Klio #10 (106) 2015

Theoretical issues

Kuklin G.A. (Saint Petersburg). Structure of the reflexive analysis in the history of sociology………. 9

The article proposes a model of the development of the discursive structure of reflexive analysis in the history of social science. Reflexive analysis is defined as a wide complex of discourses, in a sense the center of which is idea of the possibilities of sociology and sociologists to explore ourselves and productive using such possibilities in the same social analysis. The discursive complex of the reflexive analysis consists of three basic traditions of social thought: the tradition of metasociology, the tradition of sociological reflexivity, the tradition of critical analysis. The article examines the possibilities of systematization of a reflexive analysis as a structure of various discourses, connected by common problems. It considers the functional features in the structure of reflexive analysis and contribution, in terms of expansion and deepening of the common problems of reflexive analysis, of each of the three major discursive traditions. Special attention is paid to the modern stage of development of reflexive analysis.

Keywords: sociology, discursive tradition, reflexive analysis, metasociology, metatheory, metalanguage, sociological reflexivity, reflection, critical analysis.


Minnikova T.N. (Tosno). Rhythms of social and cultural transformations in the era of global formation of societies of type «modernity»………. 14

The author of this article proposes considering the historical process as a purposeful process. He uses in his theoretical constructions ideas of global evolutionism and new educational models developed by evolutionary biology. Within the diatropic cognitive model and based on the available historical material, author attempts making an appropriate table of the refrans. Table’s objective function (meron) he uses the idea: «transition of a traditional society to a “modernity” society». Analyzing the general course of world history (based on the table of the refrans), the author manages to make certain conclusions about the current and future state of human civilization in various regions of the planet.

Keywords: dia-net, refran, meron, civilizational systems, nucleus, periphery, barbarization, archaic national myth.


Source studies

Eroshkina O.N. (Peterhof). Diaries of Olga Feodorovna Bergholz as an evidence of the history of the formation of the new Soviet intelligentsia………. 24

The article analyzes an important historical source such as diaries. They belong to well-known Soviet poet Olga Feodorovna Bergholz. The purpose of studying was to determine objectively the main features of the formation of the new Soviet intelligentsia based on the certain example. A great attention was paid to the formation process of the socio-political views of O.F. Bergholz. Time of her personal and professional development coincided with the period of creation and approval of the Soviet social system. Orientation of the Soviet political leaders to establish a society of social justice in the country got the sincere support of many young and talented people. This is fully reflected in the diaries of Olga Bergholz. However, deviations and deformations made by the authorities in the process of practical implementation of planned targets, had a negative influence on social and political attitudes of young representatives of the Soviet intelligentsia. Large-scale political repressions of the 1930s led to their further disappointment of the Soviet political system and finishing the social activity. Materials of the diaries of O.F. Bergolz allowed seeing the process of transformation of world view and social and political views of the new Soviet intelligentsia in conditions of the totalitarian regime in the USSR.

Keywords: history of intelligentsia, personal documents, diary, O.F. Bergholz, political mood, the totalitarian regime, repressions, compromise, creativity, social deformation.

Goloseyeva A.A. (Moscow). Socio-political position of the Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs) during the Second World War (based on the emigrant press in the United States of America)………. 33

The article analyzes the contents of the Socialist Revolutionaries journal «Za svobodu», published in New York in 1941–1948, and «The New Review», which appeared in 1942 and was similar in ideology to the SRs. Main attention is paid to the consideration of how the events of the Second World War, foreign and domestic policies of the Soviet Union during World War II and the early post-war years were reflected on the pages of these journals. It is shown that despite the support of the heroic struggle of the Soviet people against Nazi invaders, the SRs authors, published in both journals, continued to be critical of the activities of Stalin and the Bolshevik government, and this criticism intensified with the realizing that the hopes for democratic change in the USSR had been running out. The author made conclusions about the role played by both journals in rallying the anti-fascist forces in the SR emigration during the Second World War, and about the preserving in the ranks of the Socialist Revolutionaries commitment to the ideals of democracy and socialism.

Keywords: political emigration, Socialist Revolutionary Party, Socialist Revolutionaries in exile, «Za svobodu» journal, «The New Review» journal, the Second World War, socialism, post-war world.

Lukashevich A.A. (Kirovohrad, Ukraine). The phenomenon of the digital heritage as a reason of rethinking the notion «historical source»………. 41

Theoretical problems of historical investigation – some of the most debatable themes of modern knowledge. The article paid an attention on the one of these-problems connected with the definition of notion «historical source». It has specific features of modern historical source – digital heritage, of actuality of nonclassical paradigm and spreading the constructivist approaches, that has caused relativism in knowledge of the past. The author’s purpose was to clarify possible positions on a number of methodological approaches to estimating the historical source and ways of its studying. It is necessary to take into account the subject-object relations as a reason of origin and existence of historical source, as well as axiological, scientific, goal-oriented factors of historian. The theory of hermeneutics experience of H.-G Gadamer plays the role in clarifying the questions of theoretical source criticisms. The article supported the point of view that the historical source is a dynamic heritage of the past. That’s why it cannot be a full measure of exploring the truth in historical knowledge.

Keywords: modern nonclassical paradigm, notion «historical source», digital heritage, philosophic hermeneutics, subject-object relations, interpretation, subjectivity, objectivity.



Sokolov R.A., Spiridonova E.K. (Saint Petersburg). «Spirit and letter» of I. P. Mordvinov: fiction works published by Alexander Nevsky Sobriety Society………. 46

The article considers the literary works of Tikhvin historian and teacher I.P. Mordvinov issued by Alexander Nevsky Sobriety Society. Previously it has been neglected in the works of Russian historians. However, the relevance of the researching I. P. Mordvinov’s fiction works is obvious. They allow characterizing both the educational activities of this writer and the Russian largest sobriety organization which had been arranging the large circulation of sobriety literature and had a wide circle of readers in different cities of the country. In addition, the stories told by I.P. Mordvinov are ones of reflections of that time in which he lived. Therefore, this article has examined in detail not only the plots of his most popular works, but also their style of narration, as well as their place in the general historical context of Russian literature at the turn of XIX–XX centuries. The authors make the conclusions about the originality of I. P. Mordvinov’s fiction works and its essential role in Alexander Nevsky Sobriety Society’s edifying propaganda.

