Klio #10 (94) 2014

Source studies

Rostovtsev Y.A., Andreeva V.V. (Saint Petersburg). The Saint PetersburgUniversity of 1905 in the Mirror of ress………. 3

The significance of press as an important source of University life reconstruction within the First Russian Revolution has been considered in the article. At the same time the authors made an attempt to study press as an independent factor impacting the course of events. It was shown in the article that university life received wide coverage in the newspaper articles and notes in the beginning of the 20thcentury. Here one could get information on the assignments, dismissals, conferment of the University professors, on the enrolment period, defenses of theses, councils on the questions of higher school. Several newspapers of different nature were in the author’s attention. Besides semiofficial “Pravitel’stvennyj Vestnik” these are – so called “liberal press” (“Birzhevye Vedomosti”, “Peterburgskiy Listok”, “Russkie Vedomosti”), centrist one (primarily – “Peterburgskaya Gazeta”) and some right-wing newspapers (“Novoe Vremya”, “Svet”); certain articles from other periodical editions are also involved. The events of the first eight months of 1905 reflected in the mirror of press – from the ”Bloody Sunday” and till the end of August when new “Provisional Rules” of University administration were published reviving the so called “university autonomy” – have been considered in the article. The authors reveal various counterintuitive features of the information situation in the University question in general and in relation to the capital university in particular. To achieve the “autonomy” subject to fight for to several professorship generations the liberal press didn’t need to actively appeal to covering the university question, yet it was not much interested in student strikes. Liberal newspapers were active only when it entailed to the review of the University Charter which they considered to be essential and natural matter. In that vein it is interesting that the right-wing press espousing the university issue and stressing the university to be out of any politics, exposing Teaching Corporation for supporting the strikes, alike the liberal Mass Media interconnected the problems of “autonomy” and stability in the higher school in the public opinion.

Keywords: Saint PetersburgUniversity, history of the Saint PetersburgUniversity, the press, journalism, history of the higher school, the First Russian Revolution of 1905–1907, student movement.

Dorofeeva A.P. (Veliky Novgorod). A Question of the Relations between a Village and Authorities in Peasants’ Letters in the NEP Period………. 15

The article provides a review of the peasants’ letters from the Public Record Office of the Novgorod Region and the State Record Office of the Novgorod Region Modern History; based on the last one a question of the relations between the Soviet system and the village society of the Novgorod province within the NEP period has been explored. It has been concluded that peasants’ letters were a kind of passive resistance. Peasant discontent and complaints to local authorities were provoked by the workers’ outrage at the grocery taxation, by injustice and severity of punishment.

According to the author peasants’ letters were a kind of interaction between Authorities and population of a countryside. The letters claims content allows getting an idea on peasant’s attitude to the Authorities. They evidence the Soviet peasantry understanding of Justice, real attitude to the Soviet nomenclature through the first years of the “workers and peasants regime” establishment.

Keywords: NEP, passive resistance, grocery tax, the Soviet system, peasantry, written complain, petition, response rate, question of the relations.

Razdina N.V. (Moscow). The Newspaper “Chernaya Metallurgiya” (“Industriya”) as a Source of Introduction to the State Industrial Policy during the Third Five-Year Plan (Leading Articles Content Analysis)………. 18

The article contains the analysis of informational potentials of “Chernaya Metallurgiya” newspaper (an official body of the iron and steel industry People’s Commissariat) as a source of introduction to the state industrial policy during the Third Five-Year Plan. The materials of leading articles of the edition first page are in the focus of the author. A tool of the texts investigation served a content analysis method as a way or a set of methodological procedures and techniques designed to increase the information impact of mass and unsystematic historical sources (periodicals, letters, transcripts of meetings, records of performances, etc.). The article describes a procedure and the results of content analysis of leading articles published in March, October and November 1940 as the last peaceful year prior the Great Patriotic War. Spring and autumn months have been selected as the most representative months of a year. Leading articles of edition were correlated to several meaning categories and the indicators determining the texts contents, and then they were subject to quantities analysis of the selected semantic units occurrence in each of these months. The article has data on main directions of the state mobilization policy aimed at mass consciousness of a Soviet reader: the newspaper outlined the benefits of the Stakhanovite’s working methods, unquestioning fulfillment of the directives of the Party and the Government, immediate increase of the production rhythm, improvement of in-plant planning system, development of individual gardening and many other aspects of life in pre-war society. Based on contentanalysis approached it has been possible to determine an urgency of some certain industrial and ideological policies directions of the Soviet Government within indicated period.

Keywords: the USSR industrialization, the first Five-Year plans, iron and steel industry, the Soviet press, content analysis.

Potapova N.V. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Regional History on the Pages of the National Press of Religious Denominations (the Case Study of Sakhalin)………. 26

The article discusses the periodicals of the central and regional levels published by different religious denominations: Russian Orthodox Church (“KamchatskieEparkhialnye Vedomosti”, “VladivostokskieEparkhialnyeVedomosti”) and Protestants – Evangelical Christians and Baptists (“Slovo Istiny”, “Bratskiy Vestnik”) from the point of view of content information relating to Sakhalin in the period of the Russian Empire and the USSR.

The author distinguishes between three periods when the Sakhalin theme was reflected in the pages of the religious publications:

1) The Imperial period – the end of 19th century – 1917;

2) The period of the revolution, the Civil War and intervention – 1917–1922;

3) The Soviet period – due to numeral reasons the outcome of the religious press covering various events refers to 1944.

