Klio #12 (108) 2015

Theoretical issues

Golikov K.A. (Moscow). Lilac of Victory: question about some methods of formation of historical memory ………. 9

One of the methods of formation of historical memory, which hasn’t attracted the attention of researchers till now, is giving the memorial names to varieties of lilacs. And these names are devoted to events and characters of the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945.

The plant’s breeders have a good and long-story tradition of giving the names for theirs best plants in honor of great persons and events. That’s why Russian breeder L.A. Kolesnikov named the plants of lilacs in honor of the Victory over the fascism. L.A. Kolesnikov had generated almost twenty plants of «military» lilacs and in total he had generated over hundred plants of Russian lilacs. The modern breeder’s epoch had been reflected in the plants’ names. But, of course, the project «Lilac of Victory» had become one of the important methods of formation and upholding of collective consciousness of Russian people.

Keywords: historical memory, methods of formation of mass consciousness, Great Patriotic War, outstanding person, Great Victory in human minds, «memorable» names of lilacs, Russian lilac, L.A. Kolesnikov, Botanical Garden.


General history

Chudakova A.M. (Moscow). The formation of the pharmaceutical giants. Historical background ………. 15

This article studies the historical processes of formation and economic development of the pharmaceutical industry and the largest pharmaceutical companies that have captured the modern market of drugs. It is an excursion into history to find out the origin of dominance of first German and then American pharmaceutical «companies-giants». Historical background is completed by analysis of the current situation of the leading pharmaceutical companies in the world market, assessment of their role and influence on the Russian market in a very intense contemporary globalization processes.

Keywords: state regulation of the production and releasing pharmaceutical products, pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical companies.

Shestakova A.G. (Saratov). The «fashion for ultramontanism» in Western Europe in 1830–1850s and the preconditions of the Schism of the Roman Catholic Church ………. 20

Technological progress in the XIX century led to large-scale social deformations that required a revaluation of the relationship between church and society. Liberal conceptions of power and church defied to «holy of holies» – the Dogmatic Code of Catholicism. The revival of a strong theological and philosophical current – ultramontanism – was the response to it. This ultra-clerical doctrine in the Roman Catholic Church gave a reason to the priority of the Roman Pontiff in the spiritual and secular affairs and by that time it existed for a few centuries. However, it reached its apotheosis in the XIX century. Ultramontanism gained momentum throughout the first half of the XIX century. This circumstance created a resistance in the ranks of the certain part of the Catholics, and it led to the division of Catholics into the «moderate» and «ultra-clerical». The article examines the basic stages of the development of the ultramontanism ideology in 1830–50s.

Keywords: ultramontanism, Oxford Movement, Newman, Manning, Wessenberg, Immaculate Conception, Pius IX.


History of Russia

Evdokimov A.V. (Nizhnii Novgorod). Beginning of the «Sukhomlinov case» and creation of the Progressive Bloc ………. 25

The article is devoted to the problem, connected with the beginning of the «Sukhomlinov case», which reflected the struggle for power within the bureaucratic elite and also between the elite and public counter-elite. It was used the S.V. Kulikov’s theory of elites in the analysis of this issue. Dismissal of V.A. Sukhomlinov and some other ministers was the first condition to continue the struggle for power for public counter-elite. The second condition was a creation of Petrov’s Commission and beginning of the «Sukhomlinov case». And the last but not the least condition was a creation of the Progressive Bloc. By the autumn of 1915 public counter-elite was able to consolidate and launch an attack on the «dualists». It was given a special role to the «Sukhomlinov case», as it was struck not only and not so much on the figure of the former Military Minister, but on the prestige of the autocracy and personally Nicholas II. Summer of 1915 buried the «sacred unity», which was at the beginning of the World War I.

Keywords: V.A. Sukhomlinov, Progressive Bloc, Military Minister, elite, counter-elite, parliamentarists, dualists, Petrov’s Commission.

Kholyaev S.V. (Yaroslavl). Alternatives of interparty struggle in Russia in the early of the XX (1904–1922) ………. 30

The article considers alternative options, which allowed to strengthen the positions of leading Russian parties in the early of the XX century (Black Hundreds, Octobrists, Cadets, Socialists Revolutionaries, Mensheviks and Bolsheviks) in the parties’ struggle, and impact of these options on the general course of the struggle for power. It’s concluded there was a possibility of real changes in the political situation during their implementation, but the historical progress has chosen middle ways which haven’t allowed the best and prevented the worst case scenarios. Thus, according to author of the article, options of the optimal development of the country were those that were directed at the evolutionary development, prevention of revolutions, moderate reforming, preservation of order and territorial integrity of the state, and the worst ways of development – tough versions of collapse of Russia and its loss of national sovereignty.