Keywords: I. P. Mordvinov, Alexander Nevsky Sobriety Society, sober literature, soberness, fiction works, sober education.

Yakimov V.A. (Saint Petersburg). The historiography of the study of the revival process of the Cossacks in the late XX–early XXI centuries………. 51

This work is dedicated to the historiographical analysis of scientific works, articles and periodicals, one way or another dedicated to the revival process of the Russian Cossacks. The author considered the main work, published in the period of 1990–2013, scientific publications of sociologists, anthropologists and historians, as well as newspapers and journals produced by the Cossack public organizations. The basic directions of scientific analysis of such a unique phenomenon as a revival process of the Cossacks and the main political and ideological directions of Cossack’s social thought were revealed. In addition, the author discusses the main juridical acts published during the 1990–2000 that determined the legal status of Cossack organizations in the Russian Federation. At the end of the article it’s noted that the main feature of the analysis of the domestic scientific literature in the period of the revival process of the Cossacks is that this problem limited only by the analysis of the revival process of the Cossacks in Southern Russia: in Rostov region, Krasnodar, North Caucasus. At the same time the revival process in the «non-Cossack» regions (in particular in the North-west) remains poorly researched.

Keywords: historiography, scientific works, articles, periodicals, Cossacks, revival process, South of Russia, non-Cossack regions.


General history

Boldyreva I.I. (Voronezh). The portraits of the VII century Anglo-Saxon Abbesses in the Venerable Bede’s «the Ecclesiastical History of the English People»………. 56

The article deals with specific features of abbesses’ representation in Bede’s «the Ecclesiastical History of the English People». Despite the fact that in his famous book Bede does not pay much attention to Anglo-Saxon nuns, his portraits of the abbesses as exemplified by Sts. Hild of Whitby, Aethelthryth of Ely and Aethelburgh of Barking prove that he has recognized the important role played by monastic women in the process of the Anglo-SaxonChurch formation. These images reflect biographies of real historical figures with their individual features as well as the ideas of the exemplary mother-superior in the Anglo-Saxon clerical circles. In his work the Venerable Bede depicts women, whose monastic experience incamated different behaviour patterns (virginal and ascetic abbess, abbess-advisor and abbess-careful mother), highly estimated in the clerical culture in England of the early VIII century.

Keywords: the Venerable Bede, Anglo-Saxon monasticism, medieval abbesses, the Ecclesiastical history of the English people, Aethelthryth of Ely, Hild of Whitby, Aethelburgh of Barking, hagiography, medieval literary culture.


Spiridonova E.K. (Saint Petersburg). The expedition of V.M. Severgin to Finland (1804) based on his publications and reports and the protocols of the Conference of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences………. 60

The article considers the details of mineralogical expedition of V. M. Severgin to the Russian part of Finland which was organized by the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences in 1804. Based on the published works of V.M. Severgin and also the originals of his reports and the protocols of the Conference of the Academy there are investigated purpose, targets, course and results of this expedition are investigated. The article also shows the expedition in the overall context of the academic problems of the early XIX century. The author examines the expedition considering its practical significance, the possibility of using its results in the industry of the country at that time. This is an actual issue considering the interaction between the Academy of Sciences and the authorities and implementation of government orders to study the resources of the Russian Empire. V.M. Severgin successfully implemented projects of the Academy. During the expedition in 1804 he made a description of Finland from geognosy’s, oryctography’s and mineralogy’s points of view, brought valuable mineral specimens, published the results of the expedition in the «Review of the Russian Finland».

Keywords: V.M. Severgin, Finland, Karelia, mineralogy, geognosy, oryctography, expeditions, Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences, protocols, reports.

Emelyanova E.N. (Kolomna). Cancelled revolution of 1923 inGermany………. 66

The article analyzes the events of 1923 inGermany and the role of the Comintern in these events. Particular attention is paid to the geopolitical aspect of the problem. Attempts of Comintern’s leadership to support the German Left forces’ intention of getting the power are analyzed in the article. The political crisis of 1923 and actions of the German Communist Party in this are in the centre of the study. Firstly, the German Communist Party wanted to get the power through a coalition government with the Left Social Democracy Party, but then through the armed uprising. The author analyzes the opposition side in the Comintern and the RCP (b) on the strategy and tactics issues of the German Communist Party and providing the German Communist Party with foreign support from the international labor movement. Disputes related on the allies of the Communists in the political struggle are analyzed in the article as well. The author concludes that, de-spite the importance of the German revolution in strengthening the geopolitical positions of the Bolsheviks, the national interests of Soviet Russia turned to become more important for the RCP (b). Revolutionary presentation in Germany did not take place because it could cause a new war against the Soviet Union.

Keywords: Germany, revolution, Russia, Comintern, parties, foreign policy, geopolitics, war, peace.


Sadykhova A.A. (Poznan, Poland). Muslims neophytes in Europe: Murad Wilfried Hofmann………. 71

This article is dedicated to the analysis of a number of scientific and journalistic works by Murad Wilfried Hofmann (born. 1931). He is one of the famous Europeans who converted to Islam in 1980. However, this shocking act and public condemnation did not prevent him to make a brilliant career as a diplomat and scholar. Murad Hofmann served as Ambassador of Germany in the Middle East for a long time; eventually defended his dissertation and received the Degree of Doctor of Law.

