Klio #12 (96) 2014

Source studies

Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). German Archives Touching upon Political and Economic Relationships between Germany and Soviet Union in 1928 – June of 1941………. 3

The article reviews the content of documents discovered by the author during his research in July of 2014 in the archives of Germany: Bundesarchiv (Federal Archive of Germany, Berlin), Militärarchiv (Archive of the Armed Forces of Germany, Freiburg), Politisches Archiv Auswärtiges Amt (Political Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Germany, Berlin).

At the Federal Archive of Germany, the documents characterizing economic and, partially, political relations between the Soviet Union and Germany from 1928 through June 1941 have been discovered. Content of the documents convinces the reader of the interest in entry into the Soviet market taken by the German business circles. At the same time, industrial and banking capital of Germany suffered considerable difficulties in relationships with the Soviet enterprises, since the latter were the public rather than private property.

At the Archive of the Armed Forces of Germany, a number of documents was discovered that confirmed continuous intelligence activities carried out in the country, which activity was aimed at obtaining the most extensive data on the state of the Red Army and Navy.

The Political Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Germany contains unique analytical data. Among these, attaches’ reports of the political situation in the Soviet Union in the 1930s, as well as of the state of combat training and morale of the militaries of the Workers and Peasants’ Red Army and Workers and Peasants’ Red Navy.

In general, content of the documents discovered speaks to the complex dynamics in the relations between two states, of Germany maneuvering between the Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, USA, and other countries.

A number of documents and, particularly, content of the plan “Ost” developed by the General Staff of Army of Germany testify to the initiative this country launched in unleashing war against the Soviet Union.

Key words: Soviet­German relations, Bundesarchiv, Militärarchiv, Politisches Archiv Auswärtiges Amt, eve of the World War II, eve of the Great Patriotic war.



Kazantsev V.P. (Saint Petersburg). Foreign Historiographers about Establishment in Russia of an Administrative System for Management of the Lands Leased from China………. 7

The author analyzes the main research areas in foreign historiography studying the history of Russian presence in China at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The author distinguishes between English­speaking (European and American) and Chinese historiography by analyzing specific aspects of the established views of policy of the Russian Empire and backgrounds of the same (specific features of the historiography base, ideological factors, etc.).

Based on historiographic analysis, the author arrives at the conclusion that despite a wide range of foreign literature sources, the problem of development of the Russian administrative system on the lands leased from China has been not covered comprehensively. Foreign historiographers have not separated the problem from other research areas so far. The history of the leased lands has always taken attention of research workers, with the international aspects in focus, i.e. relations between the states (with China, Japan, USA, European countries); obtaining year­round sea ports for Russia in the context either of its geopolitical ambitions, or of the necessity of defense of the far­eastern Russian areas; as a part of history of the Russo­Japanese war, etc.; the researchers could also be attracted by the situation associated with economic invasion of Russia in China and study of the “Russian Harbin”. However, the study of the land management system as a whole, as a new for Russia and unique experience of management under the conditions when the territory was an official part of another state, dropped off the grid of foreign scientists.

Key words: English­speaking historiography, Chinese historiography, CER (KVZhD), Kwantung province, leased lands

Korovin V.V., Manzhosov A.N. (Kursk). On Regional Historiography of Social and Economic Development of Kursk Province during the World War I (the 1920s – the Early 21st Century)………. 12

The article deals with the experience of research into social and economic development of Kursk province on both rearward and immediate battle areas during the World War I conducted by the native historians. The authors attempt to review scientific sources of the Soviet and post­Soviet periods in regional historiography. The article mentions that the first publications on the announced subject saw the light in the very 1920s. They contain the richest statistic material analyzed based on the established ideological dogmas and methodological approaches. The second half of the 20th century features sharp decrease in the research activity for investigation of the problem under consideration. However, starting from the 2000s, the issues of social and economic development of the region under the wartime conditions came into view of historians again. A distinguishing feature of the contemporary stage of historiography is preparation of a considerable number of thesis investigations considerably extending the spectrum of the events and phenomena within the chronological frames and territorial limits, which based upon the most advanced achievements of historical science, opportunities for using the diversity of documentary sources that turned out at the disposal of scientists, and therefore, it contributes to better entire level of knowledge of the problem. The publication describes scientific papers of the Kursk historians, who were developing the problem of growth of agriculture and industry, activity of trade and financial institutions, transportation system, education and healthcare. The long overdue need of the objective assessment of the scientific and historical heritage associated with the experience of study of events and social processes in the period of the World War I at a regional level was reflected in this publication.

Key words: Kursk province, historiography, the World War I, social and economic development, publication.


