Klio #11 (95) 2014

The document is published for the first time

Zhukov S.A. (Saint Petersburg). On the Order and Mismanagement during the Russo-Finnish War of 1939–1940………. 3

Based on archival documents, the author considers the problem of struggle with mismanagement in the time of re­dislocation of forces during the Russo­Finnish War (1939–1940), and about repressions in the workers and peasants’ Red Army and their role in maintaining order in the army. The base of the article is the order of the commander of forces of the North­West front, the commander of the 1st rank Timoshenko “The Outrageous Attitude of the Commanders and Commissioners of the Units to the Property of the Army” published only in February 1940. The document vividly characterizes the situation in the workers and peasants’ Red Army 2 months later after starting the Winter War. It states that on the railway station there was terrible disorder in the process of re­dislocation of the Soviet military units, because the cars and the property were left unguarded, and as a result, the property was stolen, and the cars were illegally taken to pieces. The problem was concerned not only with the property of the rear but the military technics as well: tanks and guns. These facts contradict with the well­known point of view that during Stalin’s ruling in the country and in the Army was an ideal order, and that period was called as “an iron arm” and that such method was the most effective way of state construction.

The author of the article shows that at the end of 1930s colored into the tragic tones of repressions of the civil personnel and the commanders of the workers and peasants’ Red Army, disorder and mismanagement reigned. Rough (or even cruel) punishment was not able to substitute professionalism of the leaders and executive officers. According to the author’s conclusion, the order in the country and in the Army mostly depends on knowledge and professionalism of the executive officersrather than on serious punishment.

Key words: Russo­Finnish War, workers and peasants’ Red Army, history, Leningrad Region, North­West front, re­dislocation of forces, autoarmoured tank supply.


Source studies

Kotov A.E. (Saint Petersburg). Ukrainian Issue in Political Journalism of the «Katkov’s Line» (1860–1880)………. 6

M.N. Katkov was one of the leading ideologists of Russian political nationalism of the 19th century. Other representatives of this line were Slavophiles. Unlike them, Katkov didn’t idealize the Russian society. He considered official bureaucracy the only one subject of politics. That is why we call his ideology “bureaucratic nationalism”. He considered Russian citizenship as the only criterion of membership of Russian political nation. However, sometimes he and his confederates called on other criterions: language, culture, ethnicity, history. The problem of rising Ukrainian nationalism was important from all of these points – though most of nationalists considered “Ukrainophilism” as just a strange type of Slavophilism. Katkov’s and his confederates’ ideological struggle against Ukrainian nationalism in the 1860–1880s had to be more intensive in crisis situations of the Russian state. It is possible to find three stages of this struggle: 1) In the 1860s, M.N. Katkov was leading ideological struggle against “Ukrainophilism”, which he considered an instrument of “Polish intrigue” and nihilists’ decomposition of the Russian civil nation. 2) In 1881, the Russian press returns to the discussion of this problem, but intonations of Russian conservators had become more academic and calm. 3) In political essays of Katkov’s followers “Ukrainophilism” was considered not a fad of small circle of intellectuals, but a real problem, which influenced the entire society.

Key words: political journalism, nationalism, conservatism, M.N. Katkov, M.F. De­Pule, P.A. Kulakovsky. N.I. Kostomarov, Ukraine, Novorossia.



Dvornichenko A.Yu. (Saint Petersburg). The Eurasians’ View of the Ukrainian Issue………. 13

The article is devoted to the views of Eurasians of the Ukrainian issue. That they were deeply interested in is not surprising. As Z. Brzezinski wrote, “Russia without Ukraine ceases to be a Eurasian Empire”. However, according to the Eurasians’ doctrine, this Empire was Central. In order to understand the views of Eurasians of the Ukrainian issue, the author had to analyze N.S. Trubetskoy’s articles, his disagreement with the famous Ukrainian historian D.I. Doroshenko. They argued about the mutual relationship of the Ukrainian and Russian languages and culture, but agreed on the main point: the fear of coming to power in Ukraine political extremists, «narrow political chauvinists». According to the author, some of the statements of the parties to this dispute are difficult to accept, in particular, Prince clearly underestimates the political moment, while the Ukrainian historian idealizes the situation in Ukraine.

Special attention is paid to the attitude to the Ukrainian issueexpressed by the historian G.V. Vernadsky. The author believes that his views can be understood only if viewed in tandem with the views of his famous father – V.I. Vernadsky. They both loved Ukraine and understood the complexity of the Ukrainian issue, focusing on the difficult fate of a number of Ukrainian regions and, above all, of the Western Ukraine and the Carpathian region. To understand the standpoints of the historian, the unpublished article “Prince Trubetskoy and the Ukrainian Issue” is of great importance, which for the first time in historiography is exposed to thorough analysis. An important addition to this article and other statements on the Ukrainian issue of Eurasians is a correspondence between them. The analysis enables the author to conclude that already in the mid 30­s the Eurasians paid attention to the situation of the Russian population in Ukraine and, in fact, already predicted the current humanitarian disaster in the Eastern districts. After analyzing the views of “the last Eurasian” L.N. Gumilev, the author recognized the great interest of his ethnological observations, but he felt that like the N.S. Trubetskoy, he underestimated the political component of the historical process.

Key words: “classical Eurasianism”, the Ukrainian issue, cultural and language differences, political and ethnic situation.