Though M. Hofmann published numerous works about Islam and Muslims, the majority of his works have little scientific value, because they have well-known facts and they are very far from real scientific research.

Thus, it can be concluded that social and political activities as well as creative works by Murad Hofmann confirm the thesis of medieval and modern scholars that overwhelming majority of Muslim neophytes become militant Muslims. Thus, Hofmann’s ideas cannot have a positive impact on the ethno-religious relations in Europe because they are utopian and seem to be hardly realized.

Keywords: Murad Wilfried Hofmann, Muslim neophyte, Islam, conversion to Islam, Islam in Western Europe, Islamic studies, harmonization of ethno-religious relations.


History of Russia

Ruzhentsev S.E. (Voronezh). Correlation of traditions and innovations in the ideology of the Russian society………. 76

The article is dedicated to the problem of correlation of traditions and innovations in the ideology of the modern Russian society. The author concludes that the tendency of creating innovations in postmodern society destroys its moral system, being accompanied by the formation of double standards and even greater division of society connected with different values. In case of the absence of a moral basis it is impossible to provide the harmony in social relations. The role of traditions system as one of the form of rational maintaining moral self-consciousness of individuals and society as a whole, in any case cannot be underestimated.

Keywords: traditions, innovations, ideology, society.


History of Russian regions

Kortunov A.I. (Ufa). Organization process of equestrian Cossack army in Ufa and population dynamics of the Ufa Cossacks in the second half of the XVII–the middle of the XVIII centuries………. 82

The article shows the history of the Ufa Cossacks of the second half of the XVII–the middle of the XVIII centuries. Some of the little-known pages of history of the Ural region are issues related to Ufa Cossacks. Until now there are disputes in the scientific community about the period of Ufa fortress establishment and beginning of Ufa Cossacks serving. According to the sources, equestrian Cossacks have appeared in Ufa only in the 1660s. The reason of it was a large Bashkir rebellion (1662–1664), where was appeared a problem of lack of equestrian guard serving people in Bashkortostan. Version told about Cossack serving people in Ufa before 1664 was not proved. During over a one hundred years the number of the Ufa Cossacks was about from one hundred and fifty to four hundred people.

Keywords: Cossacks, Orenburg Cossack Army, Ufa equestrian Cossack army, Ufa, numerical strength.

Urusov A.A. (Nalchik). The political situation in the Central Caucasus on the eve of the Kabardian campaign of Shamil in April, 1846………. 88

The article examines the political situation in the Central Caucasus on the eve of the Kabardian campaign of the imam Shamil in April, 1846. The analysis of this problem allows creating the most detailed image of that military-political situation which developed in the region by the beginning of the 40th of the XIX century, and also gives the possibility to estimate the dynamics and features of the ethnodemographic processes in the region and their influence on results of the campaign in general. There is noted that it is possible to divide this event to preparatory, active and final stages. There are described activities of the Russian authorities directed on strengthening of positions in the region as one of the factors which predetermined the main results of this Shamil campaign. The article finds out the military-political situation on contiguous territories with the Kabarda, in the first half of the 40th of the XIX century. One the one hand, it was characterized by active military operations in the east part of the Caucasus, propaganda of the People’s Liberation Movement and some attempts of highlanders uniting in the whole army in the Western Caucasus, on the other hand – actions of the Russian authorities for stabilizing the military-political situation on the territories included in the Empire structure. Article focuses on that the situation in this region was quite peaceful at this time and that gave a chance partly to strengthen positions of the Russian army in this subregion of the Caucasus. Author concludes that the Anti-Russian activities of the armed highlander groups weren’t stopped. Besides, this situation is characterized also by mass migrations of the Kabardians to the territory of the Western Circassia and the Chechnya, reduction of their ethnic territory, by escalation of the land question, etc. However all of this didn’t influence on the arrangement of the parties priorities in the region as well as war reslts in general.

Keywords: Central Caucasus, Kabarda, Caucasian War, imam Shamil, Kabardians, abrechestvo, migration, ethnic territory.

Barinov D.A. (Saint Petersburg). Students’ colonies of the St. PetersburgUniversity in the time of the underground work (1884–1917)………. 93

The article is dedicated to the history of colonies of the St. PetersburgUniversity at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries. In spite of the governmental restrictions inflicted upon the student organizations colonies used to be the most numerous and representative associations united not only capital university’s students but other high schools’ too. Colonies significantly influenced on the student movement in the Russian Empire, participating in the most remarkable protest actions of that period. This article successively deals with, firstly, the specifics of structure and composition of colonies; secondly, colonies’ economic activities aimed at providing poor students with financial means; thirdly, socio-political activities of colonies, their connections with radical and ideological organizations (D. Blagoev’s Party of Russian Social Democracy, «Terrorist Fraction of the People’s Will», RSDLP, etc.).

Keywords: colonies, history of higher school, St. PetersburgUniversity, Student movement, students.

Rykov A.V. (Breitovo, Yaroslavl region). Implementation of Decree on the Separation of Church and State on the territory of present Rybinsk diocese, 1917–1919………. 101

This article describes historical events of the Russian Orthodox Church life. Their starting point was the Revolution of 1917. Shortly after the Bolsheviks had captured power a new government was decidedly engaged in the ousting the Church from all spheres of public life. From this moment the relations between Church and State began to be managed by soon published Decree on the Separation of Church and State. The author shows the implementation process of Decree on the territory of present Rybinsk diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. The developing process is presented in chronological order. There are analyzed administrative methods and stages of implementation of Decree used the Soviet government. The article describes the changed situation of the Russian Orthodox Church. It shows what kind of obstacles the new government faced in the implementation process of the regulations of Decree. The article provided the statistical data based on results of work of Rybinsk Department of Cults in the first two years. Also it shows the clergy attitude to the changes implemented by Soviet authorities.

