Klio #11 (107) 2015

Guest of the issue – the State Hermitage Museum


Trofimova A.A. (Saint Petersburg). Modern studies of ancient heritage. Works of art and monuments of material culture ………. 9

Classical archaelogy 

Fine Art and Material Culture of the Northern Pontic Ancient Greek Colonies

Chistov D.E., Ilyina J.I., Shcherbakova O.E. (Saint Petersburg). Cookware and Kitchen Utensils from the Archaic Berezan Settlement  ………. 13

The article describes kitchen utensils, wheel-made forms of cooking ceramics, as well as inner construction of cooking stoves and ovens, explored during the archaeological survey in the North-eastern part of the archaic Berezan Settlement (located on the modern BerezanIsland, Mykolaiv region, Ukraine). Authors consider the problems of construction of ovens and their functions, types and origin, as well as the chronology of shapes of the kitchen utensils, which were used in everyday life by Greek colonists.

Keywords: archaology, Classical archaology, pottery, cooking ceramics, coarse ware, ovens, houses, Northern Black Sea region, Berezan, Archaic era, Greek colonization.

Eremeeva A.A. (Saint Petersburg).The Dynamics of Marketing between the Ancient Myrmekion and Heraklea Pontike in Antiquity (Based on the Stamped Amphorae Data)  ………. 26

The paper presents the study of 717 amphora stamps from Heraklea Pontike excavated in the ancient city of Myrmekion. Heraklean stamps from Myrmekion, those amenable to reading, were correlated with the list of names considered by Vladimir I. Kats, and also with his chronological estimations. On the basis of the calculation formula for the relative density of distribution of the amount of goods imported from one center to another, and the relative density of import into Myrmekion for each of the stamping periods in Heraklea were calculated. Based on these, the dynamics of marketing between the two centers was analyzed. In general, the intensity of finds of Heraklea stamps in the ancient city Myrmekion corresponds to the intensity of Heraklean trade at various stages. The hit of the trade relations falls on mid-380s-mid-360s BC and corresponds to the prosperity of both cities. Yet, there arises the problem of the War for Theodosia, which broke out at the said time. It seems likely that written sources exaggerated its significance for the economics of Bosporan cities. Clarification of this matter proposed in the article proves the importance of qualitative and quantitative analysis of archaeological materials, stamped amphorae in particular.

Keywords: amphorae stamps; Heraklea Pontike; Myrmekion; economic communications; dynamics of trade; archaeological excavations; War for Theodosia.

Kolosov V.P. (Saint Petersburg). The Myrmekion Ash Hill II and the Problem of Its Interpretation ………. 35

The article is dedicated to the research of archaeological complex known as an Ash Hill II, which is located on the territory of the Myrmekion ancient settlement. The article gives brief review of similar complexes which are typical for ancient religious tradition. It considers the history of one of the largest on Bosporus and the largest one in the Myrmekion settlement ash embankments research. Records about structure and chronological stages of the embankments` existing are provided in the article and these records based on statistical analysis of mass material. Different views on the problem of interpretation of the complex as a religious object are given in the article. Even now there are discussions about this problem in the science. This article attempts to find out the distribution of the finds connected with the sacral sphere in layers of the Ash Hill and on the basis of it, to come nearer to understanding the object functions.

Keywords: Northern Black Sea littoral, Bosporan sanctuaries, ash hill, mass archaeological material.

Radolitskaia J.S. (Saint Petersburg). An Attempt to Trace Mending of the 4th-century BCE Greek Golden Jewellery in Antiquity  ………. 42