Each of these periods had bright features put the imprints either on the character of the information provided including any information related to Sakhalin or on its content, style, theme and scope.

The article reveals an interaction between the perception of regional and national history, characteristics of state-confessional relations in each historical period, theme, quantity and quality of the materials related to Sakhalin published by denominational periodicals.

Generally, the materials of denominational periodicals are valuable but yet it is an understudied source. They allow tracing the history of religious life at the regional level, identifying the most important events in the life of local religious communities and particular religious individuals, specific features of the Church-State relations in the region at each historical stage, clarifying the place and role of the events of religious life in the context of public and state phenomena and the events of each specific period.

Keywords: Sakhalin, Church-State relations, religion, the Russian Orthodox Church, Baptists, Evangelical Christians, the press of religious denominations.

Khasyanov O.R. (Ulyanovsk). The Periodical Press of the Kuibyshev and the Ulyanovsk Regions as a Source to Study Everyday Life of the Soviet Peasantry during the First Postwar Decade………. 30

The article investigates an option to apply the Soviet periodical press as a historical source to reconstruct daily life of a kolkhoz village from 1945 through 1950 of the 20th century. The author analyzed the materials of regional press revealing different aspects of social life of postwar peasantry. Despite the Soviet periodical press was under severe supervision of the Soviet Party institutions the author was able to conclude that newspaper materials were one of the most widespread and available historical sources allowing to reveal a phenomena of a kolkhoz village daily life. The author focuses on the specifics of the regional editions of the Volga Region emphasizing that severe control of the Party leadership could not deprive local journalists of desire to assess with clarity and honest the state of regional affairs.

According to the author the Soviet periodical press serves as an important historical source ensuring reconstruction of rural population daily life within the period of investigation. The Soviet newspaper being a main propaganda source served as a tool allowing the authorities to create public opinion, to fix the social mood and facilitated construction of efficient dialogue between the authorities and the society. Various genres and stylistic features of the newspapers materials encouraged the author to see many facets of everyday life in the Soviet countryside: issues with consumer services, authorities’ malfeasance, resistance strategies developed by the peasantry, as well as issues related to development of new Soviet leisure time, etc.

Keywords: the Soviet peasantry, periodic press, the press, a source, daily life, authorities, ideology.

Yaseneva E.V. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Sources of the Far East Local Historical Studies Development in the 1920–1930s of the 20th Century ………. 35

The article addressed the issues of the development of sourcebase to investigate the wide range of problems related to the development and the establishment of the local historical studies in the Soviet Far East in the 1920–1930s of the 20th century. The author provides an analysis of the instruments obtained in the State Record Office of the Khabarovsk Kray (further herein as SROKK).

The sources for the study of the development and establishment of thelocal historical studies in the Soviet Far East in the 1920–1930sof the 20th century being deposited in the collections of the State Record Office of the Khabarovsk Kray (SROKK) are extensive and diverse in types: the scope of the official documents of the state and public coordinative, methodological and administrative institutions, record keeping documents of regional institutions (activity reports, minutes of meetings, internal correspondence, personal data). Some of these materials have been published in the Far Eastern press; some of them have never been and is available through the Record Office only.

The major source massifs of the historical studies development in the period under the review is kept in the foundations as follows:

1) the Commissioner of the Main Directorate of the Scientific, Artistic and Museum institutions of the RSFSR People’s Commissariat (Main Science Administration – Glavnauka) in the Far East (1923–1933);

2) Public Education Department of the Far Eastern Revolutionary Committee (1923–1926);

3) KhabarovskLocalHistoryMuseum (1851–1940, 1955–1987);

4) Nongovernment bodies – the Amur River branch of the Geographical Society of the USSR (1924–1984), the Far Eastern Regional Office of the Local History of the Central Society of the RSFSR Local History (1928–1933).

Keywords: local historical studies, the Soviet Far East, State Record Office, museum, Glavnauka, the Russian Geographical Society.



Dvornichenko A.Y.(Saint Petersburg). Politogenesis of the Kievan Rus in the Works of Russian Historians and Emigrants………. 38

The article reveals Russian historiansand emigrants attitude to origin and specific features of the Early Russian national identity. Failure to understand the political establishment essence within the period of Eastern Slavic history – the so-called Kievan Rus (9th– beginning of the 13thcentury) – prevents from understanding the history not just the Kievan Rus itself but further developed history of Russia, the Ukraine and Belarus. The purpose of this article is to incorporate the ideas stated by the emigrant historiography society into the general context of the development of Russian historiography which, unfortunately, have failed to be revealed through our historical literature. Within this sense the emigrant historiography has been a natural (however, more likely unnatural) continuation of all the achievements made in the “pre-revolutionary” time. It is commonly known that some European capitals – like Berlin, London, Paris, Sofia – became the centers of the Russian emigration and its scientific researches. Prague and Belgrade as prominent locations of the Russian science in exile hold their special places. Within the frame of complicated social and academic environment an active scientific work and discussions were in place, the fundamental problems of the national history construction were defined. For instance, it was an emigrant historiography that for the first time faced the task of the Early Russian heritage “distribution”. As shown in the article the so-called “democratic” concept developed by historiography of the second half of the 19th – early 20thcenturies served as a basis of politogenesis approach of the emigrant historiography. The author indicates in particular a special role of the professors and graduates of the St. Petersburg (Petrograd) University who turned out to be in emigration to the study of the Early Russian politogenesis. That was unlikely historical or historiographical coincidence, more likely it demonstrates the potentials of scientific schools of St. Petersburg on the eve of tremendous disturbances of the early 20thcentury and the great “Russian exodus”.

