state humanitarian University. Species classification, we studied the sources can be divided into the following groups: 1) legal acts (laws and regulations); 2) documents official records; 3) sources of personal origin; 4) statistical reference materials, description and survey of the territories; 5) periodicals. The inner content of each source is determined by the characteristics of the administrative system of the leased territories.

Published sources on the research topic were identified in the collections of the Russian state library (RSL, Moscow), the Russian national library (St. Petersburg), the Russian historical library (Moscow), library of the Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg), as well as in scientific reference library archives.

Foundations of local governance in the leased territories, in accordance with the legal grounds for the transfer to the jurisdiction of the Russian Empire, was entirely determined by the Russian legislation and international treaties with China. Most of these acts was immediately published in the official publications.

Keywords: published source, leased territories, system of local administration, Chinese Eastern railway, Kwantung region.



Rodionova Yu.V. (Korolev, Moscow region). Confrontation between Soviet and Polish Intelligence Services during the World War II in Polish Historians’ Works………. 48

As the title implies the article is devoted to the analysis of the Polish Intelligence activities against the USSR and the Soviet security forces counteraction to itduring the Second World War on the basis of research papers of polish historians.

The relations between Poland and Russia have never been definite: peaceful periods alternated with frequent armed conflicts and games of politics. During the Second World War the relations between the USSR and Poland were non­typical that was determined by a range of factors. They are the following: the fact that at the very beginning of the WWII after the utter defeat of the Polish armed forces the Polish state and government practically speaking folded, evacuated to London, and then the Polish Government in exile exercising authority in Poland; Soviet military forces entry to West Ukraine and West Belarus, the historical context of which was that the Soviet leadership had extended ‘a helping hand’ to fraternal Ukrainians and Belorussians living in Poland; creation of Anders’ Army, and then the First Polish Army in the USSR, and other issues. Despite the fact that on the 30th of July 1941 Sikorski­Mayski agreement, a treaty providing the restoration of the diplomatic ties between the USSR and Poland, was signed, Poland kept conducting hostile policy towards our country.

It’s common knowledge that success or defeat depend on the action of special services of the parties in the war.The author of the article analyzed the role of soviet and polish special services in the above processes.

Keywords: the Second World War, soviet­polish relations, Soviet security forces, polish intelligence, Anders’ Army, the First Polish Army in the USSR,the Home Army.


General history

Berezhnaya N.А. (Saint-Petersburg). Melanchthon and the Problem of Crypto-Calvinism in Protestant Germany in the Middle 16th Century………. 54

The present article surveys at the religious situation in Protestant Germany in mid – XVI century, analyses the causes and circumstances which resulted in the problem of Сrypto­Calvinism. Thus it focuses primarily on Philipp Melanchthon, the leader of the German Protestants after Luther’s death. Differences between Luther and Melanchthon in the Eucharisticcontroversy gave rise Gnesio­Lutheran theologians suspecting Melanchthon in the distortion of Evangelical confession. The position of Melanchthon on Adiaphora and support of the ally of the Catholic Emperor, the new Saxon elector Moritz, only strengthened this suspicion. Therefore the silence of Melanchthon in response to the invitation of John Calvin to get united on the basis of the Consensus Tigurinus was interpreted by Gnesio­Lutherans as sympathy to the Calvinistic doctrine. Since that time Melanchthon and his theological beliefs became considered as Сrypto­Calvinistic. At that period Melanchthon felt responsible for the cause of unity of all the Evangelical confession, and therefore sought after a compromise, but after a dispute in Worms of the year 1557 a schism within the Protestant camp became evident.

Keywords: Melanchthon, Calvin, Crypto­Calvinism, Eucharistic conflict, Augsburg Confession «Variata», Gnesio­Lutherans.

Morozov O.V. (Moscow). Influence of Jubilees on the Development of Historical Writings of German Universities during the Modern and Contemporary History………. 58

The article considers establishment of historiography of German universities in the 18th to early 19th centuries, and influence of jubilee celebrations upon its development. Jubilee is interpreted not only as a caesura in the history of a higher educational facility, but also as a momentum to the development of university historical self­writing. Scientists began investigating history of university jubilees in the second part of the 16th century, when protestant scientific communities were involved in intensive development of an idea of institutional and spiritual independence from the Roman Curia. Since then, a consolidating function has become permanent for jubilee, it reserved until now. By applying for Friedrich Nietzsche’s theoretical structure presented in the work On the Use and Abuse of History for Life, the author distinguishes three genres of history writing of universities (antique, monumental, and critical), with detailed description of the monumental one, which was actively developing in Germany up to the 1970s. One of peculiarities typical of this genre consists in locality suggesting the most multifaceted and comprehensive history of an individual university. In the last quarter of the 20th century, the critical genre gained momentum, touching, inter alia, upon the issue of responsibility of universities and scientific communities for rise and support of National Socialism. The areas of research such as history of female education, history of anti­Semitism in professor and student environment, relations between universities with political power are distinguished. All the three genres of history writing survived until now. Furthermore, the tradition of publishing multivolume university histories is still alive, where, on the one hand, local properties of representation and aiming for glorification of alma mater are still strong, on the other hand, an attitude to critical review of the past develops.

Keywords: history, identity, university, jubilee, historiography, history writing, Germany, state.

Yakovlev A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Factor of the Military Industrial Sector in the Foreign Policy Pursued by the USA in the First Half of the 20th Century………. 67

The article is devoted to the history of establishment of the Military Industrial sector of the United States of America in the context of collision of the free­market economic model typical of America and based on a private individual’s benefit priority, with a mobilized economy model, with the prerequisites reasoned by a number of drastic events and disturbances such as the World War I, October Socialistic revolution in Russia, global economic crisis, and totalitarianism, the World War II, and establishment of the bipolar world order in the early through middle 20th century.

Influence of economic transformations on the international dimension of the American policy is of particular interest, which expressed itself in doctrinal basis of the American focus on communication with aliases and opponents. After W. Wilson’s presidency, simultaneously with basic transformations of the economic policy (establishment of F.D. Roosevelt’s new line), the concept of the role of the USA in the international policy changed drastically, manifesting itself in subsequent departure from isolationism policy.

