Klio #10 (70) 2012


Diaries, memoirs

Chetverikov B.D. (Saint-Petersburg). «Stezhky-dorozhky» (The pathways) (conuation)………. 3

The autobiographical novel by B.D. Chetverikov tells us about the writer’s life that can be called «the outline» of the history of our country in the 20th century.


The document is published for the first time

Malinov A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). From the correspondence of two historians (to the publication of letters of N.I. Кareev to V.M. Lamansky)………. 14

Nikolay Ivanovich Kareev is one of the largest Russian historians in the last third of XIX – beginning of XX century. About forty years he taught at St. Petersburg University. Also Kareev was known as a public figure.Publication reveals some aspects ofKareev’s transition in Petersburg University, and his relationship with Petersburg historians, in particular, with V.M. Lamansky, as well as his cooperation with the Literary Fund.


Source study

Malkova T.N. (Saint-Petersburg). The accounting and financial aspects of the Koran: «Our Record is true to say»………. 21

On the basis of the text of the Koran in Russian translation accounting analysis is carried out by areas: written accounting and its criteria; accounting items and calculations; methodology of accounting (the primary account, current account, statements); historical continuity.

Solodkin Ya.G. (Nizhnevartovsk). Regent Council or near Duma? (About one contentious issue of Russian political history of the beginning of the Fyodor Ivanovich reign)………. 23

The existence of the regency council, widely believed to have existed under the early Fedor Ivanovich, is proven to be rather hypothetical. This conclusion comes as a result of a comprehensive analysis of a wealth of various sources – both of foreign and home origin, the former being first and foremost memoirs of Jerome Horsey. Russian sources are represented first of all by a series of works originating at the Time of Troubles or shortly afterwards. The author, proceeding from extensive evidence, sides with another view, shared by a number of historians, that the country was governed by a couple of boyars commonly known as the Closer Duma (the Privy Council) that since long ago had assisted the monarch in major home and foreign policies.

Ganin A.V. (Moscow). New documents about the arrests of the Petrograd military specialists in the fall of 1918………. 27

In thisarticle on the basis of first introduced into the scientific circulation documentary materials from Russian state military archive and State archive of the Russian Federation the history of repression in the fall of 1918 is studied, in respect of the former officers, implemented in the North-West of Russia, first of all, in Petrograd. Priority attention is given to the arrests of naval officers and the General chiefs of campaign staff. Some conclusions are made about the practice of pre-emptive terror of the Extraordinary Commissionbodies, and about the activities of the anti-Bolshevik underground.

Pronin A.A., Kongrashova M.I. (Ekaterinburg). Periodical press of the Russian foreign countries as a historical source………. 37

The case of periodical printing editions, mainly the emigrant is considered (including published party documents, advertisements, testimonials, reviews, articles of memory, obituaries), which is used by Russian historians in their dissertations, defended in 1980–2005.

Solodkin R.Ya. (Nizhnevartovsk). The notes of J. Horsey about Russia in V.A. Kolobkov studies………. 43

The origins of Sir Jerome Horsey’s memoirs on Russia have repeatedlyattracted historians’ attention, and were brought into a particularly sharp focusin the 1970–1980s. V.A. Kolobkov suggested a new approach to the issue. In his view, «The Coronation» and «Observations» as accounts of the English embassies to Russia, which Horsey, adistinguished diplomat and a merchant, headed, possess integrity and were composed simultaneously, while his “Travels”, whose earlier parts date to 1587, contain later insertions of the largely unreliable evidence.


General history

Novokshonov D.Е. (Saint-Petersburg). The War and the language: margo, Margarita and Uzbeks………. 46

After conducting the research about the Roman prisoners who were displaced to Margiana at the time of the Civil Wars, the author relates the sudden appearance of the word margo in the Latin language, and the emergence of the words «margarita» and «uzbek», to a grand military catastrophe of Rome that marked the beginning of the Roman emigration to the East and appearance of the Kushan Empire.