Keywords: Rybinsk diocese, Decree on the Separation of Church and State, Church and Revolution, Russian Orthodox Church, Soviet authorities.

Roshchevskaya L.P., Brovina A.A. (Syktyvkar). Project of encyclopedia creation of the Komi Autonomous Region in 1930………. 107

The article studies prerequisites and conditions of the «Komi Soviet Ency-clopedia» creation in the 1930s and the editorial staff. There are characteristics of thematic sections, future biographical articles, book advertising in the article. There are shown attempts to expand the authors’ and editorial collectives and find publishing and typographical base.

A great interdisciplinary «Komi Soviet Encyclopedia» project was carried out by the representatives of the first generation of the Komi national intelligentsia. The researchers of the USSR Academy of Sciences played a significant role in the process of preparation of encyclopedia glossary. Realization of project was interrupted by political repressions which broke the scientific research of the Reublic.

Keywords: Komi Soviet Encyclopedia, Regional Studies, Komi Autonomous region, Komi national intelligentsia, Pechora brigade of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Polar Commission, political repressions.

Sharaevskaya A.V. (Komsomolsk, Ivanovo region). Cinefication of Ivanovo region: historical and statistical review of technical and financial activities of the city’s cinemas in 1934–1940………. 117

The article deals with the process of cinefication in the 1930s in Ivanovo region. 1930s – a time of «cultural revolution» and great changes in society. The cinema became an essential part of social life in that period. Film became a valuable instrument of influence on masses and propaganda tool. In addition, cinema brought not only benefits, but also good profit. This article shows different facts and statistics about the development of urban cinema in that period. There are made main conclusions about activities of the urban cinema for each year in the period of 1934–1940. The article for the first time introduced into scientific use information from the archives of Ivanovo region, as well as statistical material. The analysis of development of urban cinema revealed also defects of the local authorities work.

Keywords: Ivanovo region, 1934–1940, the «cultural revolution», «Ki-nopalace», Evalcontext, urban cinema, film screening, cinema theater, ticket prices, Seating capacity of cinemas, rental fees, using the cinema, profit, audience.

Danilov V.N. (Saratov). Socio-cultural changes in peasant society in Saratov province in the late XIX–early XX centuries………. 121

The end of the XIX–beginning of the XX centuries was a turning epoch in the life of the Russian rural population, when under the influence of accelerated industrial development and reforms in the country significant transformations took place in the peasant economy, which in turn led to changes in the spiritual and psychological aspects of the peasant life. The article examines the influence of the modernization process on socio-cultural changes that took place in the Russian peasantry at that period, their regional specifics in Saratov province. Thanks primarily to the efforts of the local zemstvo, there was a noticeable growth of literacy among many young rural residents, changing the overall attitude of peasants to education, health-care and agricultural innovations and cooperative culture was inculcated. It is noted that all this upholded breaking and displacing patriarchal antiquity and expanding the outlook of peasant. Those changes brought new features into peasantry psychology and they were in conflict with the traditional values of the peasant world.

Keywords: peasantry, the end of the XIX–beginning of the XX century, Saratov province, culture, education, health-care, veterinary.

Khvostova I.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). Features of social and professional support of handicraftsmen in Nizhny Novgorod in the context of social and economic policy of provincial district council in XIX–XX………. 126

The article analyzes the major directions of handicraft industry policy of district council in Nizhny Novgorod in the end of the XIX–beginning of the XX based on archival materials. These materials reveal main features of the whole complex of actions made by district council in organizational, financial, social and professional supporting a certain part of population in Nizhny Novgorod. The priority activities of that people were local non-agricultural crafts. There was a support made by district council in big centers of handicraft industry and it had a great influence on increasing level of handicraft’s development, expanding internal market and creating new international trade connections needed for subsequent sales of products made by people in Nizhy Novgorod in the beginning of XX. However one of the main innovative ideas of district council on this territory in that period of time was not so much the economical support of handicraft policy (which was prevalent in many other Russian regions) as social support of population which is given particular attention.

Keywords: district council, Nizhny Novgorod province, credits, rural industry, handicrafts, internal market, trading handicraft product, technological and artistic level of crafts.


History of International relations

Kösecik H. (Istanbul, Turkey). Some circumstances of the peace treaty conclusion between the Sublime Porte and the Russian Empire in 1724………. 131

The article discusses the issue of the most important result of the Caspian campaign of Peter the Great – the conclusion of a peace treaty in 1724 between the Sublime Porte and the Russian Empire. According to the treaty Turkey recognized all Russian acquisitions in the western part of the Caspian Sea and renounced all claims to Persia. During the 1720s of the XVIII century Persia endured internal crisis. As a result the state was very weakened. These circumstances demanded the change of Russian foreign policy line. The case is that the Ottoman Empire had very serious territorial claims in the Caucasian region. Russia understood the fact that acquiring of the Caucasian territories of Persia by the Ottoman Empire would lead to the significant strengthening of the last one. In case if such scenario had become a reality, it would create a huge danger for the Russian state security from the Southern direction. To prevent the development of such scenario, the Russian Empire decided to acquire the Caspian territories until the settlement of the internal political crisis in Persia.

The article has a historical character. Firstly, the author analyses the historical premises of the Caspian campaign of Peter the Great. Secondly, the author considers the characteristics of the Russian-Turkish relation during the historical period analyzed. She analyses the positions of the participants of the conflict, their territorial claims. Thirdly, the author considers the development of the historical events, developments of the military operations, the power balance in the region. She also analyses course of negotiations between Russia, Turkey and Persia.

Keywords: peace treaty, Caspian campaign, Sublime Porte, Russia, Peter the Great, Damad Ibrahim Pasha, Persia.