General history

Andrianova O.V., Heifetz L.S. (Saint Petersburg). The Civil War in Guatemala: How It all Began………. 18

The Civil War in Guatemala (1960–1966) was the longest and bloodiest armed conflict of the second half of the 20th century not only in the Central America, but also all over the Latin­American continent. The victory of the October revolution of 1944 resulted in the decade of democratic governance (1944–1954) followed by Castillo Armas’ military coup, and Guatemala faced hard times. Injustice, famine, poverty, the new government fight against the “Communistic threat”, torture, kidnaping, and murders were the social and political reality in Guatemala.

Abuse of power of pro­American presidents could not but affect Guatemala public sentiments. Discontent among soldiers, students, workers, and peasants manifested itself as strikes, labor troubles, and protest matches. The Cuban revolution significantly fed those sentiments. However, not every social class was ready for decisive actions in fight against corruption, injustice, oppression, and humiliation. The military disagreed with then existing regime set up by Ydigoras Fuentes arranged the first armed insurgency. For him, it was a matter of honor to defend the Guatemala army reputation. Though that insurgent warfare was not guerrilla by nature, it served as a catalyst of the guerrilla warfare establishment. Despite the military defeat of the operation, the young people were able to get ideological victory by having great influence on consciousness of the entire generation of the prospective guerillas.

This article deals with the events on the eve of the war that led to the revolutionary sentiments growth, insurgent warfare, as well as emergence of the first guerrilla organizations.

Key words: Guatemala, Civil War, guerrilla, anticommunism, Ydigoras Fuentes, MR­13.

Andreev A.S. (Saint Petersburg). The Communist Party of Uruguay and Comintern, the Problems of the United Front Establishment (1922–1938)………. 24

Pre­war history of the Communist Party of Uruguay (CPU) was never in the focus of researchers. However, it always held a prominent place in the labor movement in Latin America. After the archives became available to public, researchers were able to take another view of the history of the International Communist movement, as well as of the history of the communist parties of different countries. The new documents made it possible to estimate the development of the communist groups in South America, particularly in Uruguay, in a new light. Neither national, nor foreign historiography present comprehensive research into the history of the Uruguay “left” movement, or into the history of coordination between the Communist Party of the country and the Communist International. Based on the archival documents of the Communist International Foundation of the Russian State Archive of Social and Political History (RGASPI), the author considers the problems of establishment of organizational relationships between the Third International and the Uruguayan section in the context of the United Front tactics of international labor movement adopted in the early 1920s. The United Front tactics included the creation of a political alliance of communists with other “left­wing forces” of the country. The author describes the features of the formation of the United Front in Uruguay, which was associated with the creation of a united trade union center. This article discusses the relationship between the “left” forces in the country, viz. socialists, communists and anarchists, in the context of their struggle for influence among the workers, and for the creation of a common political program. The article analyzes the political results of the tactics of social­democratic unity and communist forces in Uruguay, and their role in fight against G. Terra’s dictatorial regime (1933–1938). The article is an important step in the study of the history of the Communist Party of Uruguay in 1920–1930s, it giving an opportunity to form a new view of the political activities of the leaders of the party.

Key words: United Front, Comintern, Communist Party of Uruguay, Eugenio Gomez, J. Penelón, F. Pintos, trade unions, Communist Party of Argentina.


History of russia

Selivonenko A.N. (Shostka, Ukraine). Intensifying Contradictions between the Hetmanate and Zaporozhian Sich in the 1667–1686………. 30

The paper touches upon the issues concerned contradictions between the Hetmanate and Zaporozhian Sich based on the fundamental structural and functional principle of state institutions. The article draws attention to the Hetmanate as to the consolidating force aimed at legitimation of the society. Besides, opposition between the Hetmanate government and Zaporozhye is discussed within the influence upon this process of foreign policies consisting in the attempt made by Poland and Russia to block political independency of the process, while the Hetmanate government guided by specific historical conditions, afraid of erosion in its influence, supported Poland and Russia in sequence, thus causing opposition from Zaporozhian people. The main purpose of the article is to cover logic evolution of these contradictions. Based on general historical material on this subject, it is evident that relations between Kosh and Hetmanate laid foundation for the establishment of tendencies in social and political processes in Ukraine. In the author’s opinion, scientific interpretation of these processes allows for understanding of their role in either consolidation or splitting of the society in the context of specific historical conditions. Essence of academic novelty of the conflict under consideration consists in the concept of Polish influence on the process.

Interest taken by the Polish­Lithuanian Commonwealth in return under its jurisdiction of the Left­bank Ukraine is vividly traced. The author focuses on realizing by Poland of strength of the war organization in Zaporozhian Sich, assisting in solution of territorial issues. Poland supported Cossacks in the incidents with the Moscow government and Hetman, thus trying to stop the increased presence of Russia in Zaporozhye. Russia, in its turn, also worked hard to prevent Zaporozhian Sich from establishing relationship with Poland.