The article is dedicated to a little-studied issue of repairing the pieces of Greek golden jewellery in the times of Classical Antiquity. The examples of repair work of different levels of complexity are analyzed: from mending the blank golden sheet and replacing single elements in complete object to some serious operations having led to some significant modifications in the construction and external form of the objects. The variety of objects is chronologically restricted by ones dated back to the IV century BC. In order to reveal the traces of the ancient repairing, there are postulated the principles of construction of the Greek pieces of jewellery of a given class, and then objects which do not comply with the principles are analyzed. The strongest violations were revealed in four objects which had been found at the periphery of the Greek world (Italy, Thracia, and North Pontic region), but originated from the workshops of the major cities and suffered from the «intervention» of the provincial jewelers. For example, the earrings from the Mogilan burial mound near the Bulgarian town of Vratsa (NationalArchaeologicalMuseum, Sofia). This piece of jewellery which had obviously been badly damaged was assembled by a provincial master in an arbitrary manner, and therefore the principles of element fixation were violated as well as the proportions were distorted because of replacing a multi-level garland with a single-level one. In the pendants from Kul-Оbа mound (The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg) the length of the garland was increased, the order of its pendants was modified and several nonfunctional elements were added. In other pieces of jewellery with pendants from the same mound (State Hermitage, St. Petersburg) the jeweler combined a triangular plaque with a single pendant previously removed from another piece of jewellery, and thus some full-fledged and unique in their design objects emerged. In the earrings from Taranto (NationalArchaeologicalMuseum, Taranto) a separate adornment – a boat-shaped earring – was completed with an expensive but tasteless garland. Revealing such operations makes possible to research the destiny of the objects and reconstruct their original look; provides data for studying the places of their production and ways of their migration and it helps to understand the ideas among the jewelers; and also adds one more trait to the burial traditions of the given cultures.

Keywords: Greek jewellery, antique repair, history of restoration, provincial jeweler, jewellery of rich style, construction of Greek adornment, original shape of adornment, the Kul-Oba Barrow, the Mogilansky Grave, National Archaeological Museum in Sofia, National Archaeological Museum in Taranto, The State Hermitage Museum.

Jijina N.C. (Saint Petersburg). Remarks on the Typology of the Décor on Wooden Sarcophagi from Bosporus. Archaeological Finds in the Necropoli of Nymphaion and Pantikapaion  ………. 53

Against the background of the brief excursus into the history of the Bosporan Kingdom the author of the article enounces her view of the development of art and artful crafts in this region presenting artifacts from the unique Hermitage collection of wooden sarcophagi excavated in the necropoli of the Greek colonies in the European territories of Bosporus – especially Pantikapaion and Nymphaion. The HermitageMuseum holds the world’s most outstanding collection of such pieces of ancient applied art dating back to the period from the edge of the V–IV centuries BCE till early centuries CE. Items of extraordinary preservation, these samples of the ancient woodcarving that are either covered with painted decor, or ornamented with added applique, make it possible to imagine not only the development and specific character of certain types of sepulchral decoration usual in Classical antiquity, but also suggest formulation of larger issues. The latter are connected with the development and changes of aesthetic preferences in the antique society, as well as with the dawn and evolution of artistic types and varieties of the decor in the realities of provincial culture, unique in its distinctive features. The exact archaeological and historical context being the principal instrument to judge upon art and culture in general is especially significant for the above mentioned finds in the North Pontic Greek colonies.

Keywords: Bosporan Kingdom, Pantikapaion, Nymphaion, Bosporan necropoli, wooden sarcophagi from Bosporus, sepulchral decor, plaster cast applique, outskirts of the oikoumene, provincial art, art of Classical Antiquity, the Hermitage collections.


Fine Arts of Classical Antiquity 

Pieces of Antique Art in the Collection of the State Hermitage Museum


Trofimova A.A. (Saint Petersburg). Herodotus and Kleanthes: Metamorphoses of an Antique Portrait. To the Study of an Hermitage Sculpture from the Campana Collection  ………. 60

The author of the article presents a brief review of the Hermitage collection of ancient sculptures portraying several renowned Greeks – philosophers, orators and poets. A specific feature of the collection is that its items originate from certain historical collections of the XVIII–XIX centuries. The museum holds well-known portraits that echo numerous replicas in other museums around the world, and also items whose study was less detailed. A herm with the added phony inscription «Herodotus», which came to the Hermitage from the Campana collection, is under the author’s precise consideration. Having undertaken a deep research into the item’s condition, as well as into its reproductions and identifications published in the XIX century, the author re-creates the history of its restoration process tracing the change from some piece of art to the image of «the father of history». Through the analysis of today’s scholarly opinions on the analogues to the Hermitage herm (the Prado and the J. Paul Getty replicas) the author makes a conclusion that the herm should be referred to as a portrait of a stoic philosopher, probably Kleanthes. Based on stylistic analogues the suggested date of the original, after the herm is modeled, goes back as far as to ca. 280 BC, not the second  half of the V century BC as has been supposed by Oscar Waldhauer. Problems of the studies of Ancient Greek portraiture are quite typical for the antique Hermitage collection. The conclusions and results of this study are to be published in the Hermitage Corpus of antique sculpture – the collection’s full catalogue.