Kourdakova A.M. (Moscow). Disturbances in Poland in 1861 through the dispatches of Spanish diplomats………. 136

Events of 1861 inWarsaw and other cities of the PolishKingdom – important elements in the development process of liberation movement in this region, traditionally fade on the background of tragic Uprising of 1863. The studying the essence and significance of the incident in Poland in that year is usually based on Russian and Polish sources. This article analyzes the opinion of European, specifically Spanish diplomats, got accreditation in Saint Petersburg, on development of Russian-Polish relations during the disturbances of 1861 in the PolishKingdom. There are studied the Spanishes information channels, objectivity of the data, the angle of perception and reflection of Polish and Russian reality. The materials in the article are based on early unpublished official dispatches of diplomatic mission which were found in National historical archive (Madrid, Spain).

Keywords: Russia, Spain, Poland, diplomacy, Polish problem, disturbances, Alexander II, Duke de Osuna, count K. Lambert, Michel Gortchakov.

Gekht A.B. (Saint Petersburg). The negotiations of Finland and the Scandinavian countries’ political leadership in Stockholm on 18–19 October 1939 and its main consequences for Sweden………. 141

This article focuses on the negotiations of Finland and the Scandinavian countries’ political leadership, which took place in Stockholm on 18–19 October 1939 and its important consequences for Sweden.

The author believes that a new stage in the political cooperation of Sweden and Finland started in the beginning of October 1939. On October 4, Finnish Foreign Minister Elias Erkko took the initiative to resume negotiations on the Aland question, focusing on the using of the Swedish armed forces in protection of the archipelago.

Possible Soviet occupation of the archipelago would mean a threat to Stockholm and a risk of Soviet invasion of Sweden. Therefore, to avoid this, it was necessary to participate in the defense of the Aland Islands – this opinion was supported by the Swedish Foreign Minister Rickard Sandler. The same time, speaking about different positions in Sweden’s government, author can find the second point of view. It hold that the participation in the Aland archipelago’ defense could lead to the retraction in the war. The basis of such position was a concern that the Soviet Union would be negatively perceived any preventive actions in Finland from Sweden’s side. Sweden’s Prime Minister Per Albin Hansson shared this view.

18–19 October 1939 meeting of the prime ministers and foreign ministers of Finland and the Scandinavian countries took place in Stockholm. Mostly under the Prime Minister’s influence, the Swedish government refused to provide military aid to the Finnish side in the defense of the Aland Islands.

The contradictions between P.A. Hansson and R. Sandler had led to the threat of a vote of no confidence to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Sweden, a supporter of assistance to Finland. It was threatened of a political crisis in Sweden, but while the negotiations between the USSR and Finland were in progress it didn’t realize until the very beginning of the Soviet-Finnish War of 1939–1940.

Keywords: The ÅlandIslands, Baltic Sea region, the history of Sweden-Finland political relations.

Lomako V.V. (Saint Petersburg). The history of the Russian-Cyprus interstate relations………. 146

The article is dedicated to the history of the development of Soviet (Russian)-Cyprus relations from the moment of foundation of the Republic of Cyprus. The article describes the key periods in the development of interstate relations. The author also emphasizes the stages in the relations of Russia and Cyprus. Each period is described in detail and given a brief characterization based on the events which happened on at that time. It is shown, that the Soviet Union (Russia) has supported Cyprus during all time of the Cyprus problem existing, but at the same time official visits at the high and the highest level were made only by the Republic of Cyprus a long time. The author also focuses on the areas of cooperation such as business and tourism, because they are some of the main directions of cooperation in the bilateral relations.

Keywords: Russia, Cyprus, business, tourism, international relations, Cyprus problem, cooperation, bilateral relations.

Senturk N. (Gebze Kocaeli, Turkey). Role of festivals in the cultural relations between Turkey and Russia: Festival of Turkish culture and Festival of Russian culture………. 151

Cultural festivals play an important role in society; they help to know more about cultures of different countries. Participating in the cultural festivals allow cultural actors to express themselves in presenting the national culture and increasing the promotion of cultural heritage. Cultural festivals are very popular. These experiences help to develop the integration process of society at the national and international levels.

This article examines cultural and artistic events that took place during the festivals: theatrical performances, concerts, exhibitions, dance performances, film festivals, fashion shows of national dresses, national dishes with traditional entertainments, fairs, international symposia, etc. The Turkish Culture Festival in Moscow and the Festival of Russian Culture in Istanbul were made to promote the culture of two countries for creating mutual understanding. Such events are important for mutual acquaintance of the cultures both of Russia and Turkey, and to eradicate prejudices between two countries. This article describes the features of modern development of the Russian-Turkish cultural relations. Festivals were attracted great interest among art lovers in Turkey and Russia.

In conclusion, the author identifies the main directions of festival as an important player in the cultural exchange between two countries. Particular attention is paid to defining the role of the festival as a form of intercultural interaction between Russia and Turkey. The Turkish Culture Festival and the Festival of Russian culture were not only a presentation of what is rapidly developing in recent years, the Turkish-Russian relations based on cooperation and friendship, but also contributed to the further development of interpersonal relationships. Cultural festivals are important step in developing process of cultural relations.

Keywords: International festival, International cultural exchange, Russian-Turkish cultural relations.

