Klio #11 (83) 2013

Theoretical problems

Ippolitov G.M. (Samara), Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg), Repinetsky A.I. (Samara). Historical Fact and Historical Event: Appraisals and Opinions………. 3

The problem of “historical fact and historical event” has always been and remains under consideration of both philosophers and historians, though the scholarly potential of the issue is not yet exhausted. The article presents the initial premises for the analysis of the considered problem; dynamics of changes in conceptual essence and meaning of “historical fact” and “historical event” in historiosophia and methodology of historical studies are traced in chronological order.

Key words: Plato, Diderot, L. Febvre, R. Collingwood, L. von Ranke, E. Carr, A.Ya. Gurevich, L.S. Klejn, historical fact, historical event, positivism, historical philosophy, historical methodology.


Philosophy of history

Malyshkin E.V. (St. Petersburg). Ars Memorativa after Bruno and Leibniz………. 15

The article is a sketch on the history of ars memorativa as developed after the 17th century. It is specified that tradition of memory based on memorial places and images has not been finished during the early modern period of modern history, and should be continued up to nowadays.

Key words: the art of memory, philosophy of modern history, ontology, extra historical.

Kislitsyna I.L. (St. Petersburg). The Origins of M. A. Bakunin’s Theory of Revolutionary Anarchism in the Development of Russian Mediaeval Thought, and Folk Consciousness in Russia……….. 17

The author of the article finds out that the origins of M.A. Bakunin’s anarchism are rooted in Russian folk culture: in the unity of individual and collective as referred to by the Russian folk outlook, in the idea of “the Lord God’s Land”, in heretical understanding of a human being’s absolute power and anti-authoritarian principal in respect to hierarchical system of power, in the ideal of “Christian society” based on the equality of people and lack of exploitation. The conclusion is made that Bakunism developed due to the Russian folk consciousness.

Key words: Bakunin’s anarchism, Russian social thought, folk consciousness in Russia, Russian folk culture.

Boodnik G.A. (Ivanovo). The Great Patriotic War in Historical Memory of the Present-Day Students………. 20

The article considers the essence of historical memory, its significance for the present-day society, the place which The Great Patriotic War occupies in historical memory of the younger generation in Russia, and the experience of creating the students’ memory about past times while compiling their personal genealogy.

Key words: historical memory, The Great Patriotic War, students, genealogy.


Diaries, memoirs

Vasenko P.G. Reminiscences of My Life and Former Mode of Life (the continued publication prepared by V.V. Mitrofanov)………. 24

The continued publication of a recently discovered probably final work by a renowned Russian historian P.G. Vasenko, a representative of the St. Petersburg historical school. The work includes «Memoirs», which tell about the development of education in Russia in the mid-19th century, and presents biographical data of the author’s relatives, friends and acquaintances of the Vasenkos.

Key words: P.G. Vasenko, A.N. Tkacheva, memoirs, boarding school, education, friends.


Source studies

Trofimova D.L. (Moscow). Marginalia of the Emperor Nicholas II on The Bible pages………. 31

The article presents a study of The Bible, more precisely – Five Books of Moses, the so-called Law of Moses (the first Five books of Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy) – with numerous notes made in the text by the Emperor Nicholas II. Methodological research of the source is undertaken, the time and circumstances of The Bible’s acquisition are ascertained.

Key words: Nicholas II, The Bible, Five Books of Moses (Torah), the Emperor’s marginalia, The Imperial Library, books of Old Testament.



Smolinsky A. (Toruń, Poland). Russian Military History, and Polish Historiography at the Turn of the 20th–21st Centuries on Polish–Russian Armed Conflicts………. 34

A detailed analysis of the present-day Polish historiography on the history of armed confrontation between Polish and Russian military forces as well as Russian military history is under consideration in this article.

Key words: Russian military history, Polish historiography, Russian–Polish armed conflicts, Wojsko Polskie.

Zolotarev V.A. (Moscow). On the Land of Oblivion Only Weeds Grow Well………. 43

The author of the article analyzes creative activity of the group preparing a fundamental 12-volume research titled «The Great Patriotic War. 1941–1945». He comes to a conclusion that this „fundamental multivolume work is aimed to encourage readers study historical sources to achieve reliable knowledge of their past. Studying Russian history, in his opinion, would allow readers better understand the present and future of the country.

Key words: patriotism, historical memory, The Great Victory, The Great Patriotic War.


World history

Makhova A.V. (St. Petersburg). Italian Regionalism: Lega Nord (the Party’s History and Specific Features)………. 51

The author of the article analyzes the evolution of the ultra-right Italian party known as Lega Nord. Its development is considered from the moment of its emergence in the form of regional movements in the North of Italy and to the Parliament elections in February 2013. It is argued that opposite to the majority of other European ultra-right political bodies Lega Nord is a regionalist party.