In a specific way, the USA government implements the project of “unification” of military manufacture and military transfers on a highly legitimate basis. Under H. Truman, a number of legislative instruments were adopted (e.g. the Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act, and the Mutual Security Act of 1951), resulting in an attempt to optimize export of military equipment in general, which proved to be an efficient tool of the foreign policy by the 1960s.

Keywords: USA, Military Industrial sector of the USA, Roosevelt’s new line of policy, USA foreign policy.

Kostyuk R.V. (Saint Petersburg). For other Europe (Revisiting the European Strategy of French Socialists in the 1970s)………. 71

This paper analyzes the strategy of the French Socialist Party (SP) concerning European integration. Socialists` perception of the West European construction processes, as well as the dynamics of their attitude to the European Economic Community (EEC) in the 1970’s, are shown mainly on the basis of party sources (program “Life Change”, socialist electoral program to the European elections in 1979, the “Socialist project for France 80’s”, etc.) and works, speeches and articles by François Mitterrand and other top leaders of the French socialist movement. The article concludes that traditional Europeanism and commitment to federalist European project co­existed among socialists in the 1970’s with their aim to build an autonomic socialism and “break with capitalism”. This paper also shows personal role of the Socialist Party First Secretary François Mitterrand in the process of developing party`s new European strategy in the early 1970’s and in subsequent years. The author refers to the socialists’ point of view concerning the operation of the main EEC institutions, such as the European Parliament. The author also estimates the SP attitude to the essence of the European policy of Georges Pompidou and Giscard d’Estaing. This article assesses the positions of the socialists in France on the issue of enlargement of the EEC at the expense of the United Kingdom and Southern Europe. The author also demonstrates specific SP initiatives for social, economic and political transformation of the Common Market and modifications of the common Community policies. This work focuses on the socialists` approaches to foreign policy and military­political dimensions of the Western European cooperation the 70’s; and on the analysis of their point of view concerning the development of relations between France and West Germany. The author also pays attention to the approaches of the leading inner­Party currents to the European construction, in particular, to the specifics of the European strategy for CERES.

Keywords: politics, party, Europe, community, leftists, socialists, integration and construction.

Barsov K.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Activity of the Commission for Civil Service for Upgrading the System of Training, Manning and Equipping the Army Officer Corps of Great Britain in the 1870s………. 78

The article contains the results of the definition of the place and role of activity for upgrading the system of training, manning, and equipping the army Officer Corps the Civil Service Commission took in the context of military reforms in the 1860–1870s. The author investigates the factors, which determined transfer of functions for selection of candidates for officer posts. The mechanisms of decision­making are revealed, which mechanisms are based on the opinions of special commissions and authoritative state figures as to the necessity of involvement of the Commission in arrangement and conducting entrance examination at the higher military educational institution of Great Britain (i.e., Royal Military Academy in Woolwich, and Royal Military College in Sandhurst), as well as other forms of substitution of junior officer ranks in the army of the United Kingdom. The research is based on the analysis of reports of the Commission for the period from 1870 through 1880. Study of the documents allowed for distinguishing three stages in the activity carried out by the establishment holding examinations for joining the army. The changes in the activity of the Commission are determined by transformation of the army Officer Corps resulted from comprehensive reforms in the structure of the land forces of Great Britain in the 1860–1870s. Foreign analysts poorly studied activity of the Civil Service Commission and its place in upgrading the system of training, manning, and equipping the army Officer Corps of the United Kingdom. National British studies set the problems for the first time ever.

Keywords: Great Britain, civil service, Cardwell’s military reforms, military education, examinations for joining the army.

Kiselnikov A.B. (Saratov). Concerning the Legal Status of the Collegium (ancient Rome) nautarum and naviculariorum………. 83

The purpose of this work is to determine the principal difference between shipping colleges nautarum and naviculariorum, which were the major cargo carriers on the river and sea roads of the Roman Empire. These companies played an important role in the economy of the state. Latin inscriptions II–III A.D. as a rule determines the location of colleges nautarum near from the navigable rivers and lakes, and colleges naviculariorum in the coastal cities. In consequence formed the opinion, that the colleges nautarum were the river sailors associations, and the colleges naviculariorum of the sea trade shipping corporations. Such a classification is not fully exactly. The importance of addressing this issue is obvious. It will provide an opportunity to understand how the craft and trade to come under state control.

The author supposes that the main difference consists in their legal status. Colleges naviculariorum (ship owners) appeared in II A.D. in connection with the need of regular shipments of grain and products to the capital and for the Army. All members of the corporum naviculariorum were exempt from different duties and tax charges. Colleges nautarum didn’t have immunitates. Amalgamation of ship owners in the professional community allowed the government to make better use of water transport for state needs and carry out the fiscal control.

Kewworks: Roman colleges, nauta, navicularii, legal status, annona romana, sea trade.


History of Russia

Ozova F.A. (Cherkessk). The mission of the duke Alexander Cherkassky (1697–1717)………. 86

This article clarifies the cause of the departure of one of the representatives of the Cherkess duke dynasty, Devlet­Girey Bekmursin, known in the Russian history as the Duke Alexander Bekovich Cherkassky. He spent many years in the fortress of Terka and Astrakhan as a diplomatic hostage (amanat). In 1697, he was baptized as Alexander Cherkassky and removed to Moscow.

Such a change in the fate of Devlet­Girey was explained by the transformation in the Eastern Europe at the end of the 17th century, and the strengthening of the Ottoman­Crimean claims in respect of Kabarda. In this context, the ruling House of Inalids in Big Kabarda undertook an attempt to distance itself from Bahchisarai and establish closer relations with the Russian Court to get eventually rid of the collision in its foreign policy. The Kabardinian diplomatic hostage (amanat) and duke Devlet­Girey Bekmurzin was sent to Moscow as the amanat institution was the only instrument of widening Russian and Kabardinian relations. Alexander Cherkassky became one of the closest courtiers of Peter I, and his role was similar to one of the Kabardinian amanats under the rule of Ivan the Terrible.

He did much for the development of the bilateral relations by serving the interests both of Russia and Kabarda during 20 year. Due to his efforts, a military alliance had been established between Peter 1 and the Grand Duke of Kabarda Hatakshoko Misost. But, unfortunately, the Russian defeat in the war against Turkey in 1711 didn’t make it possible to fully implement the potential of that alliance.

