Klio #12 (72) 2012


Theoretical issues

Kargapoltsev S.Yu. (Saint-Petersburg). The method of Comparatively-historical analysis in the study of key events of the World and Patriotic social genesis……… 3

The article describes theoretical aspects of Comparatively-historical analysis method and questions of the relationship of the past and present events.


Diaries, memoirs

Chetverikov B.D. (Saint-Petersburg). «Stezhky-dorozhky» (The pathways) (continuation)……… 7

The autobiographical novel by B.D. Chetverikov tells us about the writer’s life that can be called «the outline» of the history of our country in the 20th century.

Lebedeva L.A. (Saint-Petersburg). «Only now I realized, how it was difficult to us …»……… 19

Yegorovs’ family is one of the many thousands of Leningrad families, who have experienced the horrors of the siege of Leningrad. L.А. Lebedeva remembers the heavy time. Her memories like the memories of many and, at the same time, not like them.


Source study

Grigoryeva Е.А. (Krasnoyarsk). The state statistical and analytical materials as sources for the history of development of cultural services and cultural-leisure activities sphere of the population of Russia at the turn of XX–XXI centuries……… 23

The article deals with the state statistical and analytical materials as sources for the history of development of cultural services and cultural-leisure activities sphere of the population of Russia at the turn of XX–XXI centuries. The author examines the completeness, the information possibilities of these sources, identifies their strengths and weaknesses.


General history

Guleva М.А. (Saint-Petersburg). The constitutional reforms in the late Republican China: the adoption of the Constitution of 1947……… 26

Preparations for development and promulgation of the Constitution of Republic of China (1947) took two decades, reaching the active phase after the victory of anti-Japanese Resistance. Discussions were held while vehement struggle seized Nationalist and Communist parties, which left a noticeable trace on the attitude toward the matter from both the parties and Chiang Kai-shek. An attempt on democratic reforms, much awaited in society, was turned into a tool of propaganda by both the Government and the opposition under the conditions of Civil War. The resultant Constitution embodied Sun Yat-sen’s principles along with some elements of Western political models, but the compromise couldn’t satisfy the requests of either of the parties.

Sagalova A.L. (Saint-Petersburg). Three questions for «the second class power»: the British labor theorists about the role of Britain in the post war world……… 31

The author examines the views of four Labour theorists (D. Healey, L.S. Woolf, K. Younger, G.D.H. Cole) on socialist foreign policy in the post war world. The four authors gave four different answers on three most important questions: what was the “socialist foreign policy”, what should be done to revitalize UN and what sort of organization would give Britain the guarantees of security at the start of the Cold War.


Natinal history

Galanov М.М. (Saint-Petersburg). The conflict of the Uniat Archbishop Irakli Lisovsky and subordinate to him clergy at the end of the XVIII century……… 37

The article is devoted to the I. Lisovsky and senior staff of the order of Basil conflict on the issue
of the elections to the monastery and the medal positions, and to the Elections to the monastery
and the medal positions, as well as accusations of Archbishop in the appropriation of other
people’s money. The author came to the conclusion that the bias of the Russian autocracy, who stood on the side of Lisovsky, was connected with his Pro-Russian position and negative attitude towards Catholicism.

Pivovarova L.V. (Krasnodar). The phenomenon of marginality in the social life of Russia of the second half of the XVIII – beginning of XIX century……… 40

In the article the phenomenon of marginality is considered on the example of two memoirists, Serbs in origin – S.S. Pishchevich, a native of the Austrian Empire, and his son A.S. Pishchevich, who was born in Russia. Both belonged to the privileged class of Russian society, but were the part, which remained on the periphery of culture of the Russian nobility.

Smirnova O.A. (Orenburg). The experience of comprehension of economic activity in the theoretical heritage of representatives of the Russian philosophical-religious Renaissance……… 43

The article presents the analysis of the experience of the economic activities phenomenon comprehension of the philosophical religious directions of Russian public thought representatives. The author gives a detailed characteristic of V.S. Solovyov, N.F. Fedorov, S.N. Bulgakov, N.A. Berdyaev ideological systems, which conceptually based on the concepts of unity and religious cosmism.

Avrus A.I., Kostyaev E.V. (Saratov). The discussion in the ranks of the Mensheviks about the compatibility of the concepts of «internationalism» and «oboronchestvo» (defense) in the period of the First world war……… 50

The article gives a review of some of the existing in the modern Russian historiography classifications trends that have emerged in the Russian social-democratic labour party from the beginning of the First world war, contains a detailed analysis of the content of the ensuing at that time the party discussion among the Mensheviks about the compatibility of the concepts of «internationalism» and «oboronchestvo» (defense), presented the original author’s approach to the ratio of the terms, considered views on the problem of such eminent leaders of the Russian social-democracy, as G. Plekhanov, A. Potresov, P. Maslov, Yu. Martov, A. Martynov and some others, proposed a new classification of the Menshevik currents in their relation to the world war.