Key words: Lega Nord, ultra-right, regionalism, federalism, autonomism, the problem of North–South, neo-fascism.


Russian history

Tot Yu.V. (St. Petersburg). Paul I and Reorganization of Local Governance at the Turn of the 18th–19th Centuries………. 59

Paul’s I policy in the sphere of local governance is under consideration in this article. The analysis of historiography allowed the author find out different points of view of the problem, while the study of various legislations brought out principal goals and ways of reorganization of provincial and county institutions, and helped to show changes in their structure and function.

Key words: governor, province, noblesse, local governance, Paul I, vicegerent, social class policy, court of justice, county.

Gavrilina N.A. (Tula). Charity for Aged, Poor and Disabled People in the 18th–19th century Russia………. 65

The article discusses the history of foundation of the state charity system in the second half of the 18th century. Founded by Catherine II ministries (prikazy) of social charity were entitled to open almshouses in Russian towns and smaller places. They were mainly aimed to house aged, poor and disabled people, as well as retired military men.

Key words: ministries of social charity, the state assistance to aged and unhealthy people.

Potapova N.V. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). “Russian mission” of V.A. Fetler during World War I, the Revolutions and the Civil War in Russia………. 68

The article presents a study of V.A. Fetler’s activity. He was a renowned representative of Russia’s Baptist church, and his activity was aimed to arrange the Baptist missionary work among people in Russia and among Russian-Ukrainian refugees abroad during World War I, the revolutions and the Civil War in Russia.

Key words: Baptist church, mission, Russian emigration to USA, Russian Baptist Biblical Institute, Russian missionary society, V.A. Fetler.


Russian regions in the past

Khvostova I.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). The Zemstvo in Nizhny Novgorod and Elaboration of Reforms in the System of Public Education in Russia at the Turn of the 19th–20th Centuries………. 76

The article discusses the essential peculiarities of creation and subsequent development of the key principles of legislative reform in primary education system undertaken by representative councils of the Nizhny Novgorod province at the turn of the 19th–20th centuries.

Key words: the zemstvo, the zemstvos’ schools, common education, literacy, the Nizhny Novgorod province.

Solovyova T.A. (Saratov). Social and Economic Aspects of Urban Daily Life in Saratov of the 1920-s………. 79

The article is devoted to the analysis of social and economic development of Saratov during the 1920-s. The author touches upon the problems of economic development, social structure of the urban population, unemployment, and the measures taken to overcome the problem.

Key words:Saratov, industry, local crafts, unemployment, NEP-men.

Linkova N.Yu. (Syktyvkar). The Television Material and Technical Equipment in the Komi Republic during the Period of Its Establishment and Development (Second Half of the 20th Century)………. 83

The author of the article reconstructs the stages of development of material and technical basis for the regional television in Komi Republic in the second half of the 20th century. In the general process of establishing material and technical basis of this industrial sector the core task was to build TV-centers and supply them with technical equipment, as well as to construct the repeater and radio relay stations. Effective implementation of each of the said tasks influenced the general development of television in the country and its regions.

Key words: television, technical basis of telecasting, the second half of the 20th century, Komi ASSR – KomiRepublic.

Pakhomova A.N. (Kursk). Agriculture of the Central Black Earth Region and the Kursk Region in the 2000s………. 86

The author of the article analyzes the condition of agricultural sector of the Central Black Earth region and the Kursk region in the 2000s paying special attention to assessing the state of agricultural industry in the Kursk region.

Key words: agricultural sector, agricultural crops, agriculture, cultivated area, productivity of land, Kursk region, Central Black Earth region.


Military history

Semykin V.A. (Samara). Political Administration of the Red Army during the Civil War in Russia: Historiography of Historiography of the 1920s – First Half of the 1950s……….. 89

The article is a brief historiography review attempting to throw light on the history of studies in the activity of political administration of the Soviet military forces during the period between 1920 and the 1950s.

Key words: political administration of the Red Army, the Communist and political work in the Red Army, A.A. Geronimus, S.I. Gusev, S.V. Vladimirtsev.


Cultural history

Kolesnikova A.G. (Ivanteevka, the Moscow region). The Image of a German in the Soviet Feature Cinematography during the Great Patriotic War: to the Problem of International Individual Education………. 92

The author of the article researches mechanism, which helped the Soviet feature cinematography form, renovate and use image of a German in the Great Patriotic War time, introducing it into the mind of Soviet people.

Key words: the Great Patriotic War, image of an enemy, propaganda, Soviet feature cinematography.