Key words: diplomatic relations, amanat, Devlet­Girey Bekmursin, Alexander Cherkassky, Peter 1, 17th century, 18th century, mission, Prut, project.

Klikhova E.D. (Moscow). After the Charter (Student Movement of the Late 19th Century in the Context of Currency of the New University Charter)………. 92

The article represents an outline of the university life in 1884–1901, i.e. directly after the adoption of the new university regulations. First of all, it is necessary to give a short description of the key regulations of  the university charter of 1884 so as to take a clear view of the new order existing in the university. It is appropriate to make a comparison with the preceding liberal regulations of 1863 drawing special attention to this problem: how did the authors of the conservative regulations interpret the true destination of the university and its role in the life of the whole country.

A search of the first period of the living of the university is interesting because it permits, firstly, to trace the immediate response of the students and professors to the establishment of the new order, and, secondly, to outline the trend of development of the student movement at the end of the XIX century. Herein student movement as the social phenomenon of a last quarter of the XIX century is of great interest. Some student gatherings that took place shortly after the publishing of the new regulations are mentioned in the article. One can see how political demands of students added to academic ones, how student disorders left lecture­rooms for street, how first contacts between students and revolutionists appeared, how the first student strike occurred and how Minister of the national education eventually was killed by a student in 1901.

However we can’t say that only students were the participants of the struggle for the university autonomy. We should remember about the function of the professors: many of them while opposing the conservative regulations discommended escalating politicization of the students. One of the outstanding figures was S.N. Trubetskoy.

Keywords: university regulations, professorial corporation, student corporation, student movement, liberal ideas, university autonomy, government response, M.N. Katkov, S.N. Trubetskoy: in the article we pay special attention to his activity.

Nabyalek O.E. (Moscow). The «Revolutionary conservatism» of Rostislav Fadeev and the debates about his programme within the discussion on the Russian landed gentry………. 97

The article analyses the book “Russian Sociеty in its Present and Past”, written by Rostislav Fadeev, a military and public official and publicist, and the role it played within the discussion on the Russian landed gentry. The discussion took place in the Russian journalism of the second half of the 19th century, after the Great Reforms of Alexander II, when the economic and social status of the nobility had dramatically changed. Fadeev had a conservative position and sought to associate the state power with the gentry’s economic potential. The publicist suggested saving the gentry’s privileges, but making it open for new elements from merchant class and the intelligentsia. Fadeev’s programme, a so­called “revolutionary conservatism”, provoked large debates and was one of the most noticeable projects in a conservative journalism of the given period.

Keywords: serfs emancipation, Great Reforms, Alexander II, journalism, landed gentry, estate issue, Rostislav Fadeev, “revolutionary conservatism”

Trunov K.N. (Saint-Petersburg). The Constitutional Democratic Party and Finnish Issue (1905–1917)………. 101

The article covers the policy and programme of the Cadet party on Finland, the relations of the Party of People’s Freedom and representatives of Finnish national movement in the beginning of XX century, the views of P.N. Milyukov, F.F. Kokoshkin and other Cadets on the Finnish question and Finnish autonomy. Administrative and state system of Finland as a closest model of a State, which combined both national and regional interests, from the point of view of the theoreticians of the Cadet party. It’s shown the significant role of the Cadet party in the struggle against Anti­Finnish Russification policy of the tsarist government. The reasons for Cadet resistance against attack of tsarism on Finland. Considerable attention is paid to the political course of the Cadet faction in the State Duma on the Finnish question, statements of  Cadets in the protection of national interests of Finland, against chauvinistic Anti­Finnish government course (in the period of struggle against abolition of the autonomy of Finland in 1910, and others), to expose reactionary role of P.A. Stolypin and right wing of the State Duma of the Finnish question. It’s shown the active position of the Cadets on extensive media coverage of events around Finland, bringing them to the Russian and international public, mobilizing public opinion in support of Finnish autonomy. It analyzed the draft of «The Statute on government system of the Grand Duchy of Finland», prepared by F.F. Kokoshkin, opening the prospect of long­term coexistence of Finland and Russia in a single state. It’s revealed the participation of Cadets in prevention of tsarism attempts from further attacks on the rights and freedoms of Finland after 1910.

Keywords: national question, Finland, Finnish question, nationalism, national movement, P.N. Milyukov, F.F. Kokoshkin, P.A. Stolypin.

Patrikeeva O.A. (Saint-Petersburg). “The Duma Has No Sense without press…”, the Role of the “Novoe Vremya” (New Time) Paper in the development of parliamentary journalism in Russia (1906–1917)………. 106

The article is devoted to the little­study problem – the beginnings of the parliamentary journalism in Russia in 1906–1917. During forty years from 70th years of the XIX century till the beginning of the XX century the newspaper “Novoye Vremya” was one of the most popular in Russia. The contribution of the newspaper “Novoye Vremya” to the development of the parliamentary journalism is in our focus. The activities of the leading journalists of the newspaper A.A. Pilenko, A.I. Ksiunin, B.B. Rozanov in the State Duma of the Russian Empire are considered especially detailed. A.A. Pilenko was famous as “the king of the parliamentary reporting”. He also was the leader of the journalistic society of the State Duma. A.I. Ksiunin was the best interviewer in the State Duma. These journalists did not only describe the legislative process but openly demonstrated their civil position. The article is written mainly on the basis of the memorials, the letters, the diaries of the journalists and the deputies of the State Duma and also the periodical press of the beginning of the twentieth century, the new archival documents.

Keywords: the newspaper “Novoye Vremya”, parliamentary journalists, journalists in the State Duma, the State Duma of the Russian Empire, parliamentary reporting.