Zaporozhec V.M. (Моscow). The Empire of Great Seljuks during the reign of Alp Arslan (1063–1072)………. 50

The article analyzes the history of Seljuk’s Empire during the rule of Alp Arslan – one of its most outstanding statesman and military leader. Alp Arslan achieved stabilization of the internal political situation in the Empire and expanded the borders of the state. In the military sphere his most glorious achievement was the victory under the Byzantine Emperor Romanus Diogenes in the battle at Malazgirt. Alp Arslans victory at Malazgirt was a deciding factor in the course of the future military, political, ethnic and religious developments in Asia Minor. The Byzantine military machine lost its ability to engage in combat for a long time. This factor provoked uncontrollable, avalanche like migration of the Oghuz tribes into Asia Minor.


National history

NefedovS.А.(Ekaterinburg). About the problem of the reliability of the Soviet harvest statistics in 1920–
1930-ies………. 54

In the article with the help of unpublished archival data is analyzed question of the gross charges of grain in 1925–1928 and 1937–1940.The conclusion is made that the information is accurate, because it is confirmed by the expenditure part of the grain balance made by statisticians.

Eremin S.V. (Nizhnevartovsk). The Politburo of the CC VKP(b), NCID, and «journalistic conflict» of the Soviet Union with Nazi Germany (September-October 1933)………. 59

In the article on the basis of the recently-introduced into the scientific circulation sources position and the practical actions of Soviet leadership in the period of so-called «journalistic conflict» with Nazi Germany in the autumn of 1933 are analyzed. The article assesses the impact of internal and external policy factors in the position of Soviet and German sides in resolving the conflict.

Turicin I.V. (Moscow), Rizhkov T.V. (Krasnodar). To the question of protection of Russian national interests in the global oil market (1991–1998)………. 63

The paper investigates the problem of ensuring the national interests of Russia in the global oil market in the context of restructuring process of oil industry and formation of a vertically integrated oil companies.


The past of Russian regions

Kuznecov A.P. (Moscow). Migration of Japanese in the Russian far East in the end of XIX – the beginning of XX century………. 67

The article considers the process of migration of Japanese in the far East since the end of XIX century and in the first years of XX century. The author analyzes the structure of Japanese organizations, established on the territory of Russia. He notes their purpose and system of interaction with the state authorities of Japan. The conclusion is made about the purposes of migration and its importance in the course of the subsequent historical events.

Mikhailov D.B. (Kursk). The history of organizing educational work (teaching and up-bringing) in church parochial schools in the end of XIX – beginning of XX centuries of Kursk eparchy………. 71

In the present article the author analyzes organization and activities of church parochial school in the territory of Kursk eparchy in the end of XIX – beginning of XX centuries, draws conclusions and evaluates the situation of educational processes (teaching and upbringing) formed by that period, and the efficiency of those processes.

Zotova A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The work of the Leningrad office of Industrial Bank in the years of war………. 74

Based on the data of archival documents, the author makes a conclusion about the significant contribution of the Leningrad office ofIndustrial Bank of besieged city in the struggle with the enemy.

Smoleev A.A. (Tambov). Tambov branch of the society «Memorial» in 1989–1991: from educational work to the opposition movement………. 78

The article considers and analyzes activities of Tambov branch of the informal historical-educational society «Memorial» through the prism of its relationship with the organs of Soviet and party authorities in 1989–1991. Special attention is paid to the transformation of the society from educational, supporting the ruling party and the existing system, to the right oppositional. The work is based primarily on the materials of archive of Tambov branch of the «Memorial», most part of which has not published yet.


Military history

Poznahirev V.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Turkish prisoners of war on the construction, repair and maintenance of Russian Railways (the end of XIX – beginning of XX century)………. 81

The article attempts todefine the place androle ofTurkish prisoners of warin the constructionand maintenance ofthe Russian railwaysduring the Russian-Turkish war in 18771878 and the First World Warin 19141918. The author reveals thecharacter and features ofthe Turkishlabor, driving some to assesstheir performance, highlights the relevantauthoritiesbuiltthe railwaysto the Turkishprisoners of warasthe work force, and also shows theachievedresults arethe prisoners.