Despite the Truce of Andrusovo made between Poland and Russia, the latter considered the Polish­Lithuanian Commonwealth an enemy, understanding strategic importance of friendly relations with Zaporozhian Sich.

Signing the Truce of Andrusovo between Poland and Russia led to double subordination of Zaporozhye. Zaporozhian Sich made use of that double subordination to its benefit efficiently, striving at obtaining autonomous rights in the Hetmanate.

The context of the article shows that breaking free of alien power, Zaporozhian Cossacks resisted to the new, although the Ukrainian one. Zaporozhian Sich wished to have a vote in all social and political processes, it being obedient to the government only under definite conditions. Zaporozhye opposed to the Hetmanate displayed discontent with the new Hetmanate policy; therefore, the Cossacks were ready to make head against its government.

Key words: Left­bank Ukraine, Right­bank Ukraine, Russian hetman, Cossacks, Zaporozhian Sich, government.

Gavrilina N.A. (Tula). Establishment and development of the Public Assistance System in Russia in the 18thCentury………. 35

The article is devoted to the establishmenThe article covers establishments and development of the system of public assistance in the 18th century Russia. State reforms introduced by Peter I in the first quarter of the 18th century needed available and inexpensive labor force. That served its purpose in the policy Peter the Great pursued in social services. The order of 1862 determined the further policy of fighting professional begging in Russia. That order also included a specific enforcement mechanism.

State assistance in Russian gained momentum in the first half of the 18th century. The nature of the pre­Peter assistance favored poverty growth, since labor assistance practically was not employed, preventive charity poorly developed.

Under Peter the Great, begging and almsgiving were prohibited, monetary penalty imposed on those almsgiving. To enforce labor assistance, Peter the Great ordered to force capable almsmen to work. Under Peter the Great, public authorities supervised assistance implementation. Peter I distinguished between assistance to those able to works and pure charity for those in need. Chapter XX of the Regulation or the Chief Magistrate Charter of 1721 made that provision. This article emphasized the fact that the Emperor’s legislative activity was new for Russia because of involving labor assistance, almost never implemented before. Fighting poverty was an initial stage in solving the challenge of charity. Only professional begging was exposed to repressions, a part of poverty­stricken population actually in need left behind.

Catherine the Great inherited Peter’s helm in the development of the state system of assistance. Though establishing public assistance departments (prikazes), Catherine the Great did not regard the same as a perfect solution for the problem of assistance and charity – the matter required furtherance.

Key words: public assistance, orphan houses, private charitable establishments, labor assistance.

Trunov K.N.(Saint Petersburg). The Constitutional Democratic Party and the Polish Issue (1905–1917)………. 39

The article covers the political course and the program of the Constitutional Democratic Party on the Polish issue in the early 20th century, as well as the relations of the Party of People’s Freedom with the factions of the Polish national movement, views of P.N. Milyukov, F.F. Kokoshkin and others of the Polish issue and of the future of Poland, Kadets’ attempts to find the best solution of the Polish issue. The process of formation and functioning of Constitutional Democratic organizations within the territory of Poland, and above all, of the Warsaw Committee, its relationship with the Polish national organizations is shown. The increased focus is implemented on the political course of the Kadets’ faction in the State Duma concerning the Polish issue, statements of Kadets in support of national interests of Poland, against the course of the chauvinistic anti­Polish government (during the discussion of the Western Zemstvo, creation of Chelm Governorate, etc.). The article covers the difficult nature of the relationship between Kadets and the faction of the Polish Kolo in the State Duma, the influence of nationalist sentiments in the Polish national movement on its relationship with the Constitutional Democratic Party is traced. The increased focus is given to the Kadets’ attempts to oppose separatist state of public opinion among the Polish national circles during the First World War, to find a solution of the Polish issue on the basis of autonomy, without violating the principle of unity and indivisibility of Russia, the autonomy project of the Kingdom of Poland prepared by F.F. Kokoshkin is reviewed, the differences between the Kadets’ program of solution of the Polish issue from other autonomy programs analyzed. Great attention is paid to the efforts of the Kadets to reconstruct Poland within theethnographic borders, and to protect the interests of non­Polish nationalities within the territory of Poland. The article analyzes successes and failures of the Kadets’ Polish policy.

Key words: national issue, Poland, Polish issue, nationalism, national movement, P.N. Milyukov, F.F. Kokoshkin, R. Dmowski.