Keywords: ancient Greek portrait; collection of ancient sculpture at the Hermitage Museum; herm of Herodotus; portrait of Kleanthes; G.-P. Campana; The State Hermitage Museum; history of restoration.

Semenova J.G. (Saint Petersburg). Two panels of Roman sarcophagi with «half-open doors» from the Hermitage Collection. History of the monuments and the analogues  ………. 68

Two front panels of Roman marble sarcophagi, now held by The State Hermitage Museum are discussed in the paper. Both are decorated with relief that presents common symbolic motif, the so-called «half-open doors». The pieces belong to quite well-known and wide spread groups of Roman sarcophagusi – architectonic and strigillated sarcophagi with the similar motif, also known as «Hades’ doors», and many analogues to the Hermitage items are to be found in various museum collections. The author of the paper discusses typology, symbolism and interpretation of the principal subject, her reasons based on the analysis of monuments from Hermitage compared to the pieces from other museum collections – Palazzo Conservatori and the Vatican Museums in Rome, Alcazar at Cordoba, Palazzo Medici-Riccardi at Florence, Museum at Capua etc. The sarcophagi with the image of Hermes Psychopompus originates from the collection of a famous architect A. Montferrand. The information about its history collected by the author is also presented in the paper.

Keywords: The State Hermitage Museum; Roman sepulchral sculpture; architectonic sarcophagi; strigillated sarcophagi; «half-open doors»; Hades’ doors; symbolism of Roman sarcophagi; A. Montferrand’s collection.

Nikulina I.V., Andreeva E.M. (Saint Petersburg). The history of restoration of panels of sarcophagi with the «half-open doors from the Collection of the StateHermitageMuseum  ………. 75

This article considers two monumental sculptures from the collection of the Department of Classical Antiquities at the StateHermitageMuseum – panels of the so-called «half-open doors» sarcophagi. The exhibits have different origins and a long and complicated history of existence. One large bas-relief with strigillated ornament was transferred from the TauridePalace to the ImperialMuseum of the New Hermitage in 1851. The second sarcophagi was received in 1926 from the former Museum of Applied Arts at the Baron Stieglitz Central School of Technical Drawing. In the XIX century this monument was part of a large collection of ancient sculpture owned to the architect and builder of St. Isaac’s Cathedral in St. Petersburg, a passionate collector A. Montferrand. The article is focused on the description of the exhibits’ preservation. Sculptures have numerous features of old restorations made in different times. For example, gluing joints, marble and plaster additions and metal fittings.

Keywords: sculpture, antique monument, The State Hermitage Museum, sarcophagi, bas-relief, Tauride Palace, conservation, marble, plaster, Au. Montferrand, L. von Klenze, strigilato, Hermes.

Larionov A.I., Frolov A.P. (Saint Petersburg). Thinking about the Mosaic from Lod. An Afterword to the Exhibition at the Hermitage ………. 80

The authors of the article represent a detailed discussion on certain difficult aspects of ancient mosaic art. Specificity of the case is that both of the authors are not only art historians, but artists who teach and practice monumental decorative art, and thus they are highly experienced in the technique and technology of creating mosaic panels, various in scale and complexity. It is especially important, both in scientific and practical sense, that a detailed research of the genuine mosaic dating back to the Late Antiquity is undertaken by specialists who are able to appreciate the significance of a relatively newly found original example of ancient art typical for the exact region, in the given case – for ancient Judea, in the close vicinity of Lod in the territory of present-day Israel. Temporary exhibition of the Lod mosaic — this outstanding piece of Antique art – loaned to the StateHermitageMuseum in 2014–2015 became an occasion for the study which resulted in the published discussion and a master class for students of the Department of Monumental and Decorative Art of the Saint Petersburg Stieglitz State Academy of Art and Design.

Keywords: Late Antiquity; mosaic; technology of creating mosaic panels; controversy; Lod; Israel; The State Hermitage Museum.