Silin A.V. (Arkhangelsk). The discussion of the 1920s on the ways of workers’ training in the USSR: between the Central Institute for labour and factory head……… 57

In the article is analyzed the positions of the participants in the discussion of the 1920s on the ways of workers’ training, considered a reflection of the discussions in the regions, examined the impact of the discussion on the policy in the field of vocational education.

Kutuzov A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The «Courts of honor» in USSR in second half 1940s……… 60

The author regards contradictory and ambiguous development of courts of honor in the second half of 1940s against the background of members in more important deals.

Postnikov N.A., Golcov D.S. (Kursk). Financial support and some of the social guarantees of the Soviet militia members in 1946–1964……… 62

In the article is highlighted a number of issues of material support of militia employees  in the Soviet state in the period from 1946 to 1964. The article provides a number of social guarantees to the employees of the Soviet militia, indicates the size of the material allowances of militia employees, presents statistical data.


The past of Russian regions

Filippov Yu.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). The formation and development of the upper Volga shipping in the XIX – beginning of XX century……… 64

The article analyses the peculiarities of the formation of the Volga shipping in the XIX – beginning of XX century, as well as the difficulties that hampered its development. Special attention is paid to the Nizhny Novgorod steamer companies, as well as historical personalities, the names of which was due Volga shipping.

Kazancev V.P., Salogub Ya.L. (Saint-Petersburg). Kamchatka region as a part of the Amur of the Generalgouvernement in the administrative-territorial reform of 1909……… 66

In 1909, the government launched the implementation of the administrative-territorial reform, aimed at unbundling in the Amur region of the Amur General-governorship. On the map of the Russian Empire appeared two new areas: Kamchatka and Sakhalin. The article is devoted to the creation of the Kamchatka region.

Voynov E.V. (Kursk). Formation and development of the collective farm movement in the Central-Chernozem area in 1917–1919……… 71

In the article the process of formation and development of collective farms in the Central-Chernozem area using ample archive data, the conclusions have been made of the efficiency of the activity of this type of agricultural associations.

Korobec A.S. (Кirov). The shortage of personnel in the sphere of management: the reasons and the ways of the problem solution (on the materials of the Vyatka province in the end of 1917–1920)……… 74

In the article on the materials of one of the Russian provinces is considered acute standing in the first years of Soviet power problem of shortage of managerial personnel. The reasons of its appearing, the peculiarities of manifestation in the region and the ways of the mastering are analyzed.

Chernishova A.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). The establishment of the Soviet authorities in the 1920s. (on the materials of the Nizhny Novgorod province)……… 79

In the article on the basis of analysis of local archival documents examines the experience of party organs working about increased political, General and professional education of the staff of the Nizhny Novgorod province in the 1920’s.

Serdyuk M.B. (Vladivostok). Clergy at the period of religious revival in the USSR (on the example of the Far East)……… 81

The article explores 1940’s as a period of religious life revival in the USSR. During that time the Far East as well as the whole country opened new churches, restored religious communities. There is almost no information about Soviet religious leaders in the national history. The author describes Far Eastern clergy biographies on the basis of sources never published before and analyzes interaction between religious leaders and national government.

Goldina R.D. (Izhevsk), Konshin А.Е. (Kudymkar, Perm region). Camps of strict regime in the Republic of Komi-Permyatsky Autonomous district……… 84

On the basis of the documents of the Central and local archives studying were identified locations and periods of camps of strict regime working and the system of labour using prisoners in 1941–1954.


History of science and technology

Smirnov V.G. (Saint-Petersburg). The inspection trip of academician M.A. Rykachev for the inspection of magnetic and meteorological observatories and meteorological stations in the South of European Russia in 1901……… 86

In the article on the basis of archival documents and published sources is covered the inspection trip of Director of the Main physical Observatory St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, academician and major-General of the Admiralty M.A. Rykachev in 1901 to the Caucasus, Crimea, Odessa, Kiev and Kursk. In the course of the trip were examined meteorological and magnetic Observatory and meteorological stations, given recommendations on the improvement of meteorological and magnetic observations.


Military history

Chizhakovsky O.I. (Ulyanovsk). Party-political work to improve the level of combat readiness and moral-psychological state of the personnel of the compounds and parts of the Soviet Southern front (September 1918 – October 1919)……… 93

The article makes an attempt to briefly disclose the forms and methods of party-political work to increase the level of combat readiness, moral-psychological state of the personnel of the compounds and parts, which are practised in the armed forces of the Soviet Southern front in August of 1918 – October 1919. 