Gessen V.Yu. (Saint-Petersburg). Statistical Agencies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia in the Early 20th Century and Trial Reforms Thereof (Based on Archival Data)………. 112

Based on the archival materials never used before, the paper deals with certain tries to reform statistical agencies as part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs from 1901 to 1917.  Several projects on reformation were drawn. However, only the first project developed by A.M. Zolotarev, a director of the Central Statistical Committee, was considered the basic one. The second project was prepared under P.I. Georgievsky, and the third one – under N.N. Belyavsky, both the directors of the said Committee. All projects provided for the increase of the staff number and their salary, additional general funding, and establishment of statistical agencies in governorates. The necessity of reformation got public approval, in particular, on the part of P.P. Semyonov­Tyan­Shansky, an outstanding statistician.  However, the projects were not implemented, mainly because of strong opposition shown by the Ministry of Finance. The terms of cooperation of the Central Statistical Committee with statistical organs of other ministries or with territorial authorities were not clearly defined. The proposal to establish a nationwide statistical body not accountable to any ministry was not supported by the governments. Dissolution of the Central Statistical Committee after October of 1917. V.V. Stepanov’s activity for transfer of the CSC property to Moscow in the early 1918 is reviewed.

Keywords: history of statistics, Central Statistical Committee, Statistical Council, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Finance, governorates statistical agencies, reformation, director, project, funding resources.

Dianova E.V. (Petrozavodsk). “Do not Give Profit to Merchants, Buy from Cooperative”: Cooperative Advertisement in the System of Cultural and Educative Activities in Cooperation in the 1920s………. 125

In article the essence and purpose of cooperative advertizing of the 1920th which acted as one of forms of cultural and educational activity of cooperation is analyzed. The author made an attempt to consider various forms and ways of giving of cooperative advertizing (slogans, posters, the live newspaper, the dramatized statements), to open features of the cooperative advertizing text created on the basis of small genres of folklore. In cooperative advertizing various texts, figurative words and expressions, proverbs and sayings, and also the rhymed slogans and mottoes created on a sample of small genres of folklore were used. Cooperative advertizing, as well as all Soviet cooperation, carried out the task set by the party country leaders, first of all, universal cooperation of the population, restriction of private trade. Cooperative slogans urged workers to use services only of cooperative shops, convinced peasants to participate in marketing, supplying and procuring operations of agricultural associations. Cooperative advertizing was focused on the city consumer and a small rural producer. Cooperative advertizing texts were published in books and magazines, hung out in benches and shops, in places of a mass congestion of consumers and shareholders.

In practice in cultural and educational work of cooperation the oral cooperative propaganda and spectacular, evident promotion presented by performances, theatrical performances and demonstration of movies or slides by means of a projector “a magic lamp” was of great importance. In the 1920th cooperative promotion had to create a positive image of cooperation in the opinion of country and urban population, promote establishment and development of barter between the city and the village, to strengthening of communication of agriculture with the industry, to promote strengthening of a financial position of the cooperative organizations.

Keywords: advertizing, cooperation, Soviet promotion cultural and educational activity of cooperation.


History of Russian regions

Druzyaka A.V. (Blagoveshchensk). Notarial System in the Russian empire Amur River Region: Formation and Activities (1897–1917)………. 133

It was reserched the historical conditions and the procedure for the formation of notaries in the Amur General­Government in 1897–1917, the peculiarities of implementation of this part of the justice reform in the Russian Far East. It have investigated the order of appointment, the professional level of applicants for positions of senior and junior notaries in the Far Eastern cities and towns, the motivation for these positions. It was traced the fate of the Russian notaries after 1917. Far Eastern notaries of the late XIX – early XX centuries played a vital role in the development of the region as a public tool of public legal regulation. The doors of the offices of the notary were open every capable person who need to legally testify in any civil legal act. The presence of the notary had stimulating importance for the development of legal civil turnover, business development, domestic and international trade. Russian notary was not just a person, identification of different legal acts. For representatives of different classes and social strata and different peoples who lived at that time on both sides of the Russian­Chinese border, it became a real personification of public authorities, the guarantor of legal protection and legitimacy of civil relations.

Keywords: notary, the Russian Far East, Amur General­Governor, justice reform.

Din Yu.I. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Failed Exile: Plans for Deportation of Koreans from the Sakhalin Region in the Post-War Geopolitical Context ………. 137

This article examines the little­known facts from the history of the Korean diaspora of the Sakhalin – failed deportation. In 1952, in connection with the announcement of the Sakhalin border security zone, the Council of Ministers of the USSR ordered the authorities of the Sakhalin to develop a project deportation of Koreans, but the regional authorities decided this project is feasible and is associated with considerable costs. They took the initiative to make an exception for Koreans. Documents containing information about this event introduced into scientific circulation at first, and their analysis not only highlights one of the pages of the history of the Sakhalin Korean community, but also help to shed light on the events that occurred in 1937 – the deportation of the Korean population of the Soviet Far East to Central Asia.

The author comes to the conclusion that the policy of the Soviet government towards Korean ethnic population varied depending on the geopolitical situation. The deportation of the Korean population from the Far East to Central Asia in 1937 was due to the presence of strategic enemy – Japan on the Far Eastern borders. In 1952, when similar question got against the Koreans in the Sakhalin, from the deportation of Koreans quite easily refused, arguing that the cost is unreasonable.

Keywords: deportation, Sakhalin, Koreans, forced resettlement, totalitarianism, Cold War.

Nikolenko A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Assistance to the Children Evacuated to Archangelsk and Vologda Regions during the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945………. 141

The article deals with the problem of evacuated children accommodated in Vologda and Archangelsk regions. For the first time ever, the author puts forward statistical data on the children evacuated to those regions during the Great Patriotic War, denoting the whole range of problems the local authorities had to encounter, i.e. accommodation, provision with food and clothes, study at schools, etc.  With tight economic situation in Archangelsk and Vologda regions in the background, organizational activity for dealing with complex social and economic problems carried out by the officials of all kinds is shown. The article pays great attention to the role of public organizations and local communities in life support of the evacuated children. The author described ways and methods of arrangement of life support of the evacuated children.

The article not only depicts positive experience, but also highlights certain negative phenomena, e.g. indifferent and callous attitude to the children’s needs. For the first time ever, the article touches upon the issue of evacuated children staying in the Northwestern region during the Great Patriotic War.

The article is summarized by the conclusions that Archangelsk and Vologda regions, which found themselves in a tight economic situation during the early war and had to receive and accommodate dozens of thousands of children, met the challenges. Locally, a great work was performed for life support of the children who arrived, thus, once again, proving solidarity of front and rear in that hardship our country faced.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, evacuation of children, children’s establishments, defense of children, government authorities, Northwestern region.