Daudov A.H., Andreev A.A., Shorokhov V.A., Yanchenko D.G. (Saint Petersburg). Russian and Foreign Historiography of the Establishment of Sovereignty of Contemporary Kazakhstan………. 20

After the collapse of the USSR former Soviet states are faced were need to find a new basis for the formation of identity. Study of the process of formation of national institutions and the identity of independent Kazakhstan in the 1990–2000s has been paid enough attention in historiography. The complex of works on this topic does not exist yet. Relevance of new publications is determined by the fact that the crisis of identity are continued in the post­soviet countries. There was a slight decrease of potential conflicts in the 2000s, but today it reminds himself by new challenges, largely resonate with the global social­economic and cultural processes.

Certainly, the two largest members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization play a decisive role in the Central Asian region. Nevertheless, a number of modern authors consider the existing domestic and foreign policy trends prerequisites for enhancing regional cooperation in Central Asia, already excluding major external players such as Russia and China.

The paper contains a survey of Russian, Kazakhstani and world historiography devoted to Kazakhstan establishment and development since 1991 till present. In spite of relative shortness of the considered period several studies on different aspects of named research area have been issued. The authors range the body of published works into five topical groups: complex studies, works on integration problems, national policy papers, social studies, studies on Russian­Kazakhstani relations.

Key words: Post­Soviet Central Asia, Republic of Kazakhstan, national policy, international relations, integration problem, independence state building, modern historiography, foreign historiography, social studies, nation state building.

Ozturk A. (Istanbul, Turkey). Coverage of Negotiations on Gas Pipeline South Stream in the Russian Mass Media………. 28

The article deals with coverage of negotiations on gas pipeline South Stream in the Russian mass media. The author focuses on the factors affecting the nature of coverage of the topic in the Russian press, citing diverse Russian publications. The paper emphasizes that the manner of coverage, whether positive or negative, was directly associated with representations made by Turkey and Russia. The article shows how the parties, gradually, by resorting to mutual politic and economic concessions, were moving to compromise. In this situation, both countries were interested in final signature of the agreement. Both countries possessed equal “trump cards”, i.e. Russia has gas Turkey needs under the conditions of growing consumption, while the latter could provide transit so necessary for Russia.

Key words: South Stream, Turkey, Russia, gas, gas pipeline, energy sources.


General history

Potekhina I.P. (Saint Petersburg) Papal Financial Administration in the 6th–11th centuries: Origins and Evolution………. 31

The article is devoted to the history of the financial administration of the papacy in the period of the early Middle Ages. This era became a difficult period in the history of Europe, during which in the situation of a collision, and then of the progressive merging of Roman and barbarian worlds there came a gradual synthesis of qualitatively new medieval European civilization. Almost all regions of Europe were involved in the process of creation of new state and new governance structures strikingly different from the bureaucratic apparatus of the Empire, and of modest administrative system of the ancient Germans. And the western church as well could not avoid these transformations the beginning of the Middle Ages – in the absence of strong secular authorities – being forced to cultivate its own quasi­administrative institutions. After investigating the evolution of early fiscal departments of the Roman Curia, the author comes to the conclusion that their development was mainly on ways to simplify and unify the complicated administrative structure of the Roman period. Special role in this process was played by the Cluniac and the Gregorian church reforms through which the papacy noticeably streamlined its finances and its fiscal administration has found a clear and centralized arrangement. As part of the national historiography the article represents one of the first attempts to study the administrative and financial system of the Holy See in the Early Middle Ages.

Key words: history of papacy, Papal See, curia, Camera Apostolica, Apostolic Chamber, camerarius, Gregory VII, Urban II.


Surzhik D.V. (Moscow). The World War II: the Enemies through the Eyes of American Press………. 42

The article dwells to the mechanisms of image­making of the US enemies at the American press during WWII. The main attention is paid to the mechanisms of information flow, as well as tools for creating the American reader identity between the Japanese (direct attack) and German (hidden, but far more dangerous enemy) also focuses on the policy of the White House against the German, Japanese and Italian diasporas. The author makes conclusions on some basic methods of covering the WWII by the US mass­media and on the means, they used to create an image of the invader. The differs in portraying of Nazi and Japan troops are also shown. These differs attracted the US public and troops attitude towards the enemies. The necessary attention is put on highlighting the US Office of War Information activities. This agency was the main coordinating structure of the government information policy towards WWII. Nevertheless the OWI had no right to order to any information agency or press. All time of it being the OWI struggled with the US Congress (that thought the OWI activities were against the freedom of speech) and the free mind of editors, who didn’t like to print the OWI official releases only. Compared with the “Creel committee” at WWI, his was the drastically change of attitude to the official government information office. As known, the Committee on Public Information (also called as the “Creel committee”) leaded the “black PR” of (often fictional) “crimes” of German troops at 1914–1918. So one can say, that the US practice of “public diplomacy” (at the democratic freedoms the state position at mass­media is the first among the others, but not the ruling one).

Key words: WWII, US public opinion, the image of the other, public diplomacy, Nazi Germany, Japan Empire, press, freedom of speech.


Popov A.A. (Chelyabinsk). Revisited the history of consolidation of the banking sector in Poland. Commercial banks of Silesian province (1989–2012)………. 48

Development of the banking sector is one of the key performances of the extent of transformation of post­socialistic economy. In terms of the concept of competition between regions, banking systems not only across the nation, but also on a scale of particular regions are of research interest.

The subject matter of this article is the banking sector of Silesian province of the Republic of Poland from 1989 through 2013. This region is of interest for several reasons: its experience is more typical of other areas in Poland than the experience gained by the capital; this region is one of outstanding examples of post­socialistic adaptation of old industrial areas, with financial sector developing quite successfully.

Decentralization of the Polish banking system started in 1989. Commercial banks number increase was booming. However, by 1993, that number approached the peak. Later, that number was constantly descending. The process was determined both by governmental measures for recovery of the banking system, and by the natural process of strengthening of the key players at the cost of merger of the smaller ones. In the late 1990s, those factors were completed by the influence exerted by the process of preparation of Poland to integration into the European Community, and large­scale intervention of capital in the financial sector.