Classical Antiquity’s Legacy in Fine Arts and Culture of the New Age

Balakhanova J.B. (Saint Petersburg). Emblematic in the age of Catherine the Great. History of formation of emblematic part in the Russian Empress’ book collection ………. 91

The author of the article discusses various aspects in the history and formation of a comprehensive emblematic section of Catherine’s the Great Bibliotheque, and informs a reader about the Russian audience’s new experience of making acquaintance with European emblematic tradition, which happened during Peter’s the Great reforms. The latter resulted in certain fundamental changes in the reader’s attitude towards emblematic genre that germinated in the age of Enlightenment. Several popular emblematic subjects that found their implementation in Russian and West European fine arts are described separately. Emblematic part of the Russian empress’ book collection is reconstructed based on the hand-written systematic catalogue prepared by Catherine’s direct librarian Alexander Ivanovich Luzhkov, and now kept at the State Hermitage Museum Archive. With this document a reliable reconstruction of the said part of Catherine’s library becomes possible. Quite a few emblematic books and treatises that originate from the empress’ Bibliotheque, have been preserved up to now, partly kept in the collection of The State Hermitage Museum Library.

Keywords: emblematic, emblem, emblem book, Catherine the Great, Alexander Luzhkov, Library of The State Hermitage Museum, Archive of The State Hermitage Museum, Age of Enlightenment, perception of Classical Antiquity.

Kokareva S.V. (Saint Petersburg). Italian Glyptics of the 18th and 19th centuries in the HermitageMuseum. Ancient Monuments Reproduced by a Roman gem engraver Giovanni-Battista Weder ………. 105

The article considers works of gem engravers in the XVIII century. They dedicated a part of their creative life to reproduce and repeat making works and sculptures dating back to Classical Antiquity, which were created by predecessors. Among such artists is a little-known Roman gem engraver Giovanni-Battista Weder. The author of the article presents several art works of Weder, which reproduce certain ancient sculptures and gems. Two of twenty cameos made by G.-B. Weder that are held by the Department of West European Applied Art at The State Hermitage Museum were recently attributed by the author to the engraver. In his creativity Giovanni-Battista Weder appears as a typical representative of Roman glyptic of the last decades of the XVIII century. A consistent follower of Classical art, he used to repeat the original works rather than create them, but he was a highly experienced art professional and a virtuoso in technique of creating. He was appreciated by his contemporaries and had never lack of projects from, for instance, Vatican or Catherine the Great. Still, his revealed legacy is limited by the twenty cameos carved approximately in the late 1770s — 1780s, and kept at the Hermitage, as well as by several more pieces of art stored in other collections.

Keywords: Italian glyptic of the XVIII century; Giovanni-Battista Weder; rethinking and reworking the subjects of Classical Antiquity; Catherine the Great; The State Hermitage Museum.

Dmitrieva E.N. (Saint Petersburg).The Hermitage Collection of Prints from the Farnese Gems  ………. 111

The article studies a group of prints of engraved gems, stored in the Department of Classical Antiquities at the State Hermitage. According to the documents describing the acquisition and the deposit into storage, this category of prints for over fifty years has been thought to come from James Tassie workshop. However, during the inventorying process it became possible to redo the clarification of those things, and it resulted in identifying two groups of prints: one from the Ivan Betskoi collection and another from the Farnese collection of carved gems. Despite the fact that the catalogue of prints from the Farnese collection created in the end of the XVIII century is well-known to scholars, the prints themselves have never been published and were considered lost. His article presents the research thanks to which it could be possible to isolate the Farnese prints in the huge dactyliotheque of the State Hermitage museum, and for a once wrongly identified group of prints has got a status of independent and unique collection with provenance.

Keywords: prints of engraved gems, the Farnese collection, The State Hermitage museum, Bartolomeo Paoletti, intaglios, cameos.

Vasko D.S. (Saint Petersburg). An Odessa Collector Eugene A. Shumansky and His Collection of Antiquities ………. 118

The article tells about the collection of antiquities that was once held by an Odessa collector, junior captain (ober-lieutenant) E.A. Shumansky. It was unsuccessfully offered for sale to the Imperial Hermitage in the early XX century. This collection was partly represented on 12 preserved photographs. The antiquities were found in the Northern Black Sea region, some artifacts came from Italy and Greece, also including several forgeries. Nine items from this collection have been found in the OdessaArchaeologicalMuseum. The author has also got more specific information on the biography of E.A. Shumansky, who was not only an officer and an amateur collector, but also a writer and a monarchist. He was also known as «Napoleon» in the Odessa cardsharpers’ syndicate. This person and the fate of his collection are very typical for that time. In the end of the XIX–beginning of the XX centuries people in Russian Empire became very interested in collecting the ancient monuments. To fulfill the demand of this quick-growing market, the illegal excavations were activated, the forgeries were produced and some artifacts from Italy and Greece were resold. Because of a lot of collections of antiquities which were made and scattered across the Russian Empire some artifacts are able to be found in the local museums.