Guzeev D.A. (Saratov). The Part of Ordzhonikidze Higher Military Command School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR in Suppressing Mass Demonstrations in the City of Grozny in January of 1973………. 45

The article is devoted to the little­known fact of participation of OrdzhonikidzeHigherMilitarySchool of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR in suppressing mass demonstrations in the city of Grozny in January 1973.The problem of ethnic conflicts in the North Caucasus during the Soviet period represents a promising direction in study of national history. It should be noted that today there is a number of reasons not allowing for construction of an objective picture of the events taking place in the second half of the 20th century within the territory of the North Caucasus. First, in the author’s opinion, the studies in this direction are not objective enough. Second, the secrecy of information on this question does not allow for complete disclosure ofthe issue.

Third, it should be noted, that the research carried out displays the role of internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR in the settlement of the ethnic conflict, in Grozny in January 1973 either on downside, or merely states the fact of their participation. Even departmental historical literature sources do not display the part military schools of the Ministry of internal Affairs of the USSR took in settlements of the conflict in Grozny.

By resorting to previously unpublished archival data, the author analyzes the events that occurred in the city of Grozny, trying to understand the reasons that pushed the Vainakhs into those statements, as well as to determine the role of the OrdzhonikidzeHigherMilitarySchool of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSRin the described events.

Key words: internal troops, the Vainakhs, OrdzhonikidzeHigherMilitarySchool of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR named after S. M. Kirov, mass demonstrations, the Ingush, Chechen­Ingush ASSR, Suburban area, deportation


History of foreign relations

Simonyan R.Z. (Kursk). Cooperation between Prosecution and Police Authorities in Preliminary Inquiry in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries (Following Kursk Governorate Materials)………. 48

Based on archival documents, legislative instruments, and a wide range of sources, the article reviews the place and part taken by prosecution authorities in supervision of preliminary inquiry in cooperation with police of the Russian Empire, and makes conclusions and estimations of the role and importance played by law­making in fight against criminal activity. In preliminary investigation, the constabularies directly depended on prosecutors and deputy prosecutors. Accusatory and supervisory functions combined in a prosecutor’s person made the latter a master of the process at a stage of preliminary inquiry. Prosecutors always supervised and from time to time participated in all preliminary investigation procedures. Pursuant the Judicial statutes of 1864, and the Senate’s explanations, “in preliminary investigation, the constabularies shall report directly to prosecutor supervision, not to the police chiefs”. Only prosecution authorities rather than the immediate superiors could give both particular instructions and “general explanations” as to the investigatory function of the police.

Prosecution authorities in post­reform Russia of the second half of the 19th century were the only state institutions supervising investigation.

Key words: prosecutor, prosecutor supervision, investigator, judicial authorities, Russian Empire, law making, police, preliminary inquiry.

Tsukanov I.P. (Kursk). Main Areas of Activity for Commemoration of the World War II Carried Out by Communities of the Black Earth Regions in the 1940–1980s ………. 54

The article considers the main areas of the activity of the Communities of the Black Earth Regions in the 1940–1980s for perpetuation of heroic deeds of the Soviet people during the Great Patriotic War. In carrying out the research, the author distinguishes and characterizes three stages of the activity, where the first stage covered  the middle the 1940s through middle 1950s; the second one – the middle 1950s through the middle 1960s, and the third period lasted from the middle 1960s to 1991.

The paper deals with the state of regional natural work during the first period, and reveals initiatives on establishment of public military halls of fame. The author notes increased attention paid in the middle 1950–1960s by party and Komsomol to education of youth following revolutionary, combat, and labor traditions of the senior generation, analyzes the forms and methods of party supervision over heroic and patriotic education of the population based on commemoration of the Great Patriotic War. Four Al­Union expeditions taken by pioneers and schoolchildren organized in 1956­1965 by the Central children’s excursion and tourist station of the Ministry of Education of the RSFSR, and by the editorial staff of the Pionerskaya Pravda newspaper hold a special place in study of events that took place during the Great Patriotic War.

The author analyzes arrangements for and holding of the All­Union tourist march the Komsomol members and young people took for places of revolutionary, combat, and labor fame of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Soviet people, and of participation of youth and veteran organizations in that march. The article points out typical shortcomings of the activity associated with excessive political nature. Ideological orientation and compliance with the instructions given by party, state, and Komsomol authorities, as well as quantitative indices were the determining factors for assessment of the activities carried out. However, content of the activities, and educatory effect of the same were of secondary nature.

Key words: public representatives, Great Patriotic War, youth, veterans, All­Union tourist march.