History of Russians abroad

Kachaki J. (Swammerdam, Netherlands). The Petrograd Loan Treasury’ in Yugoslavia (1920–1948)………. 96

The article discusses the story of the Petrograd loan treasury, which due to concatenation of circumstances during the Civil War in Russia was delivered to Yugoslavia. The author assesses activity of the leaders of Russian emigrant circles, Yugoslavian officials and adventurers of all kinds, which finally led to disappearance of the values that had been kept in the Petrograd loan treasury.

Key words: the Petrograd loan treasury, Russian emigration, Yugoslavia, the Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, M.N. De Giers, Kotor, P.N. Vrangel.



Lapina I.Yu., Kargapol’tsev S.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Patriotism. History. Plagiarism………. 105

The article is devoted to actual problems of the present-day state of historical studies, research work and patriotic education. Having taken an exact example the author presents a detailed analysis of borrowing someone other’s ideas and texts when writing doctor’s thesis. The character of activity of this kind and its possible repercussions for scholarly community and educational process are analyzed as well.

Key words: patriotism, historical studies, education, civic consciousness, plagiarism.


Will be history tomorrow

Martynenko A.V., Nad’kin T.D. (Saransk). Prophylaxis of Extremism among Russian Students (an Experience of OneProvincialHighCollege)………. 112

The article presents the analysis of specific scholarly-methodological and pedagogical work with Russian students, which aims to prevent extremism and xenophobia. As an example is taken the activity of the research laboratory at the Mordovia Pedagogical Institute, of which the authors of the article are staff-members. The principal conclusion states that the issue of great importance is educating today’s younger people in the problems of extremism, which ranks with main challenges against the safety of the present-day world including Russian socium.

Key words: high school, students, extremism, xenophobia, terrorism, research laboratory.


Reviews of scientific publications

Bashnin N.V. (St. Petersburg). Monastery and Church Archives of Russian Middle Ages: Prospects of Research………. 115

The work by M.S. Cherkasova devoted to the Vologda monastery and church archive collections is reviewed.

Key words: history of Russian Orthodox Church, Russian North, monastery archives, church archives, the Vologda bishop’s house.

Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg). “No Egghead Will Be Left after Me”. On I.F. Petrovskaya’s Work “A Different View of Russian Culture of the 17th Century. Historical Essay of Instrumental Music and Buffoons”………. 118

The review gives a brief analysis of a recently published monograph devoted to the studies in the history of instrumental music in the 17th-century Russia written by I.F. Petrovskaya, one of the oldest Russian scholars. It is concluded that the work should be referred to as an innovative research.

Key words: I.F. Petrovskaya, Russian culture, instrumental music, buffoons, 17th century.


Scientific life

Conferences that were held

Suslov A.Yu. (Moscow). The Destiny of Democratic Socialism in Russia: Results of the Moscow Conference………. 119

Under consideration are the results of the conference “The Destiny of Democratic Socialism in Russia” held in Moscow on September 20–21, 2013. Information about the participants and discussed problems are presented.

Key words: democratic socialism, conference, socialist revolutionaries, social democrats.

Conferences to be held

International Conference in Perm’ “World War I and the Problem of Nations”………. 120


To the 240th Anniversary of The National Mineral and Raw Materials University (“Gorny”)

Pozina L.T. (St. Petersburg). Mikhail Fedorovich Soymonov – the Founder of High Mining Education in Russia………. 122

Mikhail Fedorovich Soymonov (1730–1804) was a state administrator during the reign of Catherine II. M.F. Soymonov was the founder and the first Director of the Mining Cadet Corps, the leading organizer of mining and geological service as well as the first geological expeditions to Siberia, the Urals, and Valdai. He stood at the head of mining lead and silver ores at the Olonets and Nerchinsk mines.

Key words: mining plants, Senate, mining engineer, high mining college, mining and geological service, charity.

Lejberov A.I. (St. Petersburg). Vasily Stepanovich Popov………. 126

The article presents the biography of Vasily Stepanovich Popov, a renowned political and state person in the reign of Catherine II. He held high positions in the time of A. G. Potemkin, Catherine II, Paul I, and Alexander I. The author traces the stages of Popov’s career, his ups and downs.

Key words: V.S. Popov, A.G. Potemkin, Catherine II, Mining college.

Roodnik  S.N. (St. Petersburg). Three Directors of the Institute of Mining Engineers Corps………. 130

The article presents information on biographies and activity of the Directors of the Mining Institute – K.K. Weizenbrejer, P.P. Schreider and S.I. Volkov – from 1834 to 1865, during which period military discipline ruled in the institution. The publication is based on archive documents and little known historiography.

Key words: Institute of the Mining Engineers Corps, Director, cadets, regulations, K.K. Weizenbrejer, P.P. Schreider, S.I. Volkov.