Keywords: E.A. Shumansky; The State Hermitage Museum; Odessa Archaeological Museum; Odessa Bulletin; Odessa Society for History and Antiquities, the Odessa Assembly of the Nobility.




Gatina Z.S. (Kazan). History of medicine and local history of the Russian Empire in the texts produced by medics ………. 131

This article studies the physician’s attitude to the historical background of their profession, as well as local history of the provinces in the Russian Empire. Using historical texts produced by medics the author identifies, in what way the history of medical profession in the 19th century was described, how did their histories correspond with the development of medicine in the West, and what caesurae were used to separate their narratives into several chronological pieces. The study is based on medico-topographical descriptions that help to clarify how and with what intentions the local histories of Russian imperial provinces were written, and what were the differences between them.

Keywords: history of medicine, Russian Empire, institutional history, social history, local history, medico-topographical descriptions.


General History 

Potekhina I.P. (Saint Petersburg). The Phenomenon of Services in the history of the financial system of the medieval papacy  ………. 142

The main object of study in the article is one of so-called benefice taxes, levied by the medieval papacy, known as services. The services were charges paid by patriarchs, archbishops, bishops and abbots on the occasion of their appointment or confirmation by the pope in Consistory. Exploring the problem of the origin and use of that fee, the author finds that as a means of replenishing the papal budget services were known long before their conversion to regular church tax. The extent of the application of the services depended directly upon the number of prelates who were collates or confirmed by the pope. Therefore, their inclusion in the papal tax system was inextricably linked with the development of theocratic pretensions of the pontiffs, and the doctrine of their sovereignty over the whole church property (plenitudo potestatis). The period of most active application of services occurred during the epoch of the Avignon Captivity of Popes (1309–1378), after which the proceeds of this tax to the papal treasury (not without a pressure of devotees of the Conciliar movement) had to be gradually reduced. The article represents the first attempt in the national historiography to investigate the services as a specific taxlevied by the Papal See.

Keywords: history of papacy, Papal See, the Avignon Captivity of Popes, papal revenues, papal taxation, benefice taxes, services, spoils, procurations, Pope John XXII, servitia communia, servitia minuta.

Eylbart N.V. (Saint Petersburg). Moscow Campaign of Prince Vladislav in 1617–1618 in the eyes of Polish witnesses  ……….  148

The article considers the history of Moscow campaign of the Polish prince Vladyslav in 1617–1618. Under the influence of the ambitious father, King Sigismund III, Prince hoped to find support among the Russian nobility and regain the Moscow crown, having deposed the elected tsar Mikhail Romanov. There is a small amount of historical sources, which allow describing this event now. The State Archive of Sweden (Riksarkivet) kept letters of participants of that campaign: counselors Vladislav Konstantin Plikhta and Adam Novodvorsky, and Grilevski – a commander of one of the Polish army group. On the basis of those documents the author of article reconstructed and analyzed this stage of the Polish-Russian War, which ended with signing the Deulinsky Peace Treaty (Deulinsky Armistice). The article also offers the author’s translation from Polish of fragments of letters of the aforesaid participants of the campaign.

Keywords: Polish-Russian War, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Muscovite state, Sigismund III, Prince Vladislav, assault on Moscow, Deulino Peace Treaty, Riksarkivet.

History of Russia 

Kholod A.S. (Saint Petersburg). The anniversary exhibition 1911 in Tsarskoye Selo  ……….  152

The aim of the study is to find out the significance of the Anniversary Exhibition of 1911 in Tsarskoye Selo. The preparation process, realization and its results are considered consistently in the article. In the 1910s there was carried out a large number of All-Russian art-industrial exhibitions, and the exhibition in Tsarskoye Selo according to its size can be considered as one of them. In the beginning of the XX century, after Emperor Nicholas II arrived there, Tsarskoye Selo became his permanent residence and actually capital of the Russian Empire. Some of the guard’s regiments were moved there at that time and new buildings for them were constructed (including the famous «Fedorovsliy gorodok» in Russian style). The continuing presence of the Emperor in Tsarskoye Selo and the relative stabilization of situation in the state (after the Revolution of 1905) coincide with the jubilees, in particular the 300th anniversary of the House of Romanov and the 200th anniversary of Tsarskoye Selo. The last one was celebrated widely due to the status of the town as the Emperor’s residence. Thus, the art-industrial exhibition, which was dated to the jubilee, had turned into a major event and could be ranked on a par with exhibitions in Kiev and Kostroma in 1913. Moreover, it had exceeded the bounds of the usual industrial exhibition and, like other exhibitions of that time, acquired a strong cultural component.