History of International relations

Ablizin V.A. (Saratov). The Baltic Issue at Negotiations between the Soviet and German Representatives in September of 1939………. 145

In six last decades about diplomatic background of the Great Patriotic War the huge number of interesting works is written. Nevertheless its many plots still continue to remain a subject of the acute scientific discussions. Among such problems, also the Baltic question appears today. The complex of events, which, anyway, followed from this plot, served one of the reasons, which forced a Nazi top to accelerate preparation of attack on the Soviet Union. For this reason, the Baltic plot of the Soviet­German relations rose repeatedly and discussed by domestic and foreign researchers. But, despite the work done by historians, many questions today still remain not studied up to the end, in particular, as the matter at the Soviet­German September negotiations was discussed, what value was allocated for a problem in bilateral confidential protocols, what conclusions were drawn by the Soviet leaders for its decision and, at last, as such decisions depended on development of the relations with the German government at the beginning of bilateral cooperation. The presented article to a certain extent meets the lack, which is available in the matters.

Keywords: Vilno, limit of interests, confidential protocol, Baltic question, Soviet­German contacts.

Mekhdieva U.M. (Moscow). Tools for maintaining and strengthening the Russian-speaking space in the CIS countries (on the example of Azerbaijan) ………. 149

After the collapse of the USSR, in most of the newly independent states the Russian language ceased to be an official one. The number of Russian­speaking people has dramatically reduced. Nevertheless, the population in some former Soviet republics, in particular in Azerbaijan, continues speaking this language. Russian has retained its positions in the information field. It is taught at schools and at the universities. A student exchange program was initiated between Azerbaijan and Russia, and the Azerbaijani youth got an opportunity to study at the top­level universities of the Russian Federation. The leading Azerbaijani news agencies, papers and magazines use Russian as their main language. A large Russian community is still living in Azerbaijan. The Russians are the second largest minority in this state. All those factors contribute to the preservation of the Russian language on the territory of Azerbaijan.

The article analyzes the position of the Russian language in Azerbaijan and identifies the most effective tools for strengthening them in the other CIS countries. It reveals the process of expansion of the Russian language from Azerbaijan and investigates such aspects as the Russian language status, the use of Russian in education, media and culture, its influence on the development of humanitarian cooperation between Russia and Azerbaijan. It also pays attention to activities of the main educational and cultural centers promoting the maintenance of the Russian­speaking space in Azerbaijan: the Baku Slavic University,
Baku branch of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Information and Cultural Centre, Russian Book House, Theatre «ÜNS».

Keywords: Russia, Heydar Aliyev, All­Russian Azerbaijani Congress, Russian language, Azerbaijan, Russia, Russians in Azerbaijan, Near abroad.

Goldin V.I. (Arkhangelsk). Geopolitics and Foreign Relations in the Arctic Region, Modern Times and Prospects. Problems and Challenges for Russia………. 153

The article investigates current problems of geopolitics and foreign relations in the Arctic region. The factors and reasons determining increased role of Arctic region in the contemporary world are described. The situation around “partition” and “repartition” of the Arctic region, preparation of applications from the Arctic states (Canada, Denmark, etc.) to the UN Commission for the continental shelf boundaries is revealed. The status of the Russian applications to the Arctic continental shelf is characterized, e.g. filling the application for the Sea of Okhotsk and completion of preparation of the Great Russian Application. The latest documents (2013–2014) concerned with the arctic policy of the USA are listed and briefly described. Current Russian line of policy in the Arctic region and its basic documents, outcome of the meeting of the Security Council of the Russian Federation for the Arctic region in April of 2014 are reviewed. The state and prospects of development of the Northern Sea Route are characterized. The current situation in the relations between Russia and China, as well as their cooperation prospects in the Arctic region are considered.

The latest political events in Norway and Sweden are described; negative and positive aspects of the affairs in the European North and in the Barents Euro­Arctic region are reviewed. The situation associated with the development of the Russian oil and gas complex in the Arctic region as well as possible negative consequences resulted from the current sanctions implied by the western states are analyzed. A so called “energy revolution” in the USA as a possible means for implementation of the “geopolitical revolution” in the world, and its consequences for Russia is characterized. The current global political tendencies analyzed, it is shown how confrontation in the world tells on the current situation and prospects of the development of international relations in the Arctic region. Opportunities for implementation of some large international projects, e.g. of the Russian initiative for holding the International Polar Decade in 2015–2025 are assessed.

Keywords: geopolitics, foreign relations, Arctic region, cooperation, competition, Arctic Council, UN Commission for the continental shelf boundaries, Barents Euro­Arctic region.


History of culture

Golovin V.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Agrarian Dispute in a Pushkin’s Novella, Berestov and Muromsky, or Pushkin and Rostopchin………. 161

Underlying idea of the Pushkin’s novella “Baryshnia­krest’ianka” (An Amateur Peasant Girl) has been investigated fundamentally. The researchers marked the allusions with many precedent stories by W. Shakespeare, W. Scott, and a number of Russian sentimental narrations. At the same time, F.V. Rostopchin’s popular composition “Plough and Plow Written by a Nobleman of Steep” (Moscow, 1806) was not regarded as a source for paroemias, speculations, and acts of the story personages, Berestov and Muromsky. The article raises an issue, whether the reader interpreted the author’s and his personage Berestov’s assessment of agricultural experiments set up by his neighbor Muromsky in allusive connection with F.V. Rostopchin’s famous book. A number of convincing arguments enabled the author to state so. Research into indicative words and phrases Pushkin used to describe Muromsky (true Russian landlord, go through fortune, run rig, English garden, English approach to farming, spending all proceeds, new debts, and other) showed that Pushkin followed pamphlet and rhetoric style of the Rostopchin’s bookhe put into Berestov’s mouth. In the article, the author cited from the Rostopchin’s work, which correlate with the acts and views of the personages of the narration, almost verbal similarity of the same, rhetoric presentation bear clear evidence of the fact that the reader of the Pushkin’s time recognized “a book under the text”, that is, “Plough and Plow..” by Rostopchin. Combined with other reminiscences, this creates special perception of the underlying story of the novel.