In general, the nationwide trends were typical of the banking sector of Silesian province. Of seven banks that emerged in 1991, by 1996 there had been four banks, while by 2004, only two banks had survived. At the same time, Getin Noble bank moved to Warsaw soon. Nevertheless, the headquarters of one of the largest players in the country, ING Bank Śląski SA remained in the region.

Consolidation of the banking system in Silesian province was a part of the nationwide trend determined by the same rea­sons. However, unlike many other regions of Poland, one of a few large banks was saved here.

Key words: contemporary history of Poland, banking sector of Poland, consolidation of banks, commercial banks of Po­land, banking geography of Poland, Silesian province, ING BANK Śląski, Getin Noble Bank.


 The history of Russia

Voronov I.I. (Yaroslavl). Bureaucracy of the central bodies of the Ministry of Agriculture in the reign of Nikolas II (1894–1917)………. 53

Inauguration of Nikolas II concurred with the reforms introduced in agriculture management in Russia. Having taken the throne, the Emperor came into possession of the lately restructured Ministry of Agriculture and State Properties and gave credence to his father’s minister A.S. Yermolov, however; the latter fell short of the expectations. Finally, in 1905, the Ministry of Agriculture and State Properties was transformed into the Chief Directorate for land arrangement and agriculture, which 1n 1915, was renamed the Ministry of Agriculture.

Multiple reorganization of the agency had a material effect on the entire agency staff composition. Thus, while from 1894 through 1905, the Ministry of Agriculture was under the direction of the same minister, in the reign of Nikolas II, the Ministry had ten leaders changed. Twice (1905 to 1906, and 1915 to 1917), the Ministry suffered “ministerial merry­go­round”.

Very few heads of the Ministry of Agriculture were able to apply their competencies practically, since many of them would hold the position just for several months. Therefore, the officials were working mechanically while adjusting a new director. The longest period came to A.S. Yermolov, the only minister who had agricultural background. A.S. Yermolov made an effort to change the ministerial procedures established by communicating with the officials informally, however, deprived of organizing skills, he failed in settling at the higher bureaucracy environment and let matters stand.

On the other hand, A.V. Krivoshein who was not familiar with agriculture, confirmed in office at the third attempt, approved himself as a gifted director immediately for the initial month of his leadership to become shortly the most influential minister. While granting maximum possible independency to his employees, he directed their initiative towards service to agriculture. It is A.V. Krivosheinwho attracted many skilled officials to the Ministry.

Key words: Nikolas II, A.S. Yermolov, A.V. Krivoshein, bureaucracy, officials, Ministry of Agriculture, “ministerial merry­go­round.

Misko O.N. (Saint Petersburg). Economic development of the Russian Empire at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries and upgrade: experience of comparative historical and institutional analysis………. 57

Russian Empire entry in the First World War, which led to the destruction of the major continental European empires, brought her to a huge upheaval, changing of political and economic systems, but couldn’t completely destroy the “imperial” Russia’s space. Analysis of economic situation of the country before its entry into the “battle of nations” shows the absence of real and vital economic problems which had to be solved by force. However, the institutional problems in the economy, Russia’s lagging behind in this respect from the leaders of the economic development of the early ХХth century led to a certain dependence on external factors and forced the country to enter the war, which brought her to the economic collapse and change of the social system. Historical and institutional analysis of the macroeconomic environment and the structural state of the Russian economy shows that Russia had a serious chronic lag behind the developed countries and local successes, associated with the reforms of SY Witte, eventually led to an outflow of investments from the country and the growth of the external debt. Would it be possible for the country to avoid collapse through the modernization of the national economy in the late XIXth – early 20th centuries? Was it possible to “save” the Empire, or such a politico­economic entity has a definite life cycle, which is inevitable, and despite of the reforms, leads her to death? This article discusses issues related to the processes of modernization of the Russian economy at the turn of XIX–ХХ centuries in comparison with other states and empires, and also attempts to answer the question of whether it was possible to save the Institute of the Russian Empire.

Key words: Russian Empire, the modernization of the national economy, the First World War, the economic reforms, historical and institutional analysis.

Trunov K.N. (Saint Petersburg). The Party of Cadets and the Ukrainian issue (1905–1917)………. 63

The article covers programme directions and political course of the Сadet party in respect of Ukraine, the contacts between Russian Cadets and the Ukrainian national movement in the beginning of XX century, the search for ways of political cooperation of Russian and Ukrainian liberals, views of P.N. Milyukov, B.A. Kistyakovsky, V.I. Vernadsky and other activists of the Party on the Ukrainian issue, their evolution under the changes of political situation in Russia. Much attention is paid to the process of formation and functioning of Cadet regional organizations on the territory of Ukraine, the political course of the Cadet faction on the Ukrainian question in the State Duma of Russia, Cadets’ statements against the repressive anti­Ukrainian policy of tsarism, exposing right­chauvinistic policy of majority of III and IV State Dumas in period of the first Russian revolution, before and during the First World War. It’s dealt with discussion between the Cadets (P.N. Milyukov, F.F. Kokoshkin etc.) and the Ukrainian liberals (M.S. Grushevsky etc.) on the issues of national­territorial autonomy and federalism, inner­Party debate on these topics among Cadets (particularly between the Central Committee of the Party and its Kiev Committee), their reaction to the anti­Russian program of D.I. Dontsov and national­chauvinist doctrine of P.B. Struve. The role of the Cadets, their achievements and failures in the development of cooperation between Russian and Ukrainian liberation movements are shown. It’s analyzed the Cadet variant of solution of the Ukrainian question within the framework of the national program of the Party of People’s Freedom, highlighted differences of the Cadet variants of regional and national­cultural autonomies from the federalist and national­territorial program of Ukrainian liberalism.