Keywords: politogenesis, the Kievan Rus, Russian and Ukrainian historians and emigrants, historiography.


General history

Ushakov V.А. (Saint Petersburg).Political and State Structure of the USA: Attitude in the Russian Empire………. 47

The article reveals an analysis of the Russian American Studies at its newspaper, magazine and journalistic development stages in the 18thand the first half of the 19thcentury. It is noted that originally the American Studies were established in Russia as a source of information. Gradually two branches were developed by the press: the first to reveal the events associated with the birth of a new state – the United States, the second to demonstrate interest in the state structureand nature of life of the Republican America. With the establishment of consular relations the interest in the USA became just deeper especially in the reformist circles, affecting yet regal persons as evidenced by correspondence between the Emperor Alexander I and Tomas Jefferson. In the first half of the 19thcentury Russian periodicals created an ideal image of the USA as a just and a perfect Country. The welfare and progresses of the Americans were exalted. Such an image of America as a beacon of progress and freedom made a great influence upon progressive-minded people, including the Decembrists. At the same time the source investigation demonstrates that many of the reform prone Russians were not ready to accept American democracy, in particular, to implement the idea of absolute equality. Therefore, along with the idealization of the American lifestyle in the first half of the 19thcentury critical remarks about American democracy, oppression of Indians, slavery and slave trade gained widespread.

Keywords: the Russian American Studies, Russian Periodicals and Journalism, Constitution of the USA, American democracy, the Decembrists, Alexander I, Tomas Jefferson.

Niyazov N.S. (Saint Petersburg). Cooperation of the AzerbaijanRepublic and the Russian Federation in Military and Technical Areas from 1994 through 2014………. 51

Russian and Azerbaijan cooperation become very active in many areas for the last months of 2014. The Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, Sergey Shoygu, who met in Baku with his Azerbaijan counterpart, Zakir Gasanov, was among the Russian officials and politicians visited Azerbaijan. Following the meeting the parties signed 2015 Cooperation Plan. Back in September Russian delegation took an active part in the Azerbaijani defense industry exhibition, ADEX-2014. The abovementioned verifies that a new stage of the Russian and Azerbaijan rapprochement covers such a sensitive area as a military cooperation.

Today it looks like mostly unreal but the relations of Moscow and Baku in terms of military and technical area were complicated and inconsistent just several years ago. A force contributing alike state of affair was unsettled Armenian-Azerbaijani war conflict related to the Nagorny Karabakh. The Russian authorities of the early nineties actually holding a pro-Armenian position vetoed own interaction with Azerbaijan in the military area. In fact Baku resources to buy diverse weapon systems were pretty modest at that time. However commencing to get high incomes from oil export the AzerbaijanRepublic has become to invest in its national economy development as well as in weapon systems renovation. By 2003 the Azerbaijan weapon market became attractive to foreign equipment and weapons suppliers. Such countries as Turkey, Israel, the Ukraine, Pakistan and even the South AfricaRepublic have taken that advantage.

Gradually the Russian party has clearly seen that self-restraint in terms of military cooperation with Baku negatively impact the Russian military industrial sector. Awakening of this truth provided Russian with a chance to begin the process of selling a variety of weapon systems to Azerbaijan as well as to start-up the production of numeral goods at the military facilities of the Ministry of the Defense Industry of the AzerbaijanRepublic.

The article studies the stages and specific features of the AzerbaijanRepublic and the Russian Federation relations in terms of military and technical cooperation from 1994 through 2014.

Keywords: Azerbaijan, Russia, the Karabakh war conflict, military and technical cooperation, military industrial sector, military security.

Romanova Y.G.(Saint Petersburg). Religious Association Aum Shinrikyo in Japanese Historiography (Causes and Consequences of 1995 Tragedy)………. 59

The article represents the analysis of the theory of the growth of a new religious association Aum Shinrikyo provided by two well-known Japanese researchers: Takashi Tachibana and Yujiro Nakamura. The research works of these authors represent a summary of the review on history of Aum Shinrikyo in Japanese historiography; offer an interesting outlook on period division of the development of Aum Shinrikyo. In the focus of each authors’ attention is a question on the causes for GB gas attack in the Japanese subway, as well as the impact of the event on Japanese culture.

According to one author, the example of Aum Shinrikyo proves that despite the worldwide trend of “Westernization” modern Japanese culture keeps on to be substantially different from European or American. Y. Nakamura feels certain that the history of the association “fundamental way connected with the cultural and socio-historical specificity of Japan”, but the cause of GB gas attack was, first of all, the power aspirations of the leader of this association, S. Asahara. T. Tachibana considers the reasons for GB gas attack to be in the specific perception of certain religious and mystical teachings.

The author comes to the conclusion that Japanese historiography of the 21stcentury has moved from “criminal” version of the explanation of the events connected with the activities of Aum Shinrikyo created by journalists and publicists immediately after the events of March 20, 1995, to attempt to get more balanced examination of the inner, associated with the essence of Japanese culture, causes GB gas attack.