Keywords: Tsarskoye Selo, Saint Petersburg province, Nicholas II, art-industrial exhibitions, cultural history, Russian history.

Gessen V.Y. (Saint Petersburg). To the history of withdrawal of armament supplies from Petrograd’s population by authorities (1918–1924)  ………. 156

The article continues observation of historical materials on the topic “Cultural revolution by Bolsheviks in Petrograd-Leningrad (October 1917-1929)” that we have been developing in our publications in “Klio”. As well as previous articles, it is based on unused archive data. It investigates problems connected with taking collections of antique armory, along with other belongings, from population by Bolsheviks. Removing of treasures was intensified during the period of possibility of city’s seizure by troops of Yudenich. Armory came to storages of State museum fund and then it departed to Hermitage, for sale or for remelting. Attention is drawn to the great amount of removed armory of eastern origin that was taken by Russian researches-orientalists and travelers during their expeditions.

Keywords: ammunition, withdrawal, collection, regimental flags, saber, gun, Anichkov Palace, Narcompros, Hermitage, Department of Narcompros.

Pavlov M.Y. (Armavir). Role of the Secretary of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) A.А. Kuznetsov in selection of the Leningrad Party staff ………. 169

On the basis of archival documents, the article deals with the problem of so-called «personnel expansion» of Leningrad leaders in the postwar period. Besides, determined the place and role of the Secretary of the Central Committee A. Kuznetsova in nominating and placement of party functionaries of Leningrad in various regions of the Soviet. The author emphasizes that, this process was initiated by Stalin and actively implement by his closest comrade Zhdanov before Kuznetsov was transferred to Moscow, and after spring of 1946. The work shows the desire of the investigation, managed by «top», reveal a broad «conspiratorial network» and trump up a collective «work». However, despite of all the efforts of investigators, the materials of “Leningrad case” did not appear convincing evidences to sustaining the charges against the «Leningrads» in the organisation «anti-Party group» and criminal positioning of cadres with the purpose to usurp the power.

Keywords: Secretary of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), Personnel Department of the Central Committee, A.А. Kuznetsov, I.V. Stalin, «anti-Party group», positioning of cadres, Leningrad Party organization, repressions, «Leningrad case».


History of International Relations

Grebenshchikova G.A. (Saint Petersburg). Russia and England on the leg of change: «Alliance of friendship and good agreement» ………. 176

The article is dedicated to Russians and English joint contribution of naval forces into struggle with Napoleonic France on her political existence’ finish phase in 1812—1814. Considered to be in passive conditions and not participating in active operations during Patriotic War 1812, Baltic Fleet, in really fact, was in another situation. Archives documents are being keeping in two Federal Russian Archives and their research allow us to formed other point of view on this problem. The representing documents in the article are completed the small book which had been published in 1912 and dedicated to Patriotic War 1812’ one hundred anniversary.

Keywords: Napoleonic Wars, safety threat, Saint-Petersburg and London, alliance’s necessity, naval politic, squadron’s vigorous, base ports, battle operations.

Pravdyuk D.A. (Saint Petersburg). Peruvian factor in Chilean-Bolivian territorial dispute: history and modernity ………. 184

Long-lasting nature of Chile-Bolivia territorial dispute is caused by multiple factors, complicating a search for compromise. The most crucial of them is an existence of a third participant, whose intervention is capable of changing radically the course of negotiations or to nullify the most promising initiatives of conflict settlement – Peru. In this article the author studies the role of Peru in Chilean-Bolivian dispute from its appearance after the Second Pacific War 1879–1884 and analyzes its actions and motives. Historical retrospective leaves no doubt in the fact that territorial dispute between Chile and Bolivia would have much more chances to be settled if Peru didn’t have plans of getting back its former territories, which were offered to Bolivia by Chile multiple times.

Keywords: Latin America, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, territorial dispute, sea access.