Kostyuk R.V. (Saint Petersburg), Koretsky A.O. (Penza). Radical Left of Europe and Russia. Beginning of the XXI century………. 155

The article focuses on the attitude of anti-liberal left forces of Europe to Russia in the beginning of the XXI century. This scientific article is based on the sources (programs, statements of leading agencies and deputies, presentations and interviews of leaders, materials of the party’s print and etc.) of the Radical Left parties of Europe. In the era of «Cold war» anti-capitalistic Left movement, in its basis, was key and real ally of the USSR in Western Europe. After the collapse of «world socialistic system» and breakdown of the USSR situation noticeably changed, the radical direction of Europe divided into several areas. Unlike other political directions of the European Union, in the case with Radical Left don’t speak about existence of one united «political family» with general ideas and common foreign policy. Because of this we don’t speak about general, integrated settings of European Radical Left which were connected with domestic and foreign policy of the Russian Federation. The majority of Left Anti-liberal parties of «Old World» has very critical evaluated capitalistic transformations in the republics of the former USSR and still the main part of European Radical Left doesn’t accept the point of transformations in domestic policy and social-economic situation. These transformations happened in Russian society in the beginning of the XXI century. In those years the attitude of European Radical Left to foreign policy of the Russian Federation was ambiguous, which connected with geographical factor. Generally European Radical Left parties encouraged developing various relations between their countries and Russia, supporting normal mutually beneficial relations between the EU and the Russian Federation. «Ukrainian crisis» affected on attitude of European Radical Left to Moscow policy. Generally critically evaluating the Russian participating in events in Ukraine, Radical Left in the same time negatively evaluates the European sanctions against the Russian Federation and makes doubt the course directed to the diplomatic isolation of Russia.

Keywords: Radical Left, Europe, Russia, policy, cooperation, EU.



Leshchinskaya N.A., Pastushenko I.Y. (Izhevsk). Ceramics of the VI–VIII c. Tat-Boyar burial ground: archaeological sketch to discussion about the history of the Vyatka region during the early Middle Ages………. 165

The article analyzes issue of the ceramics of the Tat-Boyar burial ground dated to the VI–VIII centuries. The burial ground is located in the Kirov region of the Russian Federation, in the KilmezRiver basin, the Vyatka left tributary. The monument ceramic collection has got a huge informative potential which is especially significant for the controversial issue on the ethnic history of Vyatka region during the Middle Ages. The dishware of the necropolis is being analyzed from the point of the morphology, ornamentation, occurrence value, bedding conditions and burial traditions. The data are compared with those from synchronous monuments located in the basins of the Kama, Vyatka and VetlugaRivers, and on the Mari left-bank part of the Volga. It is concluded that the Tat-Boyar ceramic collection follows general Perm pottery traditions while its specific features reflect inner ethnocultural differences of the ancient Perm area in the Middle Ages. Location of the monuments with the similar dishes proves that during the early medieval period the VyatkaRiver together with its right and left tributaries still was a territory inhabited by the population featuring the Ancient Perm material culture that had been formed before. Whereas, the upper reaches of the Bolshaya and MalayaKokshagaRivers and IletRiver that are the Volga left tributaries, and the upper reaches of the PizhmaRiver, the Vyatka right tributary, became a zone of ethnic contacts and ethnic rivalry between the ancient Perm western tribes (known as “odo” for the ancient Mari) and Volga-Finnish tribes

Keywords: archaeology, Middle Ages, Vyatka-Vetluga Interfluve, ancient Perm people, Emanaevskaya culture, burial grounds, ceramics, ethnocultural specific features.


Military history

Ozova F.A. (Cherkessk). The «Ermolov’s epoch» – a formation process of the Caucasian War paradigm………. 174

During Ermolov’s command the Caucasian corps the conquest of Kabarda was completed and a full-scale conquest of Western Cherkessia had been started (1816–1827). That decade can be defined as a second stage of periodization of the Caucasian War history. The first stage of Caucasian War was a period from 1763 to 1816.

General Ermolov basing on experience of his predecessors including generals de Medem, Fabritsian, Tsitsianov raised their methods of waging war on to the level of a system. The main result of his activities in Caucasus was validation of zone of special jurisdiction that became a fundamental feature of the Caucasian War paradigm. Decree No. 28354 «Assaignment of captivated highlanders, amanats, Kabardinian beys and free peasants» dated by to the 13th of July of 1826 was issued by Emperor Alexander I just right after the presentation made by Ermolov to the Emperor. That Decree contradicted the military and criminal law both of Russia and Europe. According to that Decree the civil population of Kabarda including children, women and old men received the status of combatants. In case captured by military forces they became prisoners of war and were turned into serfs or soldiers. The Caucasian combatants were considered as criminals (e.g.»robbers», «predators») and had to be exiled to Siberia for hard labour or could be shot on the spot by Ermolov’s consideration.

The approval of this paradigm wasn’t trouble-free for the Russian military establishment. The Russian emperors including Pavel I, Alexander I and Nicolai I undertook a series of attempts to keep the Caucasian War within the framework of military law that was in force that time and this led to some of their decrees. Nevertheless the conquest of Kabarda was completed exactly by the Ermolov’s methods.

The strategy and tactics of war in the Eastern Cherkessia, its legal foundation in the form of the Decree No. 28354 as well as «General Ermolov’s proclamation to the Kabardinians» signed at August 29, 1822, which defined the paradigm of the whole Caucasian War in the future. «The Ermolov’s system» of war aroused rebellions occurring everywhere in Caucasus in 1826–1827. Rebellions as well as numerous complaints against despotism of troops which reached St.Petersburg caused that the Emperor decided to appoint the Grand duke and Adjutant General Paskevich I.F. (1826) as a commander of troops in Caucasus together with general Ermolov. Dibich (1827) Adjutant General, General Infantry and Chief of General Staff of Nicolai I was sent to Caucasus for inspection that was unprecedented for that time.

An attempt had been made by the end of the 1820s to make General Ermolov being responsible for his cruelty and tyranny during his controling Transcaucasia and Dagestan. Senators had been sent to the Caucasus for that purpose of revision (1829). The crimes committed in Kabarda were left without any consequences including formal ones.

There is no doubt that many actions taken by Ermolov were dictated by the character of the war as well as tasks which were set before him. It is obvious that his actions were caused by his personality traits. There is no wonder that the efforts made by Russian emperors to keep actions of the Caucasian Corps within the frameworks of the military law didn’t have any result. It was impossible to do in that paradoxical situation, because while one hand of the Emperor was signing Decree of the type No. 28 354, his other hand tried to restrict the tyranny of the generals.