Key words: national question, Ukraine, Ukrainian question, nationality, nationalism, national movement, P.N. Milyukov, M.S. Grushevsky, P.B. Struve, V.I. Vernadsky, D.I. Dontsov.

Kostyaev E.V. (Saratov). Victory of the ideas of “revolutionary defensism” in Petrograd Soviet and in the Menshevist Party in March of 1917………. 72

This article reviews in detail the transition of the majority of representatives of the Russian revolutionary democracy and members of Petrograd Soviet of the workers and soldiers’ deputies and of the leaders of the Menshevist Party to the position of the “revolutionary defensism”. This occurred after returning to Petrograd from the long­term Siberian exile of Irakly Georgievitch Tsereteli, a Menshevik, and its adherents Vladimir Savelyevich Vojtinsky, Theodor Ilyich Dan (Gurvich) and some others. As a result, the overwhelming majority of representatives of the Russian revolutionary democracy, including members of the Petrograd Soviet, which in the first months after the victory of the February Revolution represented even more influential body than the Provisional government, moved from the ideas of so­called «Siberian Zimmerwaldism», which denied the necessity of participation of the Russian proletariat in defense of imperial Fatherland, to the approved participation of workers in self­defense of the country, which cast off the shackles of the autocratic authority.

The ideas of the “revolutionary defensism” carved their way to the minds of representatives of revolutionary democracy of Russia through hard intraparty and intrasoviet debates between the main conductor of the ideas I.G. Tsereteli, and his principal opponent from the internationalist and pacifistic camp, a radical socialist then staying beyond fractions, a member of the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet of workers and soldiers deputies, Nikolay Nikolaevich Sukhanov, who in May of 1917, upon returning from immigration of one of the Mensheviks’ leaders Y.O. Martov, became a Menshevik­internationalist. The article arrives at the conclusion that transition to the “revolutionary defensism” became critical for the entire subsequent course of the revolution of 1917 in Russia and promoted domination of its ideas down to seizing authority by Bolsheviks at the end of October of 1917.

Key words: World War I, Russian social democracy, Menshevism, February Revolution, “revolutionary defensism”, internationalism, Sukhanov, Tsereteli.


History of the regions of Russia

Gavrilina N.A. (Tula). Charity in the second half of the 19th century and its impact on the daily history of the province of Tula………. 76

The article is devoted to the development of charity in the second half of the 19th century in the Tula province, the impact of social policy on everyday history shown. In the late 19th century, the social assistance system based on the territorial principle began forming. The main institutions of assistance were attached to regional, rural, urban, parochial territorial units. The provincial and the county governments carried out direct management of economic and social affairs of local importance. In the late 19th century, there was founded a city guardianship to assist those in need, “Municipal Custodial Care for the Poor”.

In the late 19th century, in Tula province, there were 44 charities, including in the provincial town – 15, in the County towns – 19, in the counties – 10. By the example of Michael’s house charity, the charitable organization “Charity” reveals the activities of these institutions in assisting the poor. At the Tula armory, in the early 19th century, a charitable society was established, which assisted the elderly maimed gunsmiths and their widows. A school for children gunsmiths and a hospital were established, remuneration for inventions was set, and a benefit society in the event of fire or flood was arranged. The Armory Association undertook all expenditures for support of the school and provision of all students with textbooks.

Charitable organizations and individuals arranged circle societies of labor assistance in Tula and counties, which societies promoted execution of public works. In 1891–1892, when many Russian provinces suffered from poor harvest, county councils declared the necessity of arrangement of public works. Count Lev Tolstoy also spoke to labor assistance believing that idleness of the population at large provided with bread of idleness has “terrible corruptive influence”.

Key words: charitable institutions, societies, assistance to those in need, labor assistance, public works.

Masyutin A.S. (Kirov). Bolshevists’ persecution against Vyatka populists (1918–1922)………. 81

The article dwells on repressions and public dishonor against populist parties, i.e. Social Revolutionaries, Maximalists, left Social Revolutionaries and successors of the left Social Revolutionaries, namely, Revolutionary Communists and Populist Communists raised by the party of Bolshevist Leninists, which appeared at the wheel of government.

Dislike for the Populists on the part of the Russian Social Democrats arose not immediately after October of 1917. That dislike is rooted in the events of the late 19th century. They struggled for the frontline staff of revolutionary trends similar in requirements, i.e. Marxists and Populists. After the February Revolution of 1917, they also fought for the power proper.

However, Bolsheviks drove out their revolutionary comrades out of the political arena not completely straightforwardly. The revolutionary camp movements would enter into diverse temporary alliances and coalitions, and concluded armistices sharing the common purpose, which was to struggle against opposition to the Soviet power offered by bourgeoisie. Indeed, those alliances usually resulted in unconditional “bolshevization” of the government and annihilation of non­bolshevist parties. That “cat­and­mouse game” was particularly noticeable at the low, i.e. regional level.

The article describes the techniques and methods the Bolsheviks employed while eliminating populist organizations. Besides, the ways of ideological corruption amongst Socialist Revolutionaries and their successors not least of all under continuous pressure exerted the Bolshevist Party are also paid attention to.

In terms of the territory, the article covers the “Russian” boundaries of the province of Vyatka, which later formed Kirov region. Chronologically, the period of the Civil war and military Communism, as well and the first post­war years (1918–1922) is reviewed. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of the Moscow process taking place in the party of Socialist Revolutionaries in the summer of 1922 through the prism of Vyatka peculiarities.