History of international relations

Khadorich L.V. (Saint Petersburg). The Organization of American States (OAS) in the Early 21st Century: Establishment and Stability of Democracy………. 58

Political instability and fragility of democratic institutions are the distinctive features of Latin American states, which previously had repeatedly faced a forced change of governments. The article considers some aspects of the OAS activities in the area of establishment of democracy and reaching democratic stability in the Western Hemisphere in the early 21st century. The OAS has traveled a long way of evolution to establish a certain system opposing the threats to political stability, and maintaining regional democratic institutions. The author attempts to analyze basic institutional and legal instruments at the disposal of the organization, as well as to determine the OAS successes and failures exemplified by several cases: Venezuela (2002–2004), Honduras (2009), and Paraguay (2012). Particular attention is paid to the legitimization of the current regional governments, the electoral observation process assessed. Besides, the impact of those OAS activities on the system of international relations in the Western Hemisphere is shown.

Key words: the Organization of American States, democracy, stability, negotiations, OAS electoral observation, Inter­American Democratic Charter.

Massov A.Ya. (Saint Petersburg). The Russian in Sydney in 1814 (On the Occasion of Bicentenary of the Visit of the Russian-American Company’s Ship Suvorov to Australia)………. 68

The article elucidates the history of a visit of the Russian­American Company’s ship Suvorov to Sydney – the center of the British Colony NThe article elucidates the history of a visit of the vessel Suvorov of the Russian­American Company to Sydney – the center of New South Wales, the British Colony, in August­September of 1814. The sailors were the first to deliver the news of the victory over Napoleon to Australia, where the Britishcolonial administrationand whitesettlers welcomed them extremely warmly. The friendly atmosphereenabled the guestsfrom Russiato move freelyaroundandsee Sydneyand the surroundings without hindrance. The traveldiaries of Russian ship’s officers,primarily of A. Rossiysky, the navigator, andlieutenantS.Ya.  Unkovsky, the senior officer,describethe British colony, the economy, state of convictsandfree settlers, evaluate the prospects ofBritish possessionsin Australia.The officersfromSuvorov became the firstRussiantravelerswhodescribed thelivingof the Australian aboriginesand its changeunder the impactof European colonization. Today, the documents relating to Suvorov circumnavigation represent a valuablesourcefor study of the initial stage ofthe history ofRussian­Australian relations, this being an additionalsource for research intothe historyof colonialAustralia andAboriginalethnography. The value of theSuvorov sailors’ travel notesandethnological observationsis very high: they reflectan earlystageof the exploration ofthe Britishoverseas possession.

Warm hospitality the Russians were welcomed in New South Wales became a sort of tradition followed in subsequent years on meeting theRussian sailors in Sydney and Hobart. At that time, the calls of the Russian ships to Australian ports were the only channel of communication between the Russians and Australians. Friendly nature of mutual contacts based on confidential relations between Britain and Russia up to the late 1820s predetermined a conflict­free period of stability at the initial stage of the Russian­Australian relations.

Key words: Australia, Russian­Australian relations, Russian­American Company’s Ship Suvorov, Russians in Sydney, M.P. Lazarev, A. Rossiysky, S.Ya. Unkovsky.

Lavrentiev A.V., Medvedeva L.M. (Vladivostok). Development Trends in the International Transport Communications between Russia and Asia-Pacific Region (2000–2012)………. 74

Experience of the establishment of the system of transportation support of international relations between the Russian Far East and countries of the Asia­Pacific region in the early 21st century in the context of major trends of trade and economic cooperation has been studied. Political and legal conditions and major trends in the improvement of transport communications and establishment of integrated space in the region are considered. Changes in infrastructure and technology provision of the Far East, as well as the opportunities and prospects of the same for full­scale cooperation with foreign partners have been mentioned. Governmental measures for strengthening international transit potential, and for expansion of transport corridors of the Far East, as well as for the improvement of interaction between different means of transport are studied.  Conditions and some results of transportation activity within the Special economic zones organized in the 1990s have been estimated. Federal target programs of development of transport and mechanisms of implementation of the same within far­east areas have been analyzed. Experience of private­public partnership in the course of development of near­border communications in Primorsky region is studied. International transport programs implemented on the Russian Far East and government projects for upgrading transportation facilities within preparation for the summit of members of the organization Asia and Pacific economic cooperation in 2012 have been investigated. Social and economic results of transport cooperation with the leading states of the regions (PRC, Japan, USA, Republic of Korea) have been examined. Presence of Russia in international organizations and associations with a purpose of integration in communications has been mentioned. Major directions of the improvement of international routes and establishment of integrated transportation space in the Asia­Pacific region have been represented. Key problems of transport cooperation with foreign countries and solutions have been shown.

Key words: transport, communications, near­border cooperation, Far­East region, international contacts.