Keywords: alternative, political parties, revolution, Cadets, Octobrists, Socialists Revolutionaries, Bolsheviks.

Eremeeva A.N. (Krasnodar). «I can only work very little – almost all of my time goes on searching for food»: the Famine of 1921–1922 in emotional experience of professors of higher schools of Southern Russia ………. 42

Famine of 1921–1922 became a serious test for the population of a number of Russian regions, including the Southern ones. The author reconstructs the emotional experience of professors during the hunger of 1921–1922 on the base of the analysis of sources of private origin and business documents of higher schools of Southern Russia. Particular attention is paid to the archival fund of botanist V. M. Artsikhovsky from the Archive of the RussianAcademy of Sciences. The sources indicated the predominance of sentiments almost of despair because of the minimization of scientific activity, the domination of «food taxis» acts, and the high mortality rate of the population caused by hunger. At the same time professors controlled their expression of emotions and feelings in verbal form. It helped to limit public criticism concerning the Soviet power. This control was proof of understanding the negative effects of the criticism, confidence in the stability of the new government and a willingness to adapt to it. Attempts to influence on the government and the population to overcome Famine were the exception («case» of Professor V. M. Artsikhovsky).

Keywords: Southern Russia, higher school, professors, academic ration, Famine of 1921–1922, emotional experience, V. M. Artsikhovsky.

History of Russian regions

Gessen V.Y. (St. Petersburg). History of establishment and liquidation of the YusupovPalaceMuseum in Petrograd (1918–1925) ………. 49

This article continues presentation of the historical materials on the theme «The Bolsheviks cultural revolution in Petrograd–Leningrad (October 1917–1929)», different sides of this theme were already studied in articles printed in the journal «Klio». As previous articles this is based on unused archival materials. It considers issues connected with the establishment by Bolsheviks of the YusupovPalaceMuseum in Petrograd at the river Moika emb., 94, with the repossession of property belonging to them. Then the most historically and artistically valuable things were sent from Yusupov Palace to the Hermitage and the Russian Museum, great number of them was relocated to Moscow storages, less valuable things were transferred to the State Precious Metals and Gems Repository (Gokhran) for selling. The article represents some details connected with attempts of Leningrad scientists to prevent the destruction of Museum, liquidation of the Yusupov collections.

Keywords: YusupovPalace, Hermitage, RussianMuseum, repossession, liquidation, inventory list.

Yakimov V.A. (St. Petersburg). Cossack fraternities of Northwest of the Russian Federation in 1990s–early 2000s ………. 61

The end of the 1980s was marked with such a unique phenomenon as a revival of the Cossacks. The basic characteristic of this phenomenon was an appearance of the non-governmental organizations of the Cossacks in the regions of Kuban, Don and the North Caucasus. However, the process of revival had taken place in such «non-Cossack» region as a Northwest. An analysis of the emergence and further development of the Cossacks seems important enough for our region. Within this analysis is revealed the formation process in the North-West of the first Cossack public organizations. There is illustrated the beginning of this process. It was characterized with the revival of cultural elements and forgotten pages of the military history of the Cossacks. In addition, is touched widely enough a topic of the interactions of the Cossack communities in St. Petersburg and city’s administration and also studied their features of interaction during the internal split of the Cossack movement. The main conclusion of the article is that the process of revival of the Cossacks in the Northwest of the Russian Federation is a unique phenomenon. Not having initially strong financial backing and public support, the Cossacks could create a public organization with a clear ideology and well thought-out program of its activities. However, the difference between political and ideological opinions didn’t allow the Cossacks creating a single structure in that region.

Keywords: Northwest, Leningrad, St. Petersburg, Cossacks, revival process, Neva village, public organization, B.A. Almazov.