Key words: Revolution of 1917, Civil war in Russia, Bolshevists, Populists, Social Revolutionaries, left Social Revolutionaries, Revolutionary Communists, Vyatka, the province of Vyatka.

Burova N.A. (Ivanovo). Participation of the party intelligentsia in debates on trade unions at the turn of 1920th and 1921st (based on the materials of the provinces of Ivanovo-Voznesensk and Kostroma)………. 90

The article is devoted to the issues of showdowns of opinions amongst the leaders of the party apparatus, participation of the party intelligentsia in discussions about trade unions at the turn of 1920th and 1921st (based on the materials of the provinces of Ivanovo­Voznesensk and Kostroma), as well as to the discussion about trade unions as such, which became a political and ideological response to the social, economic, and political situation in the country at the final stage of the civil war. The change in historical situation in the center resulted from the Tenth Congress could not but affect periphery. The resolutions adopted at the regional levels (at the 13th and 14th Party conferences of the provinces) offered their own vision of settlement of the debates on trade unions and party construction. Platforms of the primary party organizations focused on return to the party of the original traditions and principles of interparty practice of the pre­revolutionary period (justice and equality, democracy in organization and activity of the party cells, cooperation, mutual support, adherence to principles and ideological purity of fight for freedom). At the same time, trade unions faced the challenge of deliberate preparation for startup of factories including reregistration, leveling distribution of skilled labor and other workforce, special focus on arrangements for widespread enlightenment and education amongst those working at the factories to be started­up, as well as of establishment of close relationship between regional departments, regional trade council, and union.

In the course of the discussion, the Lenin’s platform not only gained an advantage over fractional groups’ ideas, but also appeared an efficient tool in determination of the trade unions’ targets and mission under the conditions of the new economic policy.

Key words: party intelligentsia, party apparatus, debates on trade unions, the Upper Volga Regions, Civil war, new economic policy, conference of the province, “platform of the Ten”.

Jusupova L.N. (Petrozavodsk). Participation of members of Osoaviakhim (Society for Assistance to Defense, Aviation and Chemical Construction) in demining of the territory of Karelia in 1944–1945………. 93

The article deals with a subject insufficiently investigated in regional scientific literature associated with the activity of Osoaviakhim brigades in Karelia for demining of the territory of the republic liberated from occupation in 1944–1945. Based on the materials of funds of the National Archives of the Republic of Karelia, periodicals, and memoires, it traces the history of the forming of brigades of sappers and miners, their effectives, age and gender structure, as well as their training according to special programs arranged by the Society. As the survived lists of brigades of sappers and miners testify, the personnel of the brigades consisted exceptionally of young people, primarily, girls born in 1927–1928. The courses on mining and demolition techniques were on for two weeks. The audience was taught on­the­job. During examination, not only knowledge was assessed, but also practical mining and demolition skills. Based to the reports of district councils of the Osoaviakhim of the Karelo­Finish SSR in 1944, the courses were pressed for exhibits, training programs and teachers. During works of 1944, nineteen Osoaviakhim brigades, each consisting on an average of 25 persons, were engaged in the regions of the Republic liberated from occupation. Materials of the reports of regional heads of the Society disclose poor provision of the brigades with transport for carrying trophies from the field to the warehouses; because of lack of vehicles, members of Osoaviakhim had to move dismounted every day, carrying load on their shoulders. Provision of sappers and miners with weapons and medicines was poor as well. One of the basic plots of the article shows a picture of daily life of the participants of demining. The former mining specialists recollect that they had to live in forsaken houses and even in earth houses. The problem of food supply was acute. Demining works started in April to finish by the beginning of November. Frequently, as cold weather set in, members of Osoavikhim could not works because of absence of winter footwear. The former miners confessed that they took hard death of their comrades. The period under consideration included the most large­scale work of members of Osoaviakhim for demining 12 regions of the Karelo­Finnish SSR.

Key words: Osoavikhim, Great Patriotic War, peaceful life recovery, demining the territory of Karelia.

Takova A.N., Shomakhov Z.H. (Nalchik). Ministers of religion as a social group of Soviet Kabardino-Balkaria (1940–1980s)……….99

The article describes one of the groups of Kabardino­Balkaria society, minister of religion, which activity review will assist in research into reality of religious life of the Republic during the period of enforcement of atheistic views that is more complete. The paper proposes quantitative analysis of that social group based on both formal and informal statistics. The authors arrive at the conclusion that the ministers were present in each settlement of Kabardino­Balkaria. Moreover, qualitative structure of this social group is reviewed, specifying the low professional level, which led to numerous errors and omissions in religious practices and to the forming of a so­called “people” form of religion. The article also considers the nature of the relations established between ministers of religion and representatives of government authorities, party and soviet organizations, and intelligentsia. The authors note that there were no significant collisions between those subjects, which observation gives ground to consider the atheistic work carried out in Kabardino­Balkaria generally to be formal and conventional. The article also specifies that the ministers as a social group successfully fit in the structure of the society to perform their functions unhampered during the period under consideration. However, religious renaissance in the latter 1980s and early 1990s revealed inconsistence of the same with needs and challenges of the time, which created the risks that completely manifested themselves in the Republic at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The article was written mainly based on the materials provided by the apparatus of authorized officials for Kabardino­Balkaria revealed in the archives of the Directorate of Public and Political Documents of the archival service of the Republic of Kabardino­Balkaria. That administrative body had to supervise the activity of ministers of religion in the Republic.

Key words: Ministers of religion, ceremony, atheistic work, religious community, social group, society, Islam, Christianity.