Key words: Aum Shinrikyo, new religious associations, Takashi Tachibana, Yujiro Nakamura, Japanese culture.


The history of Russia

Suprovich S.V. (Nizhnevartovsk). Foreign Policy of Russia of the First Half of the 1690s in the Analysis of M.M. Bogoslovsky………. 63

The article investigates the foreign policy of the beginning of Peter’s reign (from 1689 until the conquest of Azov in 1696) under Academy Fellow M.M. Bogoslovsky’s materials. On the basis of the documents involved by the eminent historian it is shown that the establishment of foreign policy understanding of the young Russian sovereign was influenced by representatives of the Western powers, and for the sake of their economic interests in Russia. These interests were skillfully indoctrinated with Peter as his own through the influential figures of the Foreign Quarter and the closest associates of the Tsar.

According to the article author, the Grand Embassy 1697–1698 and then the Great Northern War 1700–1721 made Peter to «freeze» his plans in the Northern Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. He returned to these plans implementation just in 1722–1723. The author agrees with M.M. Bogoslovsky in terms of the reasons of the Tsar’s inconsistency with the foreign policy – it was partly because of his character trait tending to quickly change the ways of his goals achievement.

Keywords: M.M. Bogoslovsky, Peter I, the foreign policy, subterranean diplomacy, the Western Europe, the Foreign Quarter, the Azov campaigns.

Barykina I.Y. (Saint Petersburg). Regular and Extraordinary Bodies in the High Government System of the Second Half of the 19thCentury………. 68

During the establishment of an autocratic management system not only just regular, constantly acting authorities, but also extraordinary bodies specially designed to address emergency issues emerged and took their place. Among the extraordinary bodies the secret bodies for the periods of the monarch’s departure from the capital (or even country) stand out. They came out in the 16thcentury and were acting until the end of the 19thcentury being as alter ego of the monarch. In the second half of the 19thcentury when the higher bureaucratic circles were discussing the collegial governance and the European government, these bodies remained a characteristic feature of autocracy unwilling to share their prerogatives and with their own way to understand the unity of government. The Russian State Historical Record Office keeps six secret bodies cases. The article publicly reveals the content of these cases for scientific discussion.

These extraordinary temporary supervising bodies stood out among other wide range of senior committees relating to their conduct of affairs and authorities. In questions they considered did reflect a conflict of the internal policy being as an indicator of stability. These bodies establishment indicated at the internal problems, they were established in the periods of the internal instability causing the monarch’s concern in terms of the State left “out of supervision”. Once the internal political situation got stable the need in suchbodies was eliminated. Functioning in the immediate purpose these bodies addressed any emergency pointing out at the “pain spots” of the State and took emergency measures.

Extraordinary bodies’ activities apogee for the monarch’s departure periods coincided with a peak of autocratic system development. In the second half of the 19thcentury autocratic system became more and more formalized, bureaucratized. Further move along that direction could only mean the growth of administration and “checks” system, while the need of modernization dictated the transition to new type of government systems, the need in “balance” system (civil society institutions, representative institutions). Administrative authorities with their archaic features could not serve as a basis of political modernization.

Keywords: autocracy, internal policy, the Russian Empire, governance, secret bodies, state mechanism.


History of the regions of Russia

Martynenko A.V., Nadkin T.D. (Saransk). Authorities and Religious Denominations in the Territory of Mordovia in the 20th Century: from Ostracism to Social Partnership………. 78

Major trends of Mordovia religious denominations history of the 20th century is analyzed in this article. Russian Orthodox Church, the Muslim Ummah, Protestant communities are in the focus in the region of investigation. Development of the relations of the state and religious denominations – from ostracism of the Soviet period to establishment of cooperation and social partnership in 1990s is obviously seen. Antireligious politics of the Soviet system in the Mordovia territory fully revealed itself through 1920–1930s. The Soviet state launched a distinctive strike to the Russian Orthodox Church as the most influential religious denomination of the region under investigation. For instance, by the end of 1930s the Mordovia ASSR had no acting orthodox temple. Muslims and various protestant communities of Mordovia (Baptists, Pentecostals) were subject to ostracism within that period. Insignificant watering-down of the state policy in relation to religious denominations during the Great Patriotic War and first postwar years in the territory of Mordovia was indeed insignificant. Religious people of diverse denominations were under restrictive and punitive measures of the state up to the end of the 1980s. The situation dramatically changed in 1990s when the post-Soviet Mordovia as well as the entire country faced with an intense process of religious renaissance that has been lasting up to present day. During this period religious denominations landscape of Mordovia has become pretty diverse as far as along with Orthodox, Islam and presenting since the 19th century protestant communities the republic became open to unconventional and exotic for the region religious movements such as Krishnaism, Bahá’í Faith, “Jehovah’s Witnesses” and so forth. On the other hand, in the Mordovia Republic of the 1990s destructive processes characteristic for the entire religious situation in Russia emerged. This is the problem of religious radicalism (Salafis/Wahhabis) based on inter-religious contradictions (e.g. between the Russian Orthodox Church and Protestant denominations). At the same time the 1990s in Mordovia was a period of the first steps to establish intercultural dialogue between the Russian Orthodox Church and the Muslim Ummah, and to establish social partnership between the same denominations and the State.

Keywords: Mordovia, denominations, the Russian Orthodox Church, Islam, Ummah, Protestants, Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists, Pentecostals, Lutherans.