Keywords: Ermolov A.P., Alexander I, the Caucasian War, special jurisdiction, Kabarda, legal judgement.

Verbovoy A.O. (Saint Petersburg). The activity of Amur Naval flotilla during the Russian-Japanese War in 1904–1905 (dedicated to the 110th anniversary of finishing the Russian-Japanese War)………. 185

This article describes using Amur Naval flotilla forces during the Russian-Japanese War. It shows the details of the process of making the flotilla in the beginning of last century and causes that leaded to it. Also it considers the participation of flotilla in the war actions on the riverine area and transporting mlitary cargoes for providing the back forces. It was particularly described actions of flotilla in defense of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur and Blagoveshensk and how it didn’t let occupy the territories near the river Amur. At the end of the article it was given a brief review of flotilla actions after the war, its actions in Soviet period, including participation in Manchurian strategic operation and ending the Second World War.

Keywords: Russian-Japanese War, Amur, Naval flotilla, gunboat, artillery battery, steamship, weapon, defense of Port-Arthur, Loyang, Shaher, Mukden, Manchuria.

Scotoni G.R. (Rimini, Italia). Italian pilots against the Soviet Air Force in Operation «Barbarossa» and the secret raid Zaporozhye – Tokyo – Odessa………. 189

The article describes how the squadrons of the Royal Italian Air Force («Regia Aeronautica», R. A.), supporting the Expeditionary Corps CSIR, participated in battles on the Soviet-German front. Based on archival material and published literature regarding the Italian Air Force in Russia, the article reveales the rоle of fighters Macchi MC.202 against Soviet air units in 1941–1942. The author examines two questions – the significance of these actions and the relevance of aircraft component. Also he shows that the Royal Air Force, as the entire Italian Army, was unprepared for action on the Russian theatre of war. The most successful operation of Italian pilots on Soviet territory was Moscatelli’s secret fly, standing more close to air records of 1930s than to a war operation: the raid from Zaporozhye to Tokyo (June 30–July 1, 1942) and the way back to Odessa (18 July–20 July 1942).

Keywords: Second World War, Royal Italian Air Force, C.S.I.R., secret fly.


History of Science and Technology

Ustinova N.V. (Pervomaysk). Development of the metallurgical industry in Gorky region in 1938–1945………. 193

The article is dedicated to development of the metallurgical industry in Gorky region during the period from 1938 to 1945. The author sets the task to study the state of Gorky metallurgy, its important role in the production of military products in that period. There were studied actions that helped to raise the industry before and during the Great Patriotic War. New foundries were built thanks to the selfless work of workmen in enterprises in Gorky region. The old foundries were reconstructed. The main types of production were electrified and new rolling-mills were put in use. The Gorky metallurgists began to produce armor, alloy steel and use progressive ways of pouring. This article contains such a feature of Gorky metallurgy as a creation of intraregional cooperation during the war. It reflects the role of competition among employees of enterprises in improving the quality of products and implementing the state plans. And also there are represented names of heroes of Labor. The article shows the archival data presenting the work of metallurgical enterprises and also the contribution of Gorky metallurgists into achieving victory.

Keywords: metallurgy, metal, production process, Gorky region, Great Patriotic War, history.


Historical characters

Liubeznikov O.A., Donik K.V. (Saint Petersburg). Testament and death of Auguste Montferrand: legends and documents………. 196

According to the St.Petersburg’s legend, the architect Auguste Montferrand wanted to be buried in the St. Isaac’s Cathedral, which was built on his project, and noted this desire in own testament. The authors of the article analyzed many sources including the archival documents and tried to find out the real intentions of architect and show their evolution. In 1830s A. Montferrand wanted to be buried in the crypt of the Cathedral, but when the crypt was liquidated in 1841, he refused of the burial there and was buried in France, supposedly, on the cemetery of Montmartre. The death of the architect was caused by the number of diseases, one of them – acute articular rheumatism. The article for the first time in the historiography shows the testament of A. Montferrand and the medical report of his death in Russian translation.

Keywords: Auguste Montferrand, St. Isaac’s Cathedral, testament, crypt, G. d’Anthès, J. van Heeckeren, carbuncle, rheumatism.

Fei Haiting (Moscow). From «Federation» to «Slavic federation» – analysis of federative ideas of A. I. Herzen, 1825–1849………. 202

The article is dedicated to the emergence and development of the theory of «Slavic federation» in the works of Russian writer, philosopher, publicist and revolutionary Alexander Herzen, one of the forerunners of Russian populism of the second half of the XIX century.

The importance of the theory of «Slavic federation» is reflected in its impact on the concept of «state» and a number of projects of the late Russian «narodniks». This article examines the concept of «federation» in works of Herzen in the early 1836–1849 and emerging process and development of the project «Slavic federation» since 1849. In connection with it the article aims to explore the process, find out the causes of this transformation and analyze a number of related concepts such as «state», «nationality» and «commune».

The author of this article tries to show three main sources of the Herzen concept of «federation»: the theory of federalism in the French Revolution, the practice of the federation in Switzerland and original historical condition of the Slavic people.

Federation is a form of state. Within the study of the Herzen concept of «federation» this article has raised a problem of essence of the state, nationality and commune, which played a prominent role in his argument.

The article focuses on the Herzen philosophical approach to studying the contradiction between individual and state and author attempted to show the proper originality of Herzen views on the role and functions of state as a one whole interethnic community, which is also the essence of the Slavic federation.

The author provides an analysis of certain important Herzen articles such as «Russia», «Russian people and socialism», «Old World and Russia» and others for illustrating these problems.