History of foreign relations

Kondakov Y.E. (Saint Petersburg). The Russian Masonry and the Convent of Wilhelmsbad (1782)………. 103

The Convent of Wilhelmsbad Freemasonry (1782) is considered the largest Congress of Jewish masons of the 17th century. The participants had to solve the problems that arose inside masonic movement and to determine further fate of the Order of Knights Templars acting within masonry. The Congress of Wilhelmsbad was open on June 16, 1782, to held 32 meetings. The Russian masons also took part in the activity of the Congress. Their primary goal was to release from subordination to the Swedish masons Ekaterina II disliked very much. Finally, the Convent adopted a multipage document of 12 chapters. It was stated that upon sustained examination, the Convent adopted a resolution, by which the Order of Knights Templars was derived from the Order of Free Masons. The masons refused from the politically dangerous name. However, it was mentioned that communications with the Templars was not broken, their heritage to be honored through the ranks of the “Benevolent Knights” (within the “Revised Scottish Charter” created by Jean Baptist Willermoz). The instructions for symbolic degrees according to the sample of those adopted at the Lion Convent were approved. It was proposed to adopt the Scottish degree as an intermediate one between symbolic and knight degrees. For Russia, the Congress of Wilhelmsbad became the most important event, which was to change the Russian masons life for the following decades. In Russia, an independent Grand Provincial Lodge was open. From then on, the Russian masons, who were under jurisdiction of that Lodge, were not subordinate to foreign center any more, nor they transferred money to them. The Russian masons entered the new Ninth Province of the Order to receive the new masonic system “Revised Scottish Charter”. For the first time ever, the Russian masonry became independent from foreign centers. Repressions taken by the government authorities hindered further development of the Russian masonry.

Key words: the Convent (Congress) of Wilhelmsbad, masonry, Convent, Order, Templars, strict obedience, Lodge, secret society, masonic system.

Chochiev G.V. (Vladikavkaz). A British document on Caucasus-oriented activity of the Circassia political elite in Turkey after the World War I………. 106

The article deals with the appeal to the Government of Great Britain made by a group of influential Circassia diaspora politicians for recognition of independence of the North Caucasian (Mountain) Republic and for ensuring repatriation of Middle­Eastern Circassians to the Caucasus after the World War I. The reasons of failure of that initiative are analyzed. Lukewarm attitude towards that initiative on the part of London was primarily accounted for inconsistence of the Caucasus­oriented ethno­revanchist projects of Istanbul Circassian elite with the interests and plans the victorious powers had in the Caucasian region, and in the South of the former Russian Empire in general. Apart from that, the Englishmen suspected the activists of the Circassian organizations of communications with the Young Turk organizations, which had been dismissed. The article for the first time ever introduces into scientific use a number of English archival documents.

Key words: Circassian diaspora, Turkey, Great Britain, Russia, North Caucasus. World War I, Foreign Office, Arnold Toynbee, Young Turks.

Zverev K.A. (Kostroma). Peculiarities of the “Russian issue” in Estonia of 1992–2009 at the level of municipal policy (exemplified by Tallin)………. 109

The paper dwells on the place of non­Estonian population in municipal policy in Tallinn in the 1990­2000s, as well as the differences of municipal policies as concerned with integration and international relations from the national integration policy of the Republic of Estonia. Analysis of the municipal level of Estonian policy exemplified by Tallinn showed that the local governments “soften” the national policy pursued by the state as to the issue of national minorities, they being ready for the dialogue more than the governments of the Republic, This is determined by the fact that the residents who are not the citizens of Estonia may vote in elections to the local government bodies and influence political life at the local level. By the 2000s, locally in Estonia, a tendency towards marginalization of the Russian­speaking political elite became apparent; it could not be established as an independent political power able to influence significantly on political and legislative activity in the country (even despite continuous increase in number of the Russian citizens of the Republic of Estonia voting in parliamentary elections). Large Estonian parliamentary parties, particularly, the Centrist and, partially, the Social­Democratic parties earned support of the Russian­speaking population. The Russian Federation also refused to support small segmental Russian parties as having no chance to success, to shift to the support of the Centrists as of the actual political power able to affect national policy in Estonia. Thus, large Estonian political parties are forced to take into account opinions of the Russian electors at the municipal level.

Key words: Russian­speaking population, municipal policy, integration, parties, elections to the local government bodies.


Military history

Benda V.N. (Saint Petersburg). Artillery and Engineering under Ludwig von Hessen Homburg, General Feldzeugmeister (1735–1745)………. 113

The national history features dispersed opinions on subsequences of the guidance of the Russian army, artillery, and engineering troops originated from the countries of Western Europe, or “outlanders” as they were then called, during the period from 1726 through 1745. Many national historians and scientists in their research papers on the history of the Russian Army, artillery and engineering troops give negative assessment to the results of the activity of the “outlanders” at their positions.

The article reviews the results of the activity of one of such “outlanders”, the fifth General Feldzeugmeister and Russian General Field Marshal, Prince Ludwig Johan Wilhelm Gruno Hessen Homburg admitted to the Russian service in 1723, who guided the Russian artillery from 1735, and the Russian Engineers’ Corps from 1742.

The research materials on the history of development of artillery and engineering in the said period published during pre­revolutionary, Soviet, and post­Soviet periods include some works devoted to the problem. That is why, the article is meant for extending and completing already existing data on the key aspects of the history of development of artillery and engineering activities under the guidance of Hessen Homburg Prince.

Based on the materials collected, and on archival documents, some of which are introduced into scientific use for the first time ever, the author traces the chronology of the key moments of the service carried out by Prince Hessen Homburg for the Russian state, which enables the author to either confirm or put to doubt some of the conclusions or suggestions made by the researchers in the previous works.