Nikolashin V.P. (Michurinsk). Establishment of the Poverty Committees in the CentralBlackEarthRegionVillage: the Initial Stage of Peasantry and the Bolsheviks Standoff………. 84

The concern related to the Poverty Committees establishment in the village of the Central Black Earth region is in focus of this article. The Soviet system put the Poverty Committees establishment within the frame of the commodity politics. Feeling economic danger the peasantry in its return switched on legal and forceful mechanisms of its resistance hence protracting the committees’ establishment for several additional months. The Poverty Committees objectives declared by the Soviet authorities came into contradictions with deep interests of the village that later led to the Committees abolishment. As a response to a strong state pressure the village committed anti-Soviet actions signaling on the final loss of compromise positions in the solution of the agrarian question between the Bolsheviks and the peasantry. It was the first round of the Soviet system advance on the village.

According to the Author the Poverty Committees establishing process protracted for several months. Such a situation was due to the fact that the objectives assigned to the Poverty Committees were in deep contradiction with the economic interests of the village. Moreover, protracted nature of the Poverty Committees establishing process demonstrated weak position of the Soviet system in the village. The confrontation between the Bolsheviks and the peasantry began to acquire real shape and subsequently led to the Poverty Committees abolishment. The Poverty Committees establishment was an attempt of the central government to establish control over the country.

Keywords: the Poverty Committees, peasantry, village, the Soviet system, the Bolsheviks..

Kuznetsov D.A. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Law Enforcement and the Measures of Criminal and Legal Impact on Crime in the Northern Sakhalin (1926–1930)………. 87

The article is devoted to the problems of law enforcement and criminal and legal impact on crime in the Northern Sakhalin in 1926–1930. The article reveals the dynamics of spread and development of both traditional and innovative types of crime: theft, smuggling, illegal sale of alcohol, maintenance of hangout and hop joints.

The author points out at one of the key problems of that period: lack of qualified personnel with either Russian-wide causes (the reluctance of the Soviet government to use the experience and personnel of the Imperial police) or regional ones (“convict” past of the island, specific diversity of local population etc.). The establishment of Rural Executors Institute aimed addressing at least some personnel concerns of the law enforcement agencies has been studies herein.

Special attention is paid to the role of the police and criminal investigation department in preventing and combating crime as well as to new approaches and methods of crime prevention used by the law enforcement agencies of this time. Along with implementation of legal measures stipulated by the legislation of the RSFSR, some new approaches and methods of work, including the coordination of joint actions of the police, criminal investigation department, customs and the bodies of the Unified State Political Department were practicing by the law enforcement agencies of the Northern Sakhalin in 1926–1930.

Keywords: police, criminal investigation department, public order maintenance, crime, smuggling, drug addiction, opium smoking, disorderly conduct.

Karpenko K.S. (Rostov-on-Don). Russian Public Authorities Institutions and the Miners’ Movement of the Rostov Region in 1992–1993: the Coal Mining Industry Complex Modernization Projects………. 90

In November 1991 Russian faced with economic reforms consequently led to “market” accompanied by the impoverishment of the majority of the population and the decline in living standards in many regions. The situation was particularly acute for mining towns of the Rostov Region due to their production was completely oriented at inexistent soviet economic system. This situation stimulated the growth of dissent among the workers of the regional coal mining industry and the establishment of miners’ strikes movement of the Rostov Region. Transformation of the relationship between enterprises engaged in engineering, metallurgy, energy production and extraction of raw materials in Russia influenced the demands made by the Rostov miners during protests in the early 1990s. The article is devoted to the analysis of the coal mining industry complex modernization projects submitted by the Government of Russia, on the one hand, and the miners’ movement of the Rostov Region in the early 1990s, on the other hand.

As the author notes that for two years of confrontation miners’ movement was involved in the political process though insignificantly impacting the Public Authorities Institutions. Transfer of money from the state budget to the accounts of the Rostov Region mines allowed the Russian government to retain the loyalty of workers in a moment of crisis opposition to the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation in the autumn of 1993, at the same time to implement the first part of the modernization project. After changing the system of government of the Russian Federation in December 1993 the relations between the authorities turned out to have a new character, reflected, on the one hand, the rate of conversion capacity of the coal mining industry, and on the other hand, greater politicization of the movement and the growth of miners protest activities.

Keywords: miner’s movement, modernization project, the Rostov Region, strikes, coal mining industry complex.


Hitory of international relations

Nikolaev P.P. (Saint Petersburg). The USSR Impact on the PRC Policy in Relation to the IndiaRepublic (1949–1962)………. 94

Role and place of the USSR in the context of Chinese and Indian relation in 1949–1962 have been revealed by the article. The Author made an attempt to trace the Soviet Union impact on the PRC policy development in relation to the IndiaRepublic within the established period. Additionally background reasons in terms of differences between Chinese and Russian leaders’ standpoints in relation to India yet Chinese and India border conflict in the late 1950s – early 1960s were analyzed.

As the author notes the PRC government was not satisfied with the position of the Soviet side in the Chinese and Indian conflict. Even the Soviet leadership calls for peaceful settlement of the border conflict by both countries perceived in China as a betrayal because, according to the China leaders, within the frame of non-socialist and socialist countries conflict the Soviet Union had to support socialist China only. Direct support of India by the Soviet government became one of the major factors of tension escalation in Chinese and Soviet relations in the early 1960s.