Ustundag S. (Istanbul, Turkey). National Stereotypes towards Russia in Contemporary Turkish Printed Media………. 81

The article runs about the national set images of Russia in the Turkish printed media. The first part of the article describes the role of mass media in forming national stereotypes, provides a scientific definition of the “national stereotype”, and analyzes the phenomenon of the increased part of mass media. The second part of the article reviews the nature of coverage of the image of Russia in the Turkish printed media. The author studies the materials from Turkish Weekly, Today’s Zaman, Yenicag, Yeni Safak, Milliyet, and others. Finally, the author arrives at the conclusion that in case of interpretation of the image of Russia, in the Turkish mass media an attempt is clearly traced either to entrench the set patterns already established, or to create new stereotypes as required by the political or economic policy of the state.

Key words: Russia, Turkey, stereotypization, national stereotypes, template thinking, mass media


History of culture

Dianova E.V. (Petrozavodsk). “Team Bowl Will Boil More Lively” (“You Can Do More as a Team, than You Can Alone”): Proverbs and Sayings as a Means of Cooperative Education (the First Third of the 20th Century)………. 84

The article deals with use of proverbs and sayings within the system of cooperative education in the first third of the 20th century. The author tries to show how folk aphorisms served as a weighty argument for the Russian economists to substantiate a possibility of development of cooperative movement, both to prove existence of cooperative psychology in the Russian people, and to develop solidarity and partnership. Following statements of scientists and cooperators such as F.G. Terner, A.I. Chuprov, B.P. Vorontsov, M. Slobozhanin, the author reveals the importance the representatives of the national economic school attached to communities and workers’ cooperative associations, and to a tradition of mutual assistance and habit of cooperative labor as to the background for the development of cooperative movement in Russia. Based on numerous patterns of oral folk arts, the article shows justness of the conclusions the public men of the prerevolutionary Russia arrived at.

Cooperators used widely proverbs and sayings in cooperative propaganda to form cooperative psychology and consciousness. Falk aphorisms had to promote education of solidarity, mutual assistance, team spirit, unity of interests, responsibility, and active participation in partnership activities.

The article runs about emergence of Soviet slogans invented to agitate for the Lenin’s cooperative plan. In 1920s, proverbs were used to convince farmers of usefulness of cooperative societies, agricultural cooperatives, and handicraft and trade partnerships. Proverbs and sayings were often used as headings of books and booklets intended for cooperative propaganda. Titles composed of folk aphorisms and following proverbs and sayings were easy to perceive and understand the point of a printed edition.

Key words: proverbs, sayings, mentality, cooperative education, cooperation, workers’ cooperative associations, partnership.


Military history

Benda V.N. (Saint Petersburg). Initial Measures for Reformation of the Russian Artillery in the Early 18thCentury………. 91

During the first stage of establishment of the Russian artillery in the 18th century lasting for the first quarter of the century, the reforms implemented in the arming, organization and artillery training resulted in the establishment of regular army artillery, and in laying foundations of field artillery tactics. In the first quarter of the 18th century, the major role was assigned to infantry forces, however, importance of artillery in the army increased significantly. Alongside with infantry and cavalry, it became one of the major military branches in the Russian army.

One of the measures for reformation of the Russian artillery in the early 18th century was the establishment of the first operating battle unit of the Russian artillery. Until now, neither military historians, nor other researchers have a shared vision of the time, when the Russia’s first artillery regimentwas established, they could not determine its organizational and staff structure either.

The article deals with the establishment of the first operating battle unit of the Russian artillery in the early 18th century. The primary focus is on the process of forming the first regiment of the field artillery, and on its operating structure, as well as on coverage of some little­known or unrevealed facts related to that process. Based on the synthesis of archives and military and historical sources, the author tracks subsequently the stages of establishment of the artillery regiment and of alteration of its organizational and staff structure.

Key words: early 18th century, Peter the Great, reform, development, artillery, bombardier company, artillery regiment, organizational and staff structure, engineering subdivisions

Poznakhirev V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Special Aspects of Capture of the Turkish Military on the Caucasian and Black Sea Theaters of War Operations during the World War I………. 98

The article studies the aspects of capture of Turkish military (and equated persons) in the context of cultural, historical, ethnic, and confessional peculiarities of the opposing parties. Using primarily archives, as well as published contemporaries’ letters and memoires, the author covers in detail specificity of inspection, special aspects of selection and procedure for inquiry of captured Ottomans. Special attention is paid to registration of the Turks, which was improperly thought through. Among other things, the author points at the fact that their place of residence was frequently denoted by the only word “Turkey”, without a particular vilayet or settlement specified. Grounds and consequences of refuse from capturing the military of the Ottoman army are thoroughly analyzed. In the author’s opinion, such refusals were primarily determined by the following factors: culture and traditions of certain peoples of the Caucasus, including the Russians; major trends of ethnic and confessional opposition formed in the region by the late 1914 to worsen subsequently; extended involvement of irregular forces in the conflict (Armenian brigades fighting in favor of the Russians, and Curds units standing for the Turks), who had their own opinions of the institute of military capture. Alongside with that, during comprehensive reconstruction of the procedure for capturing, the author arrives at the conclusion that in 1914–1917, despite few negative cases, the Russian army showed the highest loyalty to captured Ottomans over the history of military opposition between the countries ever.