Keywords: A.S. Pushkin, F.V. Rostopchin, “Baryshnia­krest’ianka” (An Amateur Peasant Girl), “Plough and Plow”, English farming, farmer, plough, plow, underlying story, reader.

Pavlova O.K. (Saint-Petersburg). Beggary in Tsarist Russia and Abroad, History of the Problem and Control over It………. 165

The paper is devoted to the history of beggary in Russia and abroad. The problem is considered in historical process since the Middle Ages to the middle 19th century. Experience offered by European countries to solve the beggary problems is reviewed. Examples of public attitude towards beggary are given, legislative policy pursued by English and French governments against spread of begging in the period of classic Middle Ages described.

The article pays special attention to the history of evolution of beggary in Russia, as well as to the causes giving rise to it in various historical periods. Gradual forming of loyal attitude to beggary by efforts of the church and government is tracked. The first Romanovs’ legislative policy, which laid the foundation to control over beggary, establishment of mercy and charity, is shown. Considerable contribution made by Peter the Great and Katherine the Great to organization of state policy concerning beggary is mentioned, which marked the beginning of legislative support of the problem and public charity in Russia, and of establishment of public charity departments under Katherine the Great. Their activity is evaluated based on scientists and public figures’ opinions.

Numerous legislative instruments are considered, on the one hand, testifying to close attention to the problem paid by the government authorities, on the other hand, speaking for inefficiency of the measures taken. Control of beggary in the capital was of special concern of the monarchs, accompanied with particular decrees.

The line of policy the sovereigns pursued towards beggary in the late 18th through early 19th centuries is shown, exemplified by establishment of institutions such as Empress Maria’s Department and Military Orphan House designed to solve social problems.

State and public charity was an integral part of the policy conducted by Alexander I, with great attention paid to private charitable activity. His brother and successor Nikolas I continued developing the policy of mercy, however, more attention was paid to identification of the reasons of beggary, classification of beggars, and targeted aid. The Committee for Investigation of Beggars and Searching Methods for Eradication of Beggary in Saint Petersburg was established. It was planned to share the acquired experience with other governorates.

Based on the research and analysis performed, the author arrives at the conclusions of positive experience of control of beggary, and makes evident deficiencies not only in the state policy, but also in the historically developed mindset forming loyal attitude towards beggary.

Keywords: history of evolution of beggary, causes giving rise to beggary, experience of control of beggary in Russia and European countries, Church, state policy, legislation, public mercy, private charity.


History of science and technology

Budzyka G.A. (Kiev, Ukraine). History of Establishment and Operation of the National Antarctic Scientific Center in Ukraine………. 171

Basic prerequisites of creation and core activities of NASC are mentioned, its structure and key objectives. NASC is considered to be the sponsor of all Antarctic expeditions that took place from year 1996. Together with the scientists of institutes of The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and other higher education institutes, NASC develops different programs that are used by Ukrainian Antarctic institutes. NASC represents Ukraine as the Antarctic state in the international scientific community.

In year, 1993 on the resolution general committee of The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine was created AntarcticResearchCenter as the working agency of Interagency Antarctic Committee. AntarcticResearchCenter was responsible for planning, organization and realization of Antarctic expeditions. After signing of the Intergovernmental agreement on devolution of Antarctic station “Faraday” in Ukraine to Great Britain, Center became also responsible for group of winterers formation and further livelihoods. In year, 1996 Antarctic Research Center of The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine was reorganized into Stage Research and Development Company “Ukrainian Antarctic center” – “Ukrantarctica” of the national agency of sea research and technologies, was subordinated to Ministry of Science and Technology of Ukraine and starting from year 1999 to Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. In year, 2004 by decree of the President of Ukraine it was given the status of NationalScientificCenter. Currently Center is carrying on an investigation as NationalAntarcticScientificCenter of the State agency of science, innovation and informational support of Ukraine.

For the 18­year history of researching by NationalScientificCenter “Academic Vernadsky”, increased the number of investigation types, grew the scientific cooperation between Ukraine and other countries that conduct their researches in the Antarctica. In spite of some difficulties that appeared with researches organization, NASC has become the national operator of Ukraine in the Antarctic for more than 20 years and promotes increasing of research and technology level of State research programs accomplishment in the Antarctic.

Keywords: National Antarctic Scientific Centre of Ukraine, Antarctic Region, Vernadsky Antarctic Station, scientific researches, Program.



Goldina E.V. (Izhevsk). Bead Necklaces in Male Graves of the Tarasov Burial Ground of the 1st–5th centuries on the MiddleKamaRiver………. 174

The theme of this article is the analysis of placement of beads and marbles in male burials of the unique monument of the Middle Kama region– the Tarasovo burial ground of the I–V centuries. The finds are divided into beads and marbles and is based on diameter of a product: beads mostly have diameter of 5 and less mm, marbles – more than 5 mm. Beads and the marbles are quite frequent finds in the male burials. Large beads, in the most cases, glass beads were worn on a neck or placed in the head of the dead, performing the function of amulets. The beads were also found within gift sets, i.e. sets of jewelery and household items which were usually packed into a birch­bark box and were put in the grave as a gift to the dead person. In addition, large beads were used in the composition of the sword belts, which were used to carry knives or swords. They could be not only decoration of the weapons in the form thong suspensions, but may also function as a retainer of the sheath or stop motion sword on sword belt. Most likely, swords with chalcedony disks and large beads belonged to well armed warriors. Equipment like this was found in Prikamye dating the IV–V centuries BC, it came from the South­Western regions of Eurasia.

Keywords: The Middle Kama region, male burials, beads, marbles, amulets, thongs, scabbard fixator.