Keywords: PRC, China, the USSR, India, Tibet, international relations, border conflict.


Military history

Poznakhirev V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Russian and Turkish Cooperation in Terms of Protection of the War Prisoners’ Humanitarian Rights during the First World War………. 99

The article reconstructs the conditions, procedure and basic features of Petrograd and Istanbul activities in terms of protection of the war prisoners’ humanitarian rights either Turkish being captured by Russian or Russian captured by Turkey. Using mostly archival documents the author describes a list of objective and subjective factors determining the parties cooperation; identifies key directions of the cooperation within the abovementioned field; comes to a conclusion that due to traditionally confronting nature of Russian and Turkish relations and some other reasons the Russian and the Ottoman Empires unlikely their allies achieved relatively minor success in terms of question in focus. The author emphasizes that Russia treated its cooperation with Turkey pretty passive in general as its main focus was on the status of its compatriots in Austria-Hungary and Germany. However, Petrograd usually did not neglect Turkish initiatives and was very active when it came to the personal war prisoners’ exchange. Unlike all other participating country of the war Russia and Turkey did slightly invoke in mutual reprisals against their war prisoners.

Keywords: war prisoners, humanitarian rights, protecting power, Spain, the Ottoman Empire, the First World War, Russian and Turkish relations, the USA, the Turks.


History of science and technology history

Smirnov V.G. (Saint Petersburg). Academy FellowМ.А. Rykachev’s Trip to the International Meteorological Conference in Paris (1896)………. 102

In 1896 a Major General of the Admiralty, Mikhail Alexandrovich Rykachev (1840/1841–1919) was not only elected as an extraordinary Academy Fellow but also approved as a Director of the Central Physical Observatory of the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences. At the National Industrial Exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod he successfully founded meteorology subdivision that was in particular visited by the Emperor, Nicolas II and his wife, accompanied by the General Admiral, Grand Prince Alexei Alexandrovich, the Minister of Finance, S.Y. Witte, and the President of the Academy of Sciences, the Grand Prince, Konstantin Konstantinovich. In the same 1896 a successful appearance of Academy Fellow M.A. Rykachev in the “international meteorologists’ family” had its place. As a participant of the Paris International Meteorological Conference he was not only got acquainted with the leading meteorologists in Europe, America, Australia and Asia, but also was elected as a member of the International Meteorological Committee, as well as a member of the Commission on the Earth Magnetic Field and Clouds International Observations. Rykachev used his staying abroad to study the scientific equipment and approaches of observation in the major meteorological institutions of Germany, France, Switzerland and Austria where he did learn a lot of new for him. During this trip Rykachev was accompanied by his eldest daughter, Alexandra, who in her letters to her family reported on many interesting social and cultural details. Academy Fellow M.A. Rykachev’s participation in the Paris Meteorological Conference (1896) was a successful start to his subsequent extensive international activities as a Director of the Central Physical Observatory.

Keywords: the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences, Paris, International Conference, meteorology, the Earth Magnetic Field, aeronautics.

Akimov А.V. (Moscow). Monopolistic Associations in the Russian Pipe Industry in the Early 20th Century………. 111

This article examines trends in terms of pipe plants of the Russian Empire to unite into syndication in the late 19th –early 20th century. Despite the importance and urgency of the issue this issue has hardly considered in the national historiography except for some minor works. The development of monopolies in the pipe industry was contributed by a number of factors described in the article: the predominance of foreign capital and insignificant competition, protectionism, the prevalence of consumption on the part of the state and the scale-valued state support and many other reasons. The result was two waves of pipe industry monopolization coincided with the market stagnation and competition increased: in the mid-1890s, wave covering just plants producing iron pipes, and wave of the early 20th century – the period a syndicate of iron pipes called “Truboprodazha” created in 1902 was joined by “Prodamet” created in 1905 within the framework of association of conscientious sales and cast iron pipes. According to the article description these syndicates, particularly in terms of iron pipes production, had a lot of seizures and restrictions of their activities both by products and by enterprises impacting the scope of market coverage and reducing the extent of their influence. At the same time the sales of cast iron pipes within the syndicate was greatly influenced by competition with companies apart from the union that ultimately led to the syndicate self-destruction. Conclusion suggested by the article says that the influence of the syndicates in pipe production to the market was limited and even beneficial to the largest consumers due to guaranteed scopes of goods sold by predetermined prices but the syndicates themselves were unable to fully perform their potential.

Keywords: syndicate, iron pipes, cast iron pipes, monopoly, prices, product, sales, market.


Historical characters

Voronov I.I. (Yaroslavl). Minister of Royal Demesne M.N. Ostorovsky ………. 116

Alexander II great reforms gave many citizens of humble origin of the Russian Empire to join the public service. By the late 19th century the most talented of these officials appeared in the tops of the ministerial bureaucracy and headed several ministries. For instance, in 1881 the Ministry of Royal Demesne was headed by the priest’s grandson – Mikhail Nikolayevich Ostrovsky. Despite the great fame during his lifetime with passing time this name has almost been forgotten and presently an actual personality and work of M.N. Ostrovsky is almost unknown even to specialists. Our contemporaries know much more of his elder brother Alexander Nikolayevich Ostrovsky provided that A.N. Ostrovsky succeeded as a famous playwright more likely due to his brother-Minister support.