Key words: war prisoners, inspection, Caucasian army, inquiry, refusal from capturing, Ottoman Empire, the World War I, capturing, registration, the Turks.

Ippolitov G.M. (Samara), Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). Military Construction in the SovietState in the 1920s: Some Aspects of a Multifaceted Scientific Problem………. 101

The article reviews some aspects of the problem of military construction in the Soviet Russia / USSR in the 1920s. It is based upon extensive and diverse sources containing, inter alia, archival documents and materials. For the problem to be thoroughly examined, great many of historiographical sources have been analyzed. The analysis rests upon the principle of careful, correct, yet critical attitude towards historiographical developments of the predecessors. Given that construction of the Armed Forces is an integral part of military construction within state construction, the authors considered a number of aspects of the problem of construction of the Red Army. Focus is brought to such an important aspect of the problem under consideration as transition of the Red Army in the post­war period (the late November of 1920) to a peacetime posture in 1921–1923. That time became a sort of introduction to the military reform in the USSR implemented in 1924–1928. Between those two periods, a close dialectical unity can be traced. The article emphasizes the leading role of the ruling Communist party of Bolsheviks in the military construction activities. The authors reason from the fact that that position was a historical reality formed during the battle Civil war. At the same time, despite the leading role of the Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks in the military construction in the Soviet state, the researchers did not consider an important aspect such as party and political activity in the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army. It was one of the forms of coordination of the Red Army by the ruling Communist Party. Revelation of this problem would require an additional article due to its multifaceted nature.

Key words: military construction; construction of the Armed Forces; Soviet state; Soviet Russia; USSR, military reform; V.I. Lenin, L.D. Trotsky, M.V. Frunze, I.V. Stalin.

Belov K.V. (Saratov). D.A. Milyutin: Reforms in the Arrangement of the New Officer Corps………. 112

The paper is devoted to the reforms implementedin the 1960–1970s of the 19th century by the war minister and reformer D.A. Milyutin, who in 1878 granted the title of a count for his irreproachable service to the “motherland and throne”, a prominent public official, a well­known historian, one of the founders of the Russian military statistics. The reforms aimed at the improvement of the system of military education, from the initial to the highest stages. Being a follower of the idea of Liberal Bourgeois reforms within authoritarian rule, he exerted considerable efforts to protect the Russian Imperial armed forces and military educational establishments engaged in training command cadres,against revolutionary sentiments permeating through the society. In Milyutin’s opinion, it was necessary to prepare a well­trained, highly professional officer who would comply with the requirements of the modern state of the Russian Imperial armed forces. A Russian officer was to be loyal to the monarch and the motherland and resist the revolutionary propaganda. D.A. Milyutin believed that subsequently it would be possible to get a commission not only for the representatives of the privileged class but also for other social classes. For the first time ever, in the post­reform Russia of the early 1870s, women were admitted to higher professional educational establishments. Despite the reaction of the so­called “aristocratic opposition”, D.A. Milyutin managed to implement the reform throughout thewhole system of military education. The reforms involved the establishment of the new highly professional officer corps, and training of the command cadres for the Russian Army in the second half of 19th century.

Key words: officer corps, categories of the military educational establishments, Moscow Military School of Non­Commissioned Officers of Quartermaster Unit, the Emperor’s Military Academy (Nicholas Academy of General Staff), military statistics, General Staff, Staff of the military educational establishments, the Chief Administration of the military educational establishments


Historical characters

Podolsky S.I. (Saint Petersburg). Ivan Petrovich Dolbnya: the Mathematician, Educator, Director of the Mining Institute Established by Catherine the Great………. 116

Ivan Petrovich Dolbnya (1853–1912) – a man of thepeople, he entered the Mining Institute to become a teacher of mathematics, and not a mining engineer. He was the only mathematician who became the director of the Mining Institute (1910–1912). Being a student of Professor G.A. Time, he solved a number of important theoretical problems in the theory of elliptic functions, pseudo­elliptic and Abelian integrals, and subsequently wrote and defended a thesis at the Mining Institute. However, he is best remembered forhis teaching skills, which are in demand until now. I.P. Dolbnya elaborated his unique teaching style at provincial military schools, at the same time he continued to do science. At the Mining Institute, I.P. Dolbnya’s teaching and research skillswere revealed to the full. I.P. Dolbnya’s popularity is proved by the fact that his lecturers were reproduced and distributed among the students. Nikolay Mitrofanovich Krylov (1879–1955), a mathematician, member of the Academy of Science of the USSR is one of the outstanding students.