Article also includes earliest diaries and correspondence of Herzen. Alexander Herzen is one of the predecessors who tried to combine theory of Western federalism and Russian tradition – he got knowledge of federalism from France and Switzerland, and then tried to explain the ancient Russian history using federalism.

Keywords: A.I. Herzen, Narodniks, federalism, Slavic federation, state, nationality, commune, individual and state, polish problem, the Slavs.


Reiews of Scientific Publications

Losik A.V., Sherba A.N. (Saint Petersburg). Great Patriotic War in its participants’ eyes (review on the monograph of KozlovN.D. «Great Patriotic War: views and estimations of participants». St.Petersburg, Publ.PushkinLeningradStateUniversity, 2015, 544 p.)………. 210

This review analyses the monograph of N.D Kozlov «Great Patriotic War: views and estimations of participants». This research revealed the important aspects of war in participants’ eyes of those threatening events. They reflect a vision of important historical events through views, stamps and stereotypes of that time. The value of monograph is in that materials, placed in this book, are found in unpopular sources: flashbacks, diaries, rare printing. It is very important, that in the reviewed edition the estimations of those long-ago events are given by both compatriots and representatives of our allies on Anti-Hitler coalition, and also by our opponents. Thus, the author succeeded to use views of a lot of people of different political orientation, social origin and status in society. The important feature of book is a presence of a significant amount of documents and materials presented as appendixes characterizing and revealing in detail in a historical retrospective view one or another historical processes, phenomena and facts.

Keywords: N.D Kozlov, Great Patriotic War, memories, unpopular sources, different political orientation, social status, allies, opponents.


Scientific life

Petrov A.Y. (Moscow). Talking about proceedings of the XXII International Congress of Historical Sciences………. 213

The article is dedicated to the certain aspects of the proceedings of the XXII International Congress of Historical Sciences that was held on August 23–29, 2015, in the hometown of Confucius – Jinan, China. The author analyzes the reports of the Russian participants. The Congress was a big step towards understanding new trends in the world history. China for the first time was a place for holding such important event for world’s leading historians. For the world science and especially for China this was a significant event which was marked by transition from Eurocentrism to more comprehensive studying.

Keywords: International Congress of Historical Science, History, China.

Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). The Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation became a winner of the national competition «Book of the Year 2015»………. 218

This article tells about results of all-Russian competition «Book of the Year 2015» held by Federal Agency on Press and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation and Organizing Committee of the 28th Moscow International Book Fair in September, 2015. The winner is a great work which includes 12 volumes named «Great Patriotic War in 1941–1945». Special contribution was made by V.I. Marchenkova, A.M. Sokolova, V.P. Simonin, O.A. Rzheshevsky, O.V. Saksonova, V.P. Baranov, A.V. Timchenko, Yu.V. Rubtsov, G.A. Kumaneva, V.V. Panov, A.V. Opaleva, A.A. Zdanovich, Y.N. Khaustova, I.S. Danilenko, S.J. Lavrenova, A.V. Usikova, N.F. Azyasskij, M.V. Vinichenko, D.N. Philipovi, M.S. Polyansky, N.V. Ilievskiyj, V.K. Hapon, I.A. Sheremeta, O.V. Vlasov, R.G. Nosov, M.A. Selivanov, N.G. Mihaltsov, V.S. Paraskevov, G.A. Malakhov, V.B. Makovskij, V.G. Kiknadze, N.I. Britvin, V.S. Hmelnikov, G.E. Kuchkov, as well as outstanding Russian scientists as E.P. Chelishev, A.A. Sarkisov, A.A. Kokoshin, S.L. Tikhvinskij, M.L. Titarenko, S.A. Tyushkevich. It’s noted that this 12-volumes work became an important weapon in the fight against falsification in works dedicated to the Second World War.

Keywords: 12-volumes «Great Patriotic War in 1941–1945», the 70th anniversary of victory in the Great Patriotic War, national competition «Book of the Year 2015», 28th Moscow International Book Fair.



Ilievskiyj N. V. (Moscow). G.I. Korotkov. On the Captain’s bridge………. 221

The article shows brief review of activity of outstanding military historian, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, great expert of prominent strategists’ biographies Gavriil Ivanovich Korotkov. It shows his various talents among them poetry has an important position. This interest in poetry presented suddenly peculiar and very original historical source. This published poetic essay reflects fragments of history of one of the greatest research centers of Russia – Military History Institute of Ministry of Defence of Russian Federation. Special value of this publication is that it presents inner atmosphere that had dominated in this Institution during a long period of time, and also it shows atmosphere’s dynamics. The article reflects the author’s attitude to people led the Institution in different periods of time, it gives assessments of role that had been played, in the author’s opinion, by leaders in the Institution’s activity.

Keywords: Military History Institute of Ministry of Defence of Russian Federation, G.I. Korotkov, P.A. Zhilin, D.A. Volkogonov, V.A. Zolotarev, anniversary.

Baryshnikov V.N., Vozgrin V.E. (Saint Petersburg). At the beginning of modern Russian «Nordic studies»: Professor A.S. Kan and the history of Northern European Countries………. 227

Professor A.S. Kan is a historian whose name in Russia in the middle of the XX century is connected with the revival of historical tradition of studying Scandinavian countries and Finland. Due to his creative scientific activities on the eve of the 1960s Moscow became the main center of «Nordic» historical studies in the Soviet Union. The scientist’s heritage formed for 70 years now represents significant part of historical knowledge dedicated to Scandinavian countries and Finland. It has formed a real epoch in the developing of «Nordic studies» in Soviet Union/Russian. His works have historiographical, scientific and educational significance. The prominent scientist continues his creative activities, proving that he is still working on developing of «Nordic studies» as a field of historical research in Russia as well as in Scandinavian countries.

Keywords: A.S. Kan, «Nordic studies», Scandinavian countries, Finland, scientist’s heritage, significant historical research.