Military history

Ippolitov G.M. (Samara), Poltorak S.N. (Saint-Petersburg). Military Construction in the SovietState in the 1920s: Some Aspects of a Multifaceted Scientific Problem………. 178

The article reviews some aspects of the problem of military construction in the Soviet Russia / USSR in the 1920s. It is based upon extensive and diverse sources containing, inter alia, archival documents and materials. For the problem to be thoroughly examined, great many of historiographical sources have been analyzed. The analysis rests upon the principle of careful, correct, yet critical attitude towards historiographical developments of the predecessors. Given that construction of the Armed Forces is an integral part of military construction within state construction, the authors considered a number of aspects of the problem of construction of the Red Army. Focus is brought to such an important aspect of the problem under consideration as transition of the Red Army in the post­war period (the late November of 1920) to a peacetime posture in 1921–1923. That time became a sort of introduction to the military reform in the USSR implemented in 1924–1928. Between those two periods, a close dialectical unity can be traced. The article emphasizes the leading role of the ruling Communist party of Bolsheviks in the military construction activities. The authors reason from the fact that that position was a historical reality formed during the battle Civil war. At the same time, despite the leading role of the Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks in the military construction in the Soviet state, the researchers did not consider an important aspect such as party and political activity in the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army. It was one of the forms of coordination of the Red Army by the ruling Communist Party. Revelation of this problem would require an additional article due to its multifaceted nature.

Key words: military construction; construction of the Armed Forces; Soviet state; Soviet Russia; USSR, military reform; V.I. Lenin, L.D. Trotsky, M.V. Frunze, I.V. Stalin.


Historical characters

Koltochikhina A.A. (Moscow). The Russian intelligentsia in the female face: E.P. Letkova­Sultanova and her social and political views………. 190

The article tells about the life, social, political, spiritual and moral views of the writer E.P. Letkova­Sultanova, who was one of the representatives of the Russian intelligentsia of the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The author analyzes the formation, development and subsequent expression of social and political views of E.P. Letkova­Sultanova. The article touches upon the Narodizm movement, which had spread in Russia in the late 1870s, and the impact on E.P Letkova­Sultanova personality of famous Russian journalist, sociologist, literary critic and theorist of Narodizm – N.K. Mikhailovsky. The struggle of women for higher education, the functioning and development of the Higher Women’s Courses, different opinions of educated Russian society about “women’s issue” and, in particular, about the question of higher education for women are illustrated as part of the social and political views of E.P. Letkova­Sultanova. The article also examines the literary activity of E.P. Letkova­Sultanova and illustrates the issues that Letkova­Sultanova raised in the pages of his literary work to inform the essence of many social evils and problems to the masses. The literary life of Russia in the second half of XIX – early XX centuries, the literary movement which had developed in the pages of periodicals are illustrated as part of the literary activity of E.P. Letkova­Sultanova. The author of this article have emphasized on importance of literature for the spiritual development of Russian society at the time and the especial role of literature for elaboration of social and political ideal. Through identity of E.P. Letkova­Sultanova the author shows the entering of Russian women in circles of intellectuals and, in particular, in the literary milieu, which was considered as a purely male sphere of activity for a long time. The author illustrates the importance of women and their active participation for the general good of his country.

Keywords: Ekaterina Pavlovna Letkova­Sultanova, the intelligentsia, the women’s movement, Narodism, literary movement.



Avrus A.I. (Saratov). On Ethical Norms, Scientific Publications, and Theses………. 196

The article raises the problem of scientific ethics in historical research. Attention is drawn to the fact that some authors in their publications show unfamiliarity with historiography of the affected problem or completely ignore it. This leads to a repetition of well­known truths and gross of factual errors.

It is noted that in recent years the tendency to plagiarism has expanded, which is often roughly masked by inserting two or three words or changing the word order in the text/ This is compounded by the fact that a lot of dissertation texts, scientific monographs and articles are available in the public domain on the Internet, which facilitates the plagiarist’s task.

Unfortunately, authors, not only in competent in history but simply illiterate, defend their doctoral dissertations, apparently with the help of the same illiterate opponents and referees.

A certain part of historians consider it possible to move from correct discussion to rough criticism of their opponents, not willing to admit their own mistakes of the same kind.

It is unacceptable that some historical dissertation councils take doctoral dissertations prepared in 2–3 years by people without history education and employed outside of science and education.

The author makes his own suggestions to overcome the marked violations of ethical standards.

Keywords: ethical standards, historiography, plagiarism, Correctness, Pseudo­history, monograph, article, dissertation, dissertation council, literacy.

Nazarenko K.B., Kozhemyakin A.O., Aranovich A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Revisiting the Issue of the Essence of Applied and Fundamental Historical Studies………. 201

The article raises the issue of the necessity of differentiation between fundamental scientific and applied historical studies. The authors state that until now, the concept of applied scientific historical studies has existed primarily as subordinate, or, as frequently named, special historical subjects. The authors outlined the signs of applied historical studies, namely, commitment to solution of a particular practical problem; limited periods, resources, width and depth of the research topic; schematic nature (i.e. simplification); need for particular results; carrying out investigations according to standard techniques within existing concepts; structured nature of the results of investigations; optional introduction into scientific use of new sources, generalizations, or concepts; and activity at the intersection of applied studies within other sciences, or at the intersection of crafts.

Keywords: history, fundamental historical studies, applied historical studies, subordinate (special) historical subjects, signs.

Kobakhidze E.I. (Vladikavkaz). Administrative Dimension of Late Imperial “Russification” (the Central Caucasus’ Experience)………. 206

As it follows from the contemporary historiography, the problem of relationships between the center and the outlaying regions of the Russian state, which formed over the late imperial period, has acquired particular acuteness in modern studies. Both historically determined ethno­cultural and socio­political mosaicity of Russia and nature of the Russian statehood defined priorities of its national policy, aimed at preserving unity and integrity of the country. For the different regions of Empire their own administrative strategy was elaborated, but perhaps the most important dominant of St.­Petersburg’s integrative policy was an orientation toward an integration of heterogeneous population into unified imperial space – territory­administrative, socio­political, and to some extend economic. An ideological basis for forming the imperial universe was the idea of “Russification”. To a large extent the decision of tasks of “Russification” was given to the administrative practice, aimed at re­organizing of local social structures and standardizing of diversity of organizational forms of local self­government. The administrative practices and mechanisms exactly constituted social space empire­wide, increasing the already dominant étatist component in the Russian state, and providing the basic channels of state influence on society and its key institutions.

Keywords: Russian Empire, “Russification”, state administrative system, administrative unification, Central Caucasus, rural society.