Kostin N.V. (Samara). The party and political work to strengthen military discipline in the red army in the period of its transfer to the peaceful situation (1920–1923)………. 83

The article is devoted to the history of formation and development of the party and political work of strengthen military discipline in the ranks of the red army in the period of its transfer to the peaceful situation. Special attention of the researcher is paid to the identification of causes of the sharp fall of discipline in the army. The article shows the ways of overcoming the existing situation.

Frolov M.I., Poltorak S.N. (Saint-Petersburg). Leningrad forestry engineering Academy in besieged Leningrad. Everything for the front………. 86

In thisarticle on the basis of historical data and materials of periodicals of military time is estimated contribution of one of the leading universities of Leningrad – Forest-technical Academy in rebuff to the enemy in the period of the enemy blockade.

Evseev V.I., Losik A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). From the history of the summer work in the interests of science in Military-space Academy named after A.F. Mozhaisky………. 89

The article contains brief data about flight andexperimental work (FEW) in Military-space Academy named after A.F. Mozhaisky in 1950–2009. Describes the creation and testing of airborne and ground-based hardware complexes remote sensing background-target situation in the Military-air forces, strategic Rocket forces and the Space forces of the country. The article shows the role of the flight and experimental work in the system of measures for the development of space vehicles of various purposes in the interests of the army and Navy, as well as their background-target information support at all life cycle stages.



Vinogradov A.S. (Nizhny Novgorod). To the problem of ethnicity of the Imenkovskaya culture (on materials of research of the black metallurgiststraditions)………. 93

At the present time remains debatable question on ethnic affiliation of representatives of the Imenkovskaya culture. The available sources do not allow us to answer itunambiguously. In these circumstances, it makes sense to try to expand the range of sources of the problem due to the attraction of data about the craft traditions of not only representatives of the Imenkovskaya culture, but also of the peoples, who lived at their territory later.


History of culture

Samokhina G.S. (Saint-Petersburg). «Alexander Sarcophagus»: comments to the interpretation of the monument of the Hellenistic pictorial art………. 96

The article is devoted to the history of study of the monument of the Hellenistic pictorial art, that has received conditional name of «sarcophagus Alexander». The article criticizes the historical interpretation of its reliefs. The author suggests his own image understanding of the Zidonian sarcophagus.

Osipov D.V., Fedorovskiy G.D. (Saint-Petersburg). The fate of the black-basaltic sculpture of Cleopatra from the collection of the Duke Maximilian Leykhtenbergsky in the manor «Sergeevka», Old Peterhof………. 105

The article contains new material about black-basaltic sculpture of Cleopatra, displaced from the collection of the Duke of Leykhtenbergsky in the manor «Sergeevka» to the Hermitage.


History of law

Gulin A.A. (VelikieLuki, Pskov region). The legal culture of self-government of the Florentine Republic:
the main differences and similarities with the legal culture of self-governing cities of the North-West of Russia………. 111

Existed during the middle Ages Novgorod Republic and the Florentine Republic have attracted the attention of historians for a long time.The author made a comparative analysis of formation of legal culture in the period of formation of the self-government in the cities of the North-Western Russia and Florence in the XII–XV centuries. The author makes a conclusion that between so many different cultures there were not only some similarities, but also significant differences in the XII–XV centuries.


Historical characters

Dobrinsky K.E. (Saint-Petersburg). The role of M.V. Rodzianko in the events of the February revolution………. 113

The basis of the articlesource base includes the memoirs of Mikhail Vladimirovich and members of his close entourage, memoirs and works of authorsnon-socialist and socialist directions. In this article the documentary sources of the revolutionary epoch, as well as archival materials from the Foundation of the State Duma of the Russian state historical archiveare used. The set of materials allows to trace how the Chairman of the Parliament assessed the political situation on the eve and during the revolution.

Yanovsky O.A., Nazarenko А.М. (Minsk, Belarus).Imperial and Soviet universities of the Belarusian national Commissariat of justice and the Prosecutor (or new information to recreate the biography of M.A. Segal)………. 121

Based on the archive documents, discovered and represented in this paper for the first time, the most important biography milestones of one of the first People´s Commissars for Justice and Attorney of the BSSR in 1925–1928 Moysey A. Segal are described. These unique documents allowed to clarify the circumstances of his life and precisely determine not only the time of his work as a high-ranking official, but also the time when the former Attorney of the BSSR worked as a rector of two universities and three institutes. For the first time, the author defines important details describing Moysey A. Segal as an unconventional personality and a specific «product» of the first two decades of the Soviet period.