Starting his career as a clerical officer of the Office of Simbirsk Civil Governor, Mikhail Nikolayevich soon moved to Saint Petersburg. There, in the capital he got enrolled as an official for special assignments to the State Control Department to further make a brilliant official’s career being later promoted to the Minister of Royal Demesne. Upon abolishment of serfdom the Ministry of Royal Demesne ceased to meet its basic purpose – “guardianship” over the state peasants, and in spite of its conversion was in need of reformation. A number of projects emerged during that time, most of them assumed the Ministry abolishment. In spite of reorganization need M.N. Ostrovsky failed to reform the Minister of Royal Demesne. At the same time due to a kind of influence made on Alexander III he was able to save his Ministry from dissolution. Acting as a Minister M.N. Ostrovsky executed a number of legislative acts. In fact, he developed and insisted in approval of the first law “On Protection Forest Resources of Russia”. M.N. Ostrovsky was a great patriot which made an influence upon his policy as a Minister. He was for restrictions against foreigners, he treated Russian literature with huge respect and patronized not only his brother but also many other Russian writers.

Keywords: M.N. Ostrovsky, Alexander III, Nikolas II, State Control, Ministry of Royal Demesne.

Remneva S.V. (Saint Petersburg). There is No Deeper Love if One Can Fight for Friends (Unknown Biography Facts of the Last Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Tsarist Russia N.N. Pokrovsky and His Family)………. 120

The article describes the previously unknown facts of the biography of the last Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Tsarist Russia, Nikolai Nikolayevich Pokrovsky, and in particular his arrest in 1919 by the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission authorities. The article also traces the fate of the Minister’s family members: his wife and three sons with the same fate as a lot of Russian nobility turned out to be “personas non grata” in the Soviet Russia and forced to adjust to life in a foreign land. The words of the heading are the words N.N. Pokrovsky wrote at the grave of his younger son; these words expressed both pain of loss, his father’s pride and humility to the will of God.

Based on the documents found the author states that the last Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Tsarist Russia, Nikolai Nikolayevich Pokrovsky, was arrested in May 1919 by the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission authorities and sent to Moscow. Upon release in 1921 he escaped from Russia via Estonia to Lithuania to his estate where died on the 12th of December, 1930.

S.V. Remneva underlines that a variant stating that N.N. Pokrovsky was in Petrograd until 1921 to earn on publishing his memoirs is beneath criticism.

Keywords: the Civil War, Yudenich’s Army, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, hostages, arrest, emigration, N.N. Pokrovsky.

Afanasyev V.A.  (Saint Petersburg). “Headquarters Makings” (To 100th Anniversary of the Lieutenant General A.D. Golubev Birth)………. 125

The article devoted to the 100th anniversary of the Lieutenant General A.D. Golubev birth narrates on rising and military service of Arkady Dmitrievich. The article draws attention to its gift as a Major military facilitator and a military leader. The Author notes that A.D. Golubev was an encyclopedist, erudite and an intellectual man. His amazing personal traits admired his comrades-in-arms: his chiefs gave brilliant characteristics; his subordinates treated him as a good sample.

V.A. Afanasyev traces the combat history of an officer who came from the Russian hinterland, has complicated way from a cadet to the Lieutenant General. The article points out at numerous military achievements of Arkady Dmitrievich, his brilliant ability to establish staff work inside of the combat environment. Ending up the War as 30 years old Colonel A.D. Golubev kept on to educate throughout his entire life. According to the author, his life is an ideal model for modern defenders of the Homeland.

Keywords: Arkady Dmitrievich Golubev, 30thLeningrad Guards Rifle Corps, Headquarters, the Great Patriotic War.


History of culture

Salkova О.А. (Moscow). The War, Give Way to Art!………. 131

2014 – 170th birth anniversary of a prominent Russian artist, Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov.   2014 – 415th birth anniversary of another outstanding Spanish artist Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez. The Author examines spiritual relationship of these great masters of the brush verifying the basis of their spiritual unity to be under the level of artists protest against the most terrible phenomenon in human history – the war. Investigating the artists activities O.A. Salkova emphasizes the emotional component of their work stating that it is largely determined the intensity of human experience and, hence, being embodied in the paintings made both of them brilliant.

According to O.A. Salkova, the paintings of Polenov, Renoir, Velázquez and other prominent artists depicts the War and more convincing than any words. Reflecting the truth of the war they state that Life is the basic value. Staring at the paintings anyone is eager to exclaim: “the War, give way to Art“!

Keywords: war, art, Her Imperial Highness Grand Princess Maria Vladimirovna, Poltorak, Chelyshev, Polenov, Renoir, Velázquez, “Exhibition of Christ”, Alexander III, Titian.



Grinev A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Citation Problems in the National Historiography (Case Study of the Most Recent Scientific Works on the Russian America History)………. 136

The article is devoted to the critical analysis of the citation in the modern scientific literature on the Russian America history. This problem has a broad and principle significance as citation now is the most important scientometric index of all largest bibliometrical databases, such as Web of Science, Scopus and Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI). Within the article the author provides the characteristics of different types of the citations; provides some explanations of low citation indexes of Russian historians and demonstrates various approaches (not always fair and correct) to enhance citedness; moreover he touches upon a “painful” problem connected with lack of citation and unconcealed plagiarism. As an outcome of the author’s analysis it is clear that Russian historiography has many problems and tasks to solve in terms of citation, both aiming at improving the scientific culture and scientometric tools.