Key words: the second quarter of the 17th century, Anna Ioannovna, Elizaveta Petrovna, Hessen Homburg, Minich, Lacy, Artillery and Engineers’ Corps, Russo­Turkish war, Russo­Swedish war.

Makichyan A.A. (Moscow). Patient evacuation during the Russo-Japanese war of 1904–1905………. 126

The article considers the arrangements for evacuation in the period of the Russo­Japanese war in 1904­1905. The author investigates different stages and methods of evacuation, both at the theater of war, and in the rear, and within the Russian Empire, tracing the route of a wounded person starting from evacuation from the battlefield through departure up­country. Special attention is paid to legislative norms regulating arrangements for evacuation at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Besides, the paper presents information about evacuation committees’ activity, routes, vehicles employed for evacuation of the troops, advantages and disadvantages of hospital trains, and other means of transportation, as well as about organizing their activities. The author arrives at the conclusion that during the Russo­Japanese war in 1904­1905, evacuation activities was unsatisfactory for various reasons revealed in the article.

Key words: Russo­Japanese war of 1904­1905, evacuation, means of transportation, evacuation committee, medical assistance, sorting the patients, hospital train.


Historical characters

Krasikova E.Y. (Kiev, Ukraine). Contribution made by Professor V.I. Krokos to the history of the theory of loess (to the 125th anniversary)………. 131

The article deals with the achievements of contemporary scientists in soil sciences resulted from fruitful activity of several generations of research­workers, who contributed their selfless labor of a hundred years to the development of sciences dealing with the Earth. Thus, in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries, soils of Ukraine, then a part of Russia, were intensively studied. The research was comprehensive, since it engaged professionals from other fields, viz. soil scientists, geologists, botanists, climate scientists, and agriculturists. Professor V.I. Krokos (1889–1936) was one of them. He made a significant contribution into the history of survey of soils, especially of the loess horizons. Loess rocks represent unique geological structures formed during the Quaternary period. Over a hundred years, loess has intrigued many geologists determined, first, by the origin specificity, as well as by extraordinary conditions of bedding. Loess formations prevail in Ukraine, where they cover almost the whole territory. Loess are absent only in the Carpathians and Polesye, as well as somewhere in the South West. V.I. Krokos’ works continued P.Y. Armashevsky, A.I. Nabokikh, P.A. Tutkovsky’s research and other scientific surveys. The scientist left over a hundred scientific works, one third of which is devoted to investigation of loess. Professor Krokos was one of the first scientists to prove availability of gypsum of loess rocks in the South of Ukraine, propose his theory of origin of the same, and boundaries of bedding. The paper presented, using general scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, and personalization, as well as historical and scientific analysis, reviews in brief V.I. Krokos’ scientific research results concerning loess rocks, which are not only of historical – but also of present – significance. Special attention is paid to the period of intensive filed research in 1917­1927 focused on the development of the agrarian sector of Ukraine.

Key words: history of science, professor V.I. Krokos, scientific heritage, soils studies, geology, stratigraphy, research into loess, gypsum, hypothesis, scientific terminology, international cooperation.

Goldin V.I., Sokolova F.H. (Arkhangelsk) A personality in science: Professor V.S. Volkov………. 135

The article researches into the life, activity, and scientific heritage of an outstanding Russian historian, one of the leaders of the Leningrad/Petersburg Scientific School of Intelligentsia Studies, Professor V.S. Volkov. His life and work have been closely connected with the Leningrad State Pedagogical Institute later transformed into the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, for a half of a century. It is here that he entered a PhD program in 1964, defended candidate and doctoral thesis papers, passed through all stages of scientific and pedagogical activity to become a professor. Being a student of a founder of the Leningrad School of Intelligentsia Studies, B.I. Sandin, V.S. Volkov took the lead of the department, thesis board, inter­department association for study of intelligentsia, and a scientific school of intelligentsia studies established at the Leningrad State Pedagogical Institute, which become renown in every part of the Soviet Union and abroad. V.S. Volkov’s scientific opinions, his primary works, and the books published are reviewed, his contribution into the formation of the concept and study of the history of intelligentsia is described. It is emphasized that the scientific school guided by Volkov stood at the sources of comprehensive investigation of the phenomenon of the Soviet intelligentsia.

Scientific and organizational activities carried out by Professor V.S. Volkov as a member of the Problematic Council “Intelligentsia. Culture. Power” are studied, as well as his close cooperation with the Center of Intelligentsia Studies at the Ivanovo State University, membership in the editorial council of the Russian interdisciplinary magazine of social and humanitarian sciences “Intelligentsia and the World”. V.S. Volkov’s great contribution into the establishment and development of intelligentsia studies as of an interdisciplinary area of scientific knowledge is being emphasized. His activity in a capacity of a scientific supervisor assisting in writing candidate thesis papers, and a scientific advisor for those writing doctoral thesis papers is described: he prepared five doctors and 27 candidates of sciences. Professor Volkov’s pedagogical activity at the higher education establishments of Saint Petersburg, and, particularly, special lectures on intelligentsia studies topics he delivered are described.

Key words: V.S. Volkov, science, culture, higher school, intelligentsia, intelligentsia studies, scientific school, personality.