History of International relations

Khmyrov D.V. (St. Petersburg). ROCOR: Educational and publishing activities in the 20s of the XX century ………. 66

The article is devoted to educational and publishing activities of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia represented by its Provisional Supreme Church Authority — Synod of bishops. The sources were journals, containing the proceedings of the Synod meetings from 1922 to 1930, which are stored in the Russian State Archive and also publications in journal «Church Bulletin». Over the past 20 years it was created many Church and secular archives, containing materials on the history of ROCOR, so thanks to this have appeared many works on the subject. The article presents a review of the bibliography of contemporary researchers, including the Internet sources. Great attention is paid to the RussianTheologicalAcademy in St. Kyrik monastery in Bulgaria. The section, dedicated to publishing activity, tells about the typography of Monastery of St. Job of Pochaev in Ladomirovo (Slovakia) and the journal «Church Bulletin».

Keywords: ROCOR, Russian emigration, Synod of bishops, Russian Theological Academy in Bulgaria, Monastery of St. Job of Pochaev in Ladomirovo, journal «Church Bulletin».

Sidorov I.Y. (Saratov). The «Thaw» in the Iran-Azerbaijan relations in 2001–2003: causes, content and main results ………. 78

The article is dedicated to the stage in the Iran-Azerbaijan relations in 2001–2003, which can be defined as a period of «thaw». The main aim of this study is examining this phenomenon in the context of domestic and foreign policy agenda in Iran and Azerbaijan in that period. A particular interest of analysis is paid to reasons motivated Iran and Azerbaijan to stabilize their bilateral relations. The process of the «thaw» is analyzed in various areas of the Iran-Azerbaijan relations. The final part of the article describes factors that have led to an end of the «thaw» and also there are shown its main results for the Iran-Azerbaijan relations.

Keywords: Iran-Azerbaijan relations, «axis of evil», G. Aliyev, «Thaw», Caspian Sea, South Azerbaijan, invasion of Iraq in 2003.

Rostovetskaya T.V. (St. Petersburg). The Romania’s vision of the Transnistrian settlement within the «Eastern» policy of Bucharest (2002–2015) ………. 83

Nowadays, when it is the «battle for Eurasia» that is one of the world’s political trends forming the geopolitical stake of the Third Millennium, the Southeastern Europe enters a zone of interests of both European and non-European states. From the Eastern part the territory of Russia’s military and economic presence located in the nearest neighborhood of the West becomes Transnistria in the ХХІ century, while from the Western side it is Romania that serves the EU eastern borderline. Transnistria, which still represents a particular challenge for regional players, has acquired the status of a line of civilizational stand-off. New Romania’s status makes Bucharest review its territorial policy towards Eastern neighbors, namely, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine as well as the policy toward its regional rival, the Russian Federation. The author of this article will make an attempt, using the materials of Romanian scholars, to track the forming of a new «Ostpolitik» of Bucharest through the prism of the Transnistrian settlement, where Romania’s voice gradually sounds more confident.

Keywords:Russia, Romania, Ukraine, Moldova, Transnistrian conflict, NATO, EU, «Eastern neighbors», regional policy, «regulated geometry».


Military history

Makedonsky A.V. (Moscow). The Red Army – school of cultural education of military personnel (1920–1930s) ………. 92

This article analyses the activity of the Red Army cultural and educational institutions engaged in cultural education of military personnel in 1920–30s. Based on new archival sources, there are examined various aspects of this direction of their activity, presented achievements and defects. The article reveals such positive moments as joining to systematic reading, appearing a habit of cultural organizing of free time, elaboration of cultural norms in everyday life and behavior, joining to physical trainings. The article presents the references of fighters and commanders about cultural and educational work in the Red Army, which were published in newspapers, reported in letters etc. It is shown, much of the experience of conducting cultural and educational work may be successfully used in modern conditions in Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

Keywords: Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army, cultural and educational work, cultural education of military personnel, Red Army men, cultural and educational institutions, fighters and junior commanders, cultural progress, cultural level.

Kokoshin A.A. (Moscow). Blitzkrieg and the Structure of Revolution in Military Affairs ………. 96

This article examines the content of Blitzkrieg as a large-scale revolution in military affairs, which was conducted by the Nazi Germany in 1939–1941 and ensured a transformation of Wehrmacht into one of the most powerful military machines in world history. It provides with a detailed analysis of five key elements of Blitzkrieg as an example of revolution in military affairs: changing forms of warfare and military art on the strategic, operational and tactical levels; different weapon systems and military technologies; new elements of organization of military forces; principles of command; quality, professionalism, education and morale of personnel.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Third Reich, Soviet Union, revolution in military affairs, military strategy, operational art, command, organization, weapon systems.