Reviews of scientific publications

Gryniov A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Review of the Fundamental Album of Photos “A Russian American Photographer in Tlingit Country: Vincent Soboleff in Alaska” edited by S. Kan………. 215

The review analyzes the contents of specific historical source: the solid album “A Russian American Photographer in Tlingit Country. Vincent Soboleff in Alaska” which was published by American scholar Dr. S.A. Kan. The old photographs made by Vincent Soboleff (Vikentii Sobolev) help for us to imagine very well the specific “spirit” of that epoch, when the Tlingit Indian society was in stage of the transformation between old tradition culture to modern American one. These unique photographs help to present the daily life of a small Alaskan settlement in the end of 19th century and in the first two decades of new 20th century.

Keywords: Tlingit Indians, Alaska, tradition indigenous culture, Russian Orthodox church, photography.

Lebedev Yu.M. (Saint-Petersburg). Time of Disinformation………. 217

The review of Collie Rupert’s book «The Siege of Leningrad» was written by the military interpreter, the member of  St. Petersburg Writers’ Union, Yuri Lebedev.

The direction of his research is the study of foreign archives relating to the history of fighting near Leningrad. Y.M. Lebedev is the author of «On both sides of the blockade ring» (2005), «Leningrad» blitzkrieg» (2011), «The Siege Solitaire» (2014).

The book under review was released in edition of 5000 copies by the publishing house «Colibri» this year. In addition, the book can be downloaded in electronic form on many sites. The book was published in the series ‘ History in an hour’.

The idea of the publication of such non­fiction texts is not bad, in general. Speed of the century, internetization of younger generation require some lapidary sources, reading which does not take much time.

«Pocket book» format is also suitable for reading on the go. Against the background of many serious and thorough researches such books not only have the right to exist, but are also necessary for the promotion of knowledge.

But … The book is replete with so many factual errors relating to the dates and details of ordinary citizens’ blockade life that questions both to the publisher and to the interpreter appear.

Yuri Lebedev is asking: «Are there no any Russian researchers who would write a short book about the blockade without these egregious errors of the Western author? Who is interested in replication of such an illiterate coverage of the blockade? Does the possibility of making money on such an interesting idea make close eyes on the quality of published production?»

Are there no any «Perelmans» in vast Russia and five million St. Petersburg?

Keywords: misinformation, review, book, blockade, Leningrad, story hour, Еnglish historian Rupert Collie.

Petrov A.Yu. (Moscow). Review of the Book by M.A. Beznin, T.M. Dimoni “Agrarian Structure of Russia in the 1930–1980s ………. 220

The book explores the development of agriculture in Russian Federation at the very interesting and controversial period, 1930th ­ 1980th . The book highlights recent approaches, publications, on the different accepts of agricultural development in a various Russian regions. The authors paid special attention on the archival materials. The authors – well known scholars in the field of the history of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. They presented an approach that there was in fact the development the State Capitalism in the studied period. They understand that this phenomena eventually led to the social revolution. The authors presented the new terms that described the social infrastructure in the Russian village: managers, intellectuals and the working class elite. Those changes led to antagonistic relations in the Russian village and in the class protest.

The structure of the book consists of the two big parts. The first part is devoted to the analysis of economic processes in the Russian agriculture and the second one – to the social structure and social relations in Russian society. The vast spectrum of subjects had been discussed from the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary points of view.

The authors prepared a very serious data of the sources, and additional materials that is available on the net on their corporative resources, following the link (http://beznin­dimoni.vologda­uni.ru).

Keywords: history of Russia, capitalization, a Russian village, collective and state farms, service, maintenance, social classes

Alexeev S.L., Fyodorov P.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Review of the Book by V.I. Goldin “Exotics of Our Planet. Sketches of Country Study and Foreign Relations, Observations, Impressions, Speculations”………. 223

The review provides an overview of the new book by Professor Vladislav I. Goldin devoted to cross­cultural issues. The book contains essays that combine travel notes and information about the different aspects of the life of various countries and regions countries and regions of the Arctic, Asia, Latin America, Africa, Polynesia. Work features a great number of personal observations and reflections of the author. The characteristic nature, ethnic and demographic characteristics of each country, its socio­economic system, the sights, city architecture. The author is interested a lot of small things, including public transport, hotel services, especially tourism, etc. Sketch for each country accompanied by a conceptual overview of its history. Characterized by the current political situation. The book is written at the intersection of various scientific genres – monographic study notes traveler, essays, reference manual and non­fiction works. The publication will be useful to students as an additional reading on the course socio­economic geography.

Keywords: international relations, the Arctic, Africa, Latin America, Asia, Polynesia, tourism, travel, Russian World, Vladislav I. Goldin.

Pogodin S.N. (Saint-Petersburg). Reassessing double standards………. 226

This review of Dmitry Lanko’s volume “Influence of Regional Approach on Foreign Policy: Case Study of Russia and the U.S.A. in 2000–2008” concludes that the manuscript is very topical, despite it focuses on Russian–U.S.A. relations in the first decade of the 21st century. It introduces the concept of “regional approach”, which means, in Lanko’s view, application of double standards to countries belonging to different regions of the world. In particular, the manuscript concludes, President George W. Bush of the U.S.A. accepted risky uncalculated decisions, when dealing with European countries, but suggested that any decision concerning Middle Eastern countries was subject to double calculations, because, in his words, “stakes are high” there. Similarly, President Vladimir Putin of Russia underestimated prospects of cooperation with Middle Eastern countries, because he thought that, unlike in Europe, in the Middle East calls for cooperation are rarely reciprocated, but are often viewed as sign of weakness and invitation to exploit. The definition of a region, used in the manuscript, is wide: it suggests that any group of countries is a region, when it is viewed as such from outside, and when different standards apply to evaluation of similar actions of countries viewed as belonging to that region and to other regions. The current regional composition of the world is not final, but borders of existing regions will change, some regions will disappear, some will emerge, and double standards will apply to countries separated by new regional borders in the future.

Keywords: international relations, double standards, foreign policy, Russia, U.S.A., Vladimir Putin, George W. Bush, region, regional approach.


Scientific conferences were held

Smirnov V.G. (Saint Petersburg). II International Congress of the Eurasian Sea History………. 228



Lobacheva G.V., Kostyaev E.V. (Saratov). To the 85th Anniversary of A.I. Avrus………. 229


 In memory of the colleague

Eroshkina O.N. (Saint-Petersburg). To the memory of V.S. Volkhov………. 231