Snigirev S.F., Hodosovcev S.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The traditions of the interior troops – the factor of social stability in Russia……… 96

In the article is studied the problem of the formation of social stability in Russia through the preservation and augmentation of the traditions of the internal troops. The article shows the essence of the traditions of the internal troops and determines their importance for the formation of social stability in the society.


History of culture

Makhlina S.T. (Saint-Petersburg).  Kitchen in Dwelling Interior……… 100

Kitchen – (from German Kuche – table, food) – a place to cook food; type of furniture, the main function of which is cooking and eating, product storage and kitchen accessories. Historically, the kitchen place and its content have been changing and keep changing in the convenience and expediency.


History of international relations

Mesheryakov К.Е. (Saint-Petersburg). Russian-Tajik relations in the years of the Civil war in Tajikistan (1992–1997)……… 102

The article deals with the main trends in the development of the Russian-Tajikistani relations at their initial stage (1992–1997). It analyzes the legal framework of the bilateral relations and reveals the links between the events of the Civil war in Tajikistan and the growth in the Russian-Tajikistani cooperation in the political, military, economic and humanitarian fields.


Historical characters

Lyubeznikov О.А., Skridlov А.Yu. (Saint-Petersburg). N.N. Novosilcov and A.D. Balashev: development and implementation of reforms in the system of local governance in the reign of Alexander I ……… 108

The article is devoted to the relationship problem of transforming activities in the field of local governance of the companions of Alexander I, the representatives of the administrative elite of the Russian Empire in the first third of the XIX century N.N. Novosilcov and A.D. Balashev. Having analyzed an archive, and published sources, the authors came to the conclusion, that in its practical activity in the post of the Governor-General of the five Central provinces in 1819–1825 A.D. Balashev relied on the N.N. Novosilcov project «Establishment of the vicegerency», developed the latter on the basis of the «Constitutional Charter of the Kingdom of Poland».



Gоlovin V.V.  (Saint-Petersburg). Why «Yuri’s day» is in St. George’s day: version……… 116

The article is an attempt to explain the causes of binding of St. George’s day as a social phenomenon to the period of the onset of cold weather on the main territory of the Moscow Kingdom.

Malakhov G. A. (Моscow). «Black» myths about the war……… 117

In the article is made an attempt to describe the methodology of the falsifications of the great Patriotic war. The main attention is paid to the so-called «black myths».


Teaching methods

Kulakov A.A., Abrakova T.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). National history, teacher, student. Interaction questions……… 122

Results of questioning of appreciable group of student’s youth on perception and assessment of the school and high school courses «national history» are stated. Information concerning subjects, the most important for modern studying is taped. These are the problems bound to the Soviet history 60 of the beginning of the 90th of the XX century and Russian I began XXI century. Are studied, presented in student’s questionnaires, methodical references on improvement of teaching of national history at school and in higher education institution. As the main tendency the aspiration being trained to objective studying of the Soviet history of the second half of the XX – beginning of the XXI centuries is again taped.


Reviews of scientific editions

Vovk A.V. (Sumy, Ukraine). Review of the publication «Relatives. The police and the guerrillas, 1941–1944. On the example of Ukraine»……… 125

In the review is estimated contents of the collection of scientific articles of the Ukrainian-Russian authors. The author agrees with the fact that this fratricidal war of the police and the partisans was not a civil war.

Ippolitov G.M. (Samara). When there is no academic qualifications, one should not to write scientific work (critical marginalia on the margins of a book)………. 126

The author of the article, made in the genre of a detailed scientific reviews, reflects in a critical manner on the book of «the historian, publicist» Igor Vasilyevich Pyhalova. The author made an application to the fact that he wrote a scientific biography of the doctor of historical Sciences, Professor of St. Petersburg state University Viktor Stepanovych Brachev and showed «the path of life and work» (as in the title of the book) of the hero. The scientific biography of the academic sense of the term, despite the authors ‘ ambitions, however, did not work, so as I.V. Pykhalov drowned in the personal likes and dislikes.


Scientific life

Scientific conferences have passed

Serebryanskaya G.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). The year of Russian history at the technical universities of the country……… 133

The article illustrates the work of the higher educational institutions of the Russian Federation on the implementation of the plans, devoted to the Year of Russian history. There is given an overview of the all-Russian scientific-practical conference «the Year of the Russian history at the technical universities of the country», held in Moscow from 13 to 15 November 2012.

Lapina I.Yu. (Saint-Petersburg). Theory and technique of training and education in the higher school……… 136

Describes the work of the conference on pedagogy, analyzes the content participants’ speeches of pedagogical project.


Index of articles published in «Klio» during 2012……… 138