Mitrofanov V.V. (Nizhnevartovsk). «Otherwise I will be facing the threat of starvation»: P.Gr. Vasenko’s life and scientific work during his administrative exile to Vladimir………. 127

Proceeding from a wealth of new records-based evidence, the author ascertains the date of the death of the eminent scholar P.Gr. Vasenko and outlines the major stages in his research work. The paper discloses a biographic line in his academic work, which used to be overlooked. A number of noteworthy but previously unknown facts are given, these facts pertaining to his “Memoirs”, their structure and the chapters’ titles. The paper provides facts from the scholar’s life during his administrative exile to Vladimir based on his correspondence with V.D. Bonch-Bruyevich.



MinnikovaТ.N. (Saint-Petersburg).Russian mentality: hope or deadlock of modernization?………. 133

The author’s view on modernization is a form of struggle of the social organism with entropy, which has shown on the key points of Russian history in ХIХХХI. The article presents a study of deep properties of the Russian civilization with its two diametrically opposed types of mentality. Using this approach, an attempt is made to forecast the future of Russia.


Review of scientific editions

Malakhov G.А. (Моscow). The twins-libellers………. 140

In the publication of well-known historian G.A. Malakhov is made a well-grounded criticism of publications, in which is made an attempt of negative evaluation of content of the first two volumes of his twelve-volume fundamental edition «the Great Patriotic war of 1941–1945».

Yarmolich F.К. (Saint-Petersburg). Review of the monograph «Agathon Faberge in the Red Petrograd»………. 142

In this review is given a high assessment of the monograph, devoted to a life and activity of the son of jeweler Carl Faberge – Agathon. It is emphasized, that on the basis of original archival and other documents, the authors have managed to reconstruct the picture of the events of the 1920–1930-ies.In the reviewer’ sopinion the study of history of the Faberge family, in particular, his bright representative A.K. Faberge, ought to be continued.

Chershyshova А.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). Problems of interaction between society and authorities in the Russian province in the Soviet period………. 144

The review presentssix-volume publication of archive materials that reveal the nature of relations between society and authorities in the Russian province in the years of Soviet power by the example of Nizhny Novgorod region.


Scientific life

Scientific conferences have passed

Suslov А.Yu. (Kazan). Historical memory and the dialogue of cultures: the results of the work of the scientific school in Kazan………. 147

The article considers the results of the International youth scientific school «Historical memory and the dialogue of cultures» held in Kazan in 2012, with the support of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation in the framework of the Federal target program «Scientific and scientific-pedagogical personnel of innovative Russia» in 2009–2013. The author analyses the key issues, discussed by members of school, modern approaches to the study of historical memory phenomenon, and the dialogue of cultures in conditions of globalization

Kargopoltsev S.Yu., Lapina I.Yu. (Saint-Petersburg).Heritage of the great Eurasian: to the 100-th anniversary from the date of birth of Lev Nikolaevich Gumilev………. 148

The paper describes the events devoted to the 100-th anniversary from the date of birth of L.N. Gumilev, as well as the scientific biography of the scientist, the basic essence and principles of his ethnogenesis theory. Various factors of reproduction and development of ethnos, interaction of ethnos with the landscape and historical environment are analyzed.

Alekseev A.N. (Saint-Petersburg). Patriotic war of 1812 in the culture of the Russian abroad………. 150

The paper describes one of the events devoted to the anniversary of the Patriotic War of 1812 to which scientists (experts in the field) as well as lineal descendants of the heroes of events that took place over 200 years ago were invited.

Smirnov V.G. (Saint-Petersburg). Arcticforumin Arkhangelsk………. 151

The article covers the work of scientific conference on the history of research and exploration of the Arctic. The conference was attended by scientists from the countries of Europe, USA, Canada and Russia.