Komissarov A.V. (Moscow). Geopolitical views of the ideologists of Eurasianism  ………. 189

The article deals with the geopolitical views of representatives of major Eurasian Movement 1920–1930s. Analyzed the origins and background of this phenomenon, the interaction of geographical and geopolitical factors, ethnic and cultural elements; provided an understanding of Eurasian theorists place and role of the post-revolutionary Russia in space; characterized by their views on the relations between Russia–the USSR and other countries; analyzed their thinking about the fate of Russia. A significant place is occupied by the analysis of the historiosophical concept of Eurasionists. The definition of the concept of «geopolitics» is given. At the core of the article – the major works of the ideologues of Eurasianism, which give rich material for characterizing theoretical heritage of the leaders of Eurasianism.

Keywords: Eurasian geopolitics, ideology, self-centeredness, cculture, Europe, the West, the League of Nations, N.S. Troubetzkoy, P.N. Savitsky, Romano-Germanic.


Military History 

Scotoni G.R. (Rimini, Italy). Hitler’s plans of global war and Italian participation in their implementation in Caucasus (1941–1942)  ……….  194

The article is devoted to the analysis of Hitler’s plan for global war, to which Italy joined since January, 1942. When the European conflict became global in scope, in Berlin the three States of fascist bloc divided the world among themselves, according to the Axis’ canons. Hitler believed that the outcome of the Second World War was to be decided in the South of Russia and prepared for a breakthrough in countries of the Middle East through the Caucasus. Strategists of the Wehrmacht planned an attack on the Caucasus to the oil fields of Iraq and Iran. But also Rome formulated a special plan for the «Eastern campaign». Mussolini has already considered the region of Mosul as an area of italian interests and intended to use a pretender to the throne of Georgia, Prince Irakli Bagration-Mukhrani, for the restoration of an «independent» monarchy in Tbilisi On the basis of extensive historical material and new archival documents, the author examines Italian political and military plans in the Middle East, the secret aims and real role of fascist Italy.

Keywords: Second World War, Hitler, Mussolini, Caucasus, Georgia, Iraq.


History of Sciaence and Technology 

Losik A.V., Sherba A.N. (Saint Petersburg). History of armament and military technique (VVT), military production of Saint Petersburg–Leningrad in XVIII-XX ages in labours of the Petersburg (Leningrad) scientists: bibliographic state-of-the-art review  ……….  199

The article represents the analysis of materials (dissertations, monographic editions) on historical and scientific disciplines: «Russian history», «Military history», «History of Science and Technology», which are conducted by scientists and employees of universities and organizations of Saint Petersburg since 1990s till nowadays. Conclusion is that during the researches in Saint Petersburg was formed scientific school on the problems of history of military production, Russian and regional (St. Petersburg–Leningrad) military industrial complex, development of armament and military technique, which actively works presently. Basic results are formed based on results, got in the end of researches on the main spheres of this school. There was an opinion that the study of the main spheres of regional armament and military technique, development of armament and military technique considerably increases if to use possibilities of not only specialty named «Russian history» but also other contiguous historical scientific disciplines such as «Military history» and «History of Science and Technology».

Keywords: military production, military-industrial complex, weapons, military equipment, researches, monographic editions, thesis, scientific school.

Reviews of Scientific Publications 

Losik A.V., Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). Revival of Leningrad industry after the Great Patriotic War: problems, stages and features  ………. 209

The article shows the review for the book of famous St. Petersburg scientist and historian A.Z. Vakser «Revival of Leningrad industry. 1945–beginning of 1950s». This review reveals the features of researching methodological approaches used by author for studying the chosen theme, emphasizes a large number of used archival sources, finds out the main directions of scientific interpretation of ways and methods of working activity of Leningrad citizens, which led to possibility of revival in short terms the scientific and industrial potential of Leningrad. The article tells about achieving the ways for overcoming the deepest disproportions of economic life of city connected with violations of material, energetic and resource base of industry, with resolving the staff problems for providing the social and economical revival and development of Leningrad.

Keywords: consequence of war, economiс revival, staff problems, military defense potential, administrative-command economy, conversion, reconversion.

Ishenko A.S. (Novocherkassk). Reviewed Work: “Vladimir Monomakh, the Prince myth-maker” by D. Borovkov ………. 216

This article represents author’s critical analysis of sources and other information about Vladimir Monomakh and his intention of determining the motives that had influenced on creating of his image at chronicle. There are demonstrated evident dignities and disadvantages of the book, for example some superficiality and selectivity of presentation of material. In general the appraisal given by D. Borovkov to Vladimir Monomakh is considered as objective. By no means, the author too much idealized or criticized the Prince.

Keywords: D. Borovkov, Vladimir Monomakh, myth-maker, relations between princes, Sermon, legend.