Mikhaylik A.G. (Moscow). Military operations of the mechanized cavalry group of General I.A. Pliev during the Debrecen offensive operation (October 1944) ………. 110

Mechanized cavalry group of General I.A. Pliev during the Debrecen offensive operation in October 1944, broke through the enemy defense and for three days got ahead 100 km., reaching the area west of Debrecen. Then using a complicated maneuver the main armed forces captured Oradea Mare, while one of the cavalry corps was blocked by the enemy. With the new maneuver Group captured Debrecen and got out to the bridges over the river Tisza near Nyíregyháza, threatening to surround the three armies of the enemy. However, the enemy made a counter-attack, and as a result was surrounded mechanized cavalry group of Pliev. Break out of this encirclement was accompanied by great losses in personnel, weapons and equipment, but the troops kept fighting capacity, while a third of the territory and a quarter of the population of Hungary were liberated.

Keywords: Hungary, mechanized cavalry group of General Pliev, Debrecen offensive operation.


History of science and technology

Vagabova E.R. (Baku, Azerbaijan Republic). The history of development of cinema in Northern Azerbaijan and its educational character (second half of the XIX–beginning of the XX) ………. 118

The article examines the emergence of cinema and its appearance in the end of the XIX century in Northern Azerbaijan, particularly in Baku. The author notices the creation of the first scene of films, the construction of the first cinema theaters and music accompaniment for film screenings. The article emphasizes the importance of cinema as an instrument of forming and promoting the scientific knowledge, the role of cinema in the non-formal education and schooling. Also there are noted the activities of branches of foreign film companies – «Pate», «Pirone», «Film». The article considers a question of establishing a training program of filming as a tutorial book in schools, both in Russia and Northern Azerbaijan. There is shown a role of censorship in acquiring and screening the films. The author of article draws attention to the activities of the school’s committee of the Baku City Council, the participation of municipal government, the Board of the Council of the Congress of Oil on the implementation of organization of film show. He notes the importance of educational films, organization of the congress on adult education and reasonable entertainment, as well as he paid attention to the development of Azerbaijani cinema during the First World War and the contribution of Azerbaijani cinema in the development of Azerbaijani culture as a whole.

Keywords: invention, cinematograph, emergence of Azerbaijani cinema, first cinema theaters, music accompaniment, mobile and educational cinema, censorship, school’s committee, Baku City Council.

Dushkova N.A., Grigorova V.A. (Voronezh). Historical milestones of development of the handicraft metallurgy as a base for industrial development in Russia ………. 130

Based on archival documents the author traced the history of iron handicrafts of Chernozem South of Russia. It was one of the centers of the handicraft industry in Russia. The authors have determined the level of development of handicrafts in the period of large-scale production in the region, revealed features of their development in the time of bourgeois reforms in Russia and shown the options of using the experience of development of the handicraft industry at the present stage of state evolution.

They analyzed changes in the historical and socio-economic development of the metalworking crafts from ancient times till the beginning of the XX century. The authors showed the reasons of formation of Russian Chernozem South as a separate Russian center of handicraft industry development.

The authors represented that in the second half of the XIX century had begun a new phase of the handicraft industry development. It was represented by development of metalworking industries in the region and also in the state policy of the central and local authorities.

They found that at the turn of XIX–XX centuries in the development of the handicraft industry was remained a family brigade in the production process, distribution trades depended on a good combination of raw materials sources and demand for iron products, sales were carried out in the local markets on their own, buyers-up (local seller) helped in the distant markets. In that time it was marked a new phenomena in the development of the handicraft in Russia of the XX century.

Keywords: craftsman, iron handicrafts, Chernozem South of Russia, big steel mills.

Bartenev V.I., Veselov V.A. (Moscow). «Toward New Horizons»: the U.S. experience of long-term technology foresight in the interest of National Security (1944–1946) ………. 135

This article examines one of the less-studied episodes of the World War II – the process of preparation and implementation of the first project of long-term technological foresight initiated in the United States by the Commander of the U.S. Army Air Forces Henry Harley Arnold under the leadership of one of the most renowned scholars of the time Theodore von Karman and known under the name of its final report «Toward New Horizons». The author identifies the main reasons of launching the project and particularities of its implementation. It considers several special research and development projects aimed at fulfillment of von Karman and his colleagues’ ideas and provides an assessment of invaluable and timeless heritage of «Toward New Horizons».

Keywords: World War II, United States of America, Germany, Air Forces, foresight, science, technologies, defense, security Research and Development (R&D).