Reviews of scientific publications

Lyubichankovsky S.V. (Orenburg). Contemporary historiography about daily routine of provincial citizens………. 139

The paper gives scientific review, and shows debating points of Z.M. Kobozeva’s monograph about bourgeois class in Samara in the post­reform period. It is shown that the monograph under review is an interdisciplinary research performed at the turn of history, cultural studies, psychology, sociology, and esthetics. The choice of the object of research is determined by an interest the professional historian feels to the “fate of a person of little mark” as she calls a representative of bourgeois class, and being a citizen of Samara and a descendant of Samara bourgeois family, she tries to restore a retrospective of life of the citizens a century ago. To implement the conception, the researcher is armed with the advanced methodological approaches tested and employed in contemporary historiography of “daily routine”. The author decisively denies division of the citizens according to the class principles, and the class theory as a whole; she is sceptic about a so­called “anti­bourgeois complex” formed in the Russian culture, for which purpose she is intended to disregard the discourse on the Russian fiction. Combination of micro­ and macro­analysis techniques was determined by a necessity to describe interaction between government and the social group, on the one hand, and by daily life rich in “insignificant” everyday problems, on the other hand. The historian proves feasibility of such combination supported both by her own opinion, and by A.B. Kamensky’s monograph “Daily life of the Russian citizens: historical anecdotes from provincial everyday life of the 18th century”. She defined the research area of daily routine as the bourgeois everyday life covering estates, speech, discussion, and emotional routines. The author made a conclusion that Z.M. Kobozeva succeeded in displaying “multi­faced nature” of a Samarian citizen captured in different circumstances”.

Key words: daily routine, bourgeois class, historiography, Z.M. Kobozeva.

Mikhailov V.V., Mikhailov A.A. (Saint Petersburg). Review of the monograph of R. Rosenthal, an Estonian historian, “The North-Western Army: Chronicles of Victories and Defeats”……….  142

The review assesses the scientific merit of the monograph of the Estonian historian Reigo Rosenthal «North­Western Army: A Chronicle of victThe review gives an estimation of scientific significance of the monograph published by an Estonian historian Reigo Rosenthal “The North­Western Army: Chronicles of Victories and Defeats” in 2012, characterizing debating points of the Civil war in the North West of Russia revealed in the book reviewed. The authors of the review offered to a wide circle of historical society attempt to estimate and analyze all principal advantages and disadvantages of the scientific monograph under consideration. The authors draw special attention to the fact that Reigo Rosenthal described in detail, day by day, every change at the front of “white struggle” in the North West of Russia. That fact distinguishes greatly Rosenthal’s work out of his predecessors’ publications. Great virtue of the investigation consists in resorting to a significant number of Estonian archival materials, many of which are introduced into scientific use. The author also employs a body of statistical materials dealing with the North­Western Corps and the losses it suffered. Unfortunately, the author builds his investigation upon using documents from Estonian archives (of which, correspondence between the command of the North­Western Army and Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich’s diary can be singled out), while paying insufficient attention to analysis of documents from the archives of the Russian Federation. Conspicuous is the fact that the researcher depicts a political portrait of some personalities of the Civil war in the North West of Russia, based on the author’s opinion justified by facts. For example, he characterizes Stanislav Nikodimovich Bulak­Balakhovich. This circumstance, alongside with the author’s effort to estimate all political forces participating in the Civil war in the North West of Russia, makes the monograph more complete and interesting. The reviewers draw attention to the fact that Rosenthal covered many military and strategic issues excessively at length (in particular, the battles between the Northern Corps and the Red Army at Pskov and Yamburg), while disregarding ideological and political issues of the said struggle. However, there is one more pleasant fact in the publication, namely, the author touches upon a number of economic issues (e.g. an issue of supply by Estonian state of the White Russians). According to the reviewers’ unanimous opinion, the latter circumstance adds further credence to comprehensive expertise and extensive scientific knowledge of the investigator, who reviews brilliantly the reasons of failure of the attacks on Petrograd conducted by Yudenich. Therefore, an Estonian historian Reigo Rosenthal’s monograph “The North­Western Army: Chronicles of Victories and Defeats” contributed greatly to the coverage and historical analysis of the White movements in the North West of Russia.

Key words: Civil war in the North West of Russia, Petrograd, White movement, Nikolai Yudenich, operation “White Sword”, Yudenich’s march on Petrograd, Reigo Rosental, Estonia.



Kuzinets I.M. (Saint Petersburg). To commemorate the 90th anniversary of the Vice President of the Academy of Military and Historical Sciences, a member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, and European Academy of Natural Sciences, doctor of historical sciences Professor Mikhail Ivanovich Frolov………. 149

The publication is devoted to the 90th anniversary of Mikhail Ivanovich Frolov, an outstanding Petersburg historian. It runs about the life journey and scientific activity of the participant of the Great Patriotic War, the colonel retired, Doctor in His­tory, Professor… The article notes that M.I. Frolov is one of the largest experts of German historiography of the World War II. Mikhail Ivanovich is an author of a number of scientific monographs and scientific publications devoted to various aspects of history of the Red Army, both during the war, and in times of peace.

M.I. Frolov is a founder of the scientific school of research workers of the German historiography. He also made a significant contribution to the research into study of Leningrad blockade paying special attention to the number of the citizens who died during the siege.

M.I. Frolov is well known for his intense public activity. For many years, he has participated in the work of the Russian Fund of Peace, appearing before the scientists and young people of Finland, Hungary, Germany, and other countries. Despite considerable age, Mikhail Ivanovich remains actively seized of organizing and scientific work.

Key words: M.I. Frolov, Great Patriotic War, Leningrad historiography of the World War II.


 In memory of the colleague

Isanchenko V.G. (Saint Petersburg). Viktor Vasilievich Antonov (1938–2014)………. 153

Tsamulali A.N., Rogoznyi P.G., Lebedev S.K. (Saint Petersburg). Raphail Sholomovitch Ganelin and his scientific heritage………. 154