Shchukina D.A. (St. Petersburg). Abstracts from the History of Rhetoric Education in the FirstTechnicalHighCollege of Russia………. 133

The article discusses problems of rhetoric education in the first technical high college of Russia at the turn of the 18th–19th centuries. “Rhetoric Practice” written by I.S. Rizhsky, a rhetoric handbook for the students of main Universities of the country, is analyzed from the point of view of linguistic norms, actualized by the up-to-date verbal situation.

Key words: rhetoric education in a technical high college, norms of the Russian language, immaculacy and accuracy of speech, the Mining Institute

Bondareva O.N. (St. Petersburg). The St. Petersburg Mining Cadet Corps in the Memoirs of Its Students: “Memoirs of Education at the Mining Cadet Corps, 1815–1822” by Ardalion Vasilievich Ivanov………. 135

The article describes the process of education at the St. Petersburg Mining Cadet Corps (1804–1833) following the writings by one of its students – A. . Ivanov (1805 – after 1875), an outstanding pedagogue, and specialist in literature and linguistics, who left his “Memoirs of Education at the Mining Cadet Corps, 1815–1822”.

Key words: the St. Petersburg Mining Cadet Corps, education, corporal punishment, A.I. Ivanov.

Afanasyev V.G., Shestakova I.G. (St. Petersburg). The Demidov Award: the Input made by the Staff of the Mining Institute into Foundation of Russian Science and Industry………. 137

The first half of the 19th century resulted in a rapid development of science and technology. The Demidov award founded by P.N. Demidov played a great role in this process. The authors of the article explain its significance and point to the input made by the staff of the Mining Institute into foundation of Russian science and industry.

Key words: the Demidov award, the Mining Institute, scientific and technical progress, development, Russia.

Podol’sky S.I. (St. Petersburg). Ivan Fedorovich Schroeder – a renowned chemist, pedagogue and administrator………. 143

Professor I.F. Schroeder (1858–1918) – a renowned Russian chemist and an expert in industry. K.I. Lisenko’s and D. I. Mendeleev’s student, he was an authority in research of solutions properties, oil, coal, salts, and explosives. At the same time I.F. Schroeder is renowned for his pedagogical activity: during several years (1912–1917) he stood at the head of the Mining Institute named after Catherine II, where innovative samples of protection and defense technologies were created in the years of World War I.

Key words: chemist, oil, coal, salts, explosive, Professor of chemistry, the Director of the Mining Institute, military industry, I.F. Schroeder.



Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg). Centenary of N. D. Khudiakova………. 147

The material is devoted to the centenary of N.D. Khudiakova – the oldest person among those who study history of the Leningrad Blockade.

Key words: N.D. Khudiakova, the Leningrad Blockade, help to the besieged Leningrad, centenary of N.D. Khudiakova.

Popravko E.A. (St. Petersburg), Dudarenok S.M., Serdiuk M.B., Troitskaya N.A. (Vladivostok). To the Jubilee of E. V. Yermakova………. 148

The article celebrates jubilee of Eleanor Vasilievna Yermakova – a historian, historiographer, and lecturer, whose name unites three epochs in the history of the Far East high historical education – a graduate from the Far East State Pedagogical Institute named after Ushinsky, lecturer, head of a chamber and a faculty at the Far East State University, leader of the historical school at the Far East Federal University.

Key words: E.V. Yermakova, the Far EastStateUniversity, high historical education, the Far EastFederalUniversity.

Zhukov V.Yu. (St. Petersburg). 70th Anniversary of Academician G. I. Pinigin – the Director of the Nikolaev Observatory………. 149

In 2013 Professor Gennady Ivanovich Pinigin celebrates his 70th anniversary. He is an outstanding astronomer of Russia and the Ukraine, a former staff-member of the Pulkovo Observatory, a long-term Director of the Nikolaev Observatory (Nikolaev, the Ukraine), and a Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. Automatic telescope constructed by him (co-authored) – Axial meridian circle – is included into the list of objects of National Property of the Ukraine, and the name of the scholar is given to a smaller planet № 7976 (Pinigin).

Key words: positional (spherical) astronomy, astronomical instrumentation and engineering, telescopes of horizontal construction.


Ad memoriam

Nikolaev D.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). Ad Memoriam Professor V. P. Makarikhin………. 152

The publication commemorates V.P. Makarikhin, a talented scholar of Nizhny Novgorod, pedagogue, writer, and publicist. Valery Pavlovich Makarikhin stood at the head of the Chamber of Historiography and Source Studies at the Nizhny Novgorod State University. He was posthumously awarded with a medal of Academician B.A. Rybakov.

Key words: V.P. Makarikhin, the Chamber of Historiography and Source Studies of the Nizhny NovgorodStateUniversity.