Kulichkov V.K. (Moscow). The history of the construction of domestic nuclear submarines with cruise missiles (first generation) ………. 147

The article considers the history of design and construction of first diesel and nuclear submarines with cruise missiles at various shipyards in the Soviet Union and modernization process of nuclear missile submarines of the first generation. There is analyzed the domestic experience in creating missile systems, as well as aircraft and satellite-based targeting. Also is being made the attempt to understand the problems appeared during the exploitation of steam generating plants of first nuclear-powered ships, and to identify the causes of increased accidents.

Keywords: nuclear submarine, cruise missiles, upgrading, generation, project, missile system, construction.


Historical characters

Smirnov V.G. (St. Petersburg). Аcademician M.A. Rykachev’s heritage: researches, searches, discoveries, findings (His 175th Anniversary) ………. 161

The article presents results of researching heritage of the outstanding Russian scientist and organizer of science, General of Navy, Academician Mikhail Alexandrovich Rykachev (1840/1841–1919). Since 2010 till 2014 the author has been studying scientist’s correspondence located in St. Petersburg branch of the Archive of the Academy of Sciences, the documents of the Russian State Navy Archive and the Russian State Historical Archive, the materials of the newspaper «Kronstadt Gazette», publications of St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, as well as other sources, and he could find more than one hundred M.A. Rykachev`s publications, not included in the «List of scientific works» by E.L. Andronikova and E.D. Slobodskaya in the «Proceedings of the Main Geophysical Observatory» (Vol. 123, 1961. P. 11–27). There were identified his articles on hydrometeorology, astronomy, polar research, history of science, unique natural phenomena, also reviews for monographs and articles of other scientists, obituaries etc.

Keywords: M.A. Rykachev, Academy of Sciences, Russian Geographical Society, «Kronstadt Gazette», heritage, hydrometeorology, polar research, astronomy.

Spiridonova E.K. (St. Petersburg). Biographical materials about I. P. Mordvinov from the archives of St. Petersburg, Moscow and Tikhvin ………. 182

The article provides a review of archival material relating to the biography of Tikhvin historian and educator I.P. Mordvinov. The documents which are stored in St. Petersburg, Moscow, and Tikhvin, hadn’t been studied as a set of interrelated and complementary sources yet. It is the first time when is put into scientific circulation the information from the Central Archive of the Federal Security Service of Russia, highlighting a little-known scholar’s arrest in 1921 within the case of a priest Izmail Rozhdestvenskiy. During the study among the materials of investigation the personal correspondence of I.P. Mordvinov and his works of exclusively professional orientation have been found. The article shows the connection of I.P. Mordvinov’s detention with the arrest of A.F. Mathisen (Matissen) due to the case of Tsvyliovskaya commune. The author gives guidance on the family archive of the Mordvinov-Loginov and on the valuable manuscripts and photographs stored in St. Petersburg and Tikhvin. The revealed range of sources has a particular significant for the understanding of scientific and educational activities of I.P. Mordvinov.

Keywords: I.P. Mordvinov, biography, archives, Tikhvin, monasteries, region studies, education, Izmail Rozhdestvenskiy, A.F. Mathisen.

Shvecov A.A. (St. Petersburg). L. Fischer: «Peaceful coexistence of Russia and the USA may have only temporary character» ………. 186

Louis Fischer (1896–1970) – is a famous American journalist, who worked in Russia and Europe almost for 20 years as a personal European correspondent of the magazine «The Nation» (1922–1940). He was a professor at Princeton (1930) and Yale (1936) universities. Vladimir Pechatnov wrote that Fischer was never a communist, but, apparently, had gained a good reputation and connections in Moscow as a respected and friendly Western commentator. Fischer’s correspondence, as well as his books about the Soviet Russia, brought him a fame of one of the leading experts on Soviet foreign policy in the West.[1] The article analyzes the views of L. Fischer on Soviet foreign policy and the Soviet-American cooperation after the World War II.

Keywords: Louis Fischer, USA, USSR, Second World War, Cold War.