Keywords: scientometrics, Hirsch index, impact factor, Russian Science Citation Index, historiography, scientific culture, Russian America.


Will be history tomorrow

Ustyundag S. (Istanbul, Turkey). National Stereotypes Related to Turkey in Today’s Russian Press………. 142

The article deals with the problem of stereotypization in the national consciousness. As a particular example we consider the stereotypes that exist in today’s Russian press in relation with Turkey. Conditionally the article can be divided into two parts. The first part is theoretical one and devoted to the definition of a national stereotype. The second part considers actual performance of national stereotypes in relation with Turkey, its culture and people throughout Russian press. The author makes analysis of the materials taken from a variety of publications, such as “Russkiy Reporter”, “Izvestia”, the online edition “Slon.ru”, “Expert”, etc., in order to give a detailed picture of the concern under analysis. Finally the author comes to the conclusion that the Russian press is a source of a diverse assessment. There are both positive and negative national stereotypes. There is also either a fear brought by the past relationships with Turkey or a desire to establish a new vector of development of the relations between two countries. In conclusion the author stresses that the Mass Media in their publications reflect not only the Russian stereotypes about Turkey and its people but on the contrary – stereotypes that according to the Russians themselves have been existing about them in Turkey.

Keywords: Turkey, Russia, stereotypization, national stereotypes, template thinking, Mass Media.


Reviews of scientific publications

Ippolitov G.M., Repinetsky A.I. (Samara), Yefremov V.Y. (Volsk, Saratov Region), Pilipenko S.A. (Samara). An Attempt to Put Oral History into Written Egosource………. 146

A collective review of the book systematizing oral history materials during the Nazi Germany and its satellites occupation of the Soviet territory of Donbass during the Great Patriotic War draws attention to the originality of the research plan, implemented, however, with the minor methodological flaws.

According to the authors this book is highly problematic from the point of view of the Russian patriotism. According to reviewers a patriot of the Fatherland means a man always writing the word “Fatherland” with the capital letter. A patriot of Russia is the one who takes the entire history of the country as its own. No matter prior or after 1917; prior or after 1991.

According to the authors’ belief reviewed book can provide a lot of information including data unique. Therefore, the book under review, according to them, can claim to the role of a written historical egosource.

Keywords: D.N. Titarenko, Т. Penter; oral history; history of everyday life; the Nazism; occupation; the Soviet historiography; the Great Patriotic War; the Second World War; historical source; historical-anthropological approach; representativeness of sources; eyewitnesses; experience.

Shapovalov S.N. (Krasnodar). Review of A.N. Eremeeva’s Monograph “Kuban Cultural Life in the 20th Century”………. 157

The review analyzes the contents of the monograph written by A.N. Eremeeva “Kuban Cultural Life in the 20th Century”. It emphasizes the connection with previous studies of the writer, new ideas of A.N. Eremeeva in establishing a coherent picture of the history of the regional cultural life.

According to the review author, monograph is based on a broad and diverse base of source consisting of manuscripts, statistical data, legislative acts of the state, the materials of official nature, collections of official documents, periodicals materials, and sources of personal origin. The author worked out a lot of central (the State Record Office of the Russian Federation, the Russian State Record Office of Literature and Art, the Russian State Record Office of Political and Social History, the RussianAcademy of Sciences Record Office, the Russian Record Office of Modern History) and regional record offices. This work resulted in the introduction to new materials into scientific circulation expanding insight into the cultural life of the Kuban in the XX century.

Keywords: Krasnodar Region, 20th century, cultural life, cultural policy, intellectuals.



Serebryanskaya G.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). His Entire Life Is Serving to his Fatherland………. 159

The review analyzes the contents of the monograph written by A.N. Eremeeva “Kuban Cultural Life in the 20th Century”. It emphasizes the connection with previous studies of the writer, new ideas of A.N. Eremeeva in establishing a coherent picture of the history of the regional cultural life.

According to the review author, monograph is based on a broad and diverse base of source consisting of manuscripts, statistical data, legislative acts of the state, the materials of official nature, collections of official documents, periodicals materials, and sources of personal origin. The author worked out a lot of central (the State Record Office of the Russian Federation, the Russian State Record Office of Literature and Art, the Russian State Record Office of Political and Social History, the RussianAcademy of Sciences Record Office, the Russian Record Office of Modern History) and regional record offices. This work resulted in the introduction to new materials into scientific circulation expanding insight into the cultural life of the Kuban in the XX century.

Keywords: Krasnodar Region, 20th century, cultural life, cultural policy, intellectuals.

Berlyavsky L.G. (Rostov-on-Don). Yakov Abramovich Perekhov (to Commemorate 80th Birth Anniversary)………. 161

The article examines major milestones of life and career of the historian from Rostov Yakov Abramovich Perekhov. The author of the articles gave a description of the main directions of the research as well as rich and varied social activities of the celebrant.

Y.A. Perekhov is an author of the first dissertation on the history of the Cossacks becoming largely a methodologist of this major research direction. Numerous researchers of Don and Kuban Cossacks history consider this author as a Teacher.

A gifted teacher, historian, science establisher and writer, Y.A. Perekhov, is a magnetic personality building creative atmosphere in the study of not just the history of the Cossacks but Russian history in general.

Keywords: Y.A. Perekhov, biography, research and social activities, Rostov-on-Don.