Mankov S.A. (St. Petersburg). Vasiliy Fedorovich Ivashintsov (1839–1899) – Vice Admiral, constructor and businessman ………. 190

The article considers the main features and stages of complex and controversial biography of a prominent Russian Naval Officer – Vice-Admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy Vasiliy Fedorovich Ivashintsov (1839–1899). Assessing all twists and turns of the ambiguous and dynamic life of V.F. Ivashintsov, the author represents his remarkable creative achievements as a constructor-engineer and one of the first prominent businessman having founded the canning industry and large-scale fish processing industries in the Far East of the Russian Empire .The legacy of this many sided activity of this talented man is completely forgotten as by his contemporaries as any descendants. This milestone is particularly worth the attention of historians because it « illuminates» the story of Russian far regions at that time and colorfully illustrates an example of bourgeois private business in a particular «peripheral» area of the empire – on its far eastern outskirts. Design innovations of Vasiliy Fedorovich having paid attention of the outstanding Russian scientist – inventor of radio Alexander Stepanovich Popov, that also require the study and evaluation, mainly from the point of the history of the domestic marine artillery and military history of Russia as a whole. The author told about interesting military and administrative work carried out by V.F. Ivashintsov as a commander of the Revel port – one of the main ports of Imperial Russia in the Baltic Sea. The article is biographical work and illustrated in many ways previously unknown and less-studied sides of the naval career, inventive, business and family life of the hereditary Russian nobleman Vasiliy Fedorovich Ivashintsov whose life is a vivid example of faithful and dedicated service to the Fatherland.

Keywords: Vasiliy Fedorovich Ivashintsov, Vice-Admiral, history of Russian Imperial Navy, A.S. Popov, history of artillery, business, canning industry, Far East.

Zolotarev V.A., Saljkova O.A. (Moscow). «Draught of times», genius of the Russian land» ………. 194

This essay is dedicated to the 120th anniversary of the birth of outstanding Russian poet S.A. Esenin. The authors consider a dynamic of his life and creative activity highlighting uncommon talent and poet’s selfless love of Russia. The publication pays attention to the facts of biography that haven’t been noticed ever by scholars: his work in Sytin’s printing house and studying at the Moscow City People’s University. It’s noticed his acquaintance with A. Blok, A. Belyi, S. Gorodetsky, A. Klyuev. There is highlighted the influence on creative activity of S.A. Esenin made by Right Symbolists led by D.S. Merezhkovskii and Z.N. Gippius. The article noticed his cooperation with editions «Panorama», «Life for everyone», «Scythians», «Banner of Labor» and «Bugle». It highlights that in spite of contradictions of poet’s fate the time could have removed from his oeuvre all wrong and random marks.

Keywords: Esenin, Blok, Pushkin, culture of spirit, fate, poetry, love, village, imagism, Russia, Moscow, St. Petersburg.


Reviews of scientific publications

Ershov N.V., Losik A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Bridgehead «Nevsky Pyatachok» – a unique and tragic element in the defense of Leningrad during the Great Patriotic War ………. 197

The article presents a review, which assesses the collection of scientific articles, dedicated to the unknown pages of history of defence of Leningrad, associated with the heroic epopee of the existence of the bridgehead on the left Bank of the Neva river, called «Nevsky Pyatachok». It identifies the achievements and dignities of conducted scientific researches, highlights the fact that in their articles the authors used a wide range of sources, primarily archival documents, including materials from the Archive of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, the National Archive of the United States, as well as documents and materials from German sources.

Keywords: bridgehead left Bank of the Neva river, defense, Siege of Leningrad, army, Wehrmacht, documents, «Nevsky Pyatachok».


Scientific life

Kostyuk R.V. (Saint Petersburg). «Ibero-America» Forum in St. Petersburg ………. 201

The article deals with the contents and results of scientific discussions which have taken place within the II « Russia and Ibero-America in a Globalizing World: History and Modernity» international forum.

Keywords: Forum, Ibero-America, Latin America, cooperation, politics.

Avrus A.I. (Moscow). History of Russian Sport in 6 volumes. Plan of upcoming edition ………. 204

Well-known Russian scientist Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor A.I. Avrus is a prominent specialist in the sphere of history of Russian Sport. Many years he has had an idea of preparation of multivolume edition on the history of development of sport in Rus and then Russia. This plan of 6-volume edition proposed by the author examines methodology, historiography and sources. Based on these materials it’s going to prepare a complex research which will monitor dynamics of development of sport in our country. Moreover it’s supposed to consider this great historical problem as a part of Russian people culture. In chronological order will be researched traditions of forming physical competition in Rus transforming at the turn of the XIX–XX in various modern kinds of sport.

Keywords: sport, history of sport, culture, physical culture.



Jubilee of professor G.V. Serebryanskaya ………. 209


Alphabetical list of authors of articles published in the journal Klio in 2015 ………. 210