The contemporaries remembered Ivan Petrovich as a bright public figure, as well. I.P. Dolbnya was not a radical, but he supported the students in protests against injustice. However, Ivan Petrovich opposed to any revolutionary action, so he may be referred to as a liberal professor. Zemstvo authorities strongly sought after I.P. Dolbnya’s mathematical abilities. He assisted the Zemstvo of Vyatka inarrangement of work of aid funds for emeritus professors. I.P. Dolbnya left remarkable memory behind, his scientific and pedagogical legacy still very timely.

Key words: I.P. Dolbnya, Mining Institute, director, mathematic, differential equation, cadet corps, teaching, studentship, aid funds for emeritus professors.

Afanasiev V.G. (Saint Petersburg). Feodosy Nikolaevich Chernyshev, a Member of the RussianAcademy of Sciences in Petersburg. 1856–1914………. 120

The article is devoted to life and activity of an outstanding Russian scientist, a member of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences, Feodosy Nikolaevich Chernyshev (1856–1914). A graduate from a gymnasium of Kiev, he entered the PetersburgNavalSchool, but eyesight problems hindered him from becoming a sailor and from 1875, he became a student of the Mining Institute in the capital. Having graduated from the institute, Chernyshev was employed with the Geological Committee for life, starting with a position of a junior geologist. Over thirty years of participation in geological expeditions, primarily, in a capacity of the leader, he thoroughly studied the Ural, Timan Ridge in the North­West of the Eastern Europe, Spitzbergen and NewLand in the Arctic Ocean, as well as Donets Basin, and other regions of Russia. His research work won him international recognition; in 1899,he was elected a member of the RussianAcademy of Sciences in Petersburg, an honored member and a member of many scientific societies in Western Europe and America.

In 1903, he was appointed to the position of Director of the Geological Committee of Russia. In that capacity, he worked out considerable budget and staffincrease at the organization, financing the construction of a new building for the Committee, which had no permanent residence for around twenty years. Being a graduate from the Mining Institute, Chernyshev never broke relations with the alma mater. He supervised the students’ practical training in geology, delivered lectures, and in 1910, despite health deterioration, he was elected the Director at the request of the Academic Council.

Near ten locations on the map of Russia were named after F.N. Chernyshev.

Key words: F.N. Chernyshev, geologist, paleontologist, North explorer, Geological Committee, science coordinator, Mining Institute, Russian patriot.

Kislytsina I.L. (Saint Petersburg). M.A. Bakunin’s “Intellectual Revolution”………. 124

For contemporary research into the problems of genesis of Bakunism, a traditional approach is still used, when the primary focus is given to the ideological influence Bakunin’s views were exposed to, rather than to determination of the content or inner logics of the process. Such an approach cannot justify authenticity (independence) of Bakunism. The article considers the content and significance of the theorist of anarchism’s views at the initial stage of genesis of the same, i.e. of the “Intellectual Revolution” proposed by Bakunin. Ideology of revolutionary anarchism was forming as a search after the conditions that could favor “humanity in each and every one”. Therefore, it is regular that Bakunin deliberately began the development of his philosophy with the definition of humanity, this being the essence of his “Intellectual Revolution” (1834). That “Revolution” focused on solution of the most important philosophic issues, i.e. the essence and mission of a human being; correlation between personality and social environment; the reason for (base of) life – nature and inner world of a human; and the essence of a creative activity. Bakunismwas established based on the tradition of the Enlightenment. The problem of unity of an individual and societyBakunin started developing in the first half of the 1830s, as well as the opposition between the noble class and common people outlined in his views show the tendency towards falling beyond the frame of the Enlightenment philosophy. Analysis of Bakunin’s ideology denies the opinion that the theory of love he created was an attempt to develop J.G. Fichte’s altruistic ethics. The ideas expressed by Bakunin in the period of the “Intellectual Revolution” imply respect of the person’s honor and dignity, unity of freedom and morality, idea of interconnection between all people in society, readiness for self­sacrifice for the sake of a “high purpose” became the foundation for the development of populist ideology and practice. Bakunin’s process of thinking consisting in the move from life facts towards generalization thereof does prove his views independency. He learned classical German philosophy as a method of capturing reality. Bakunin’s theory of love in the history of the Russian public thought was followed by L.N. Tolstoy’s anarchism.

Key words: genesis of Bakunism, Bakunin’s “Intellectual Revolution”, history of the Russian public thought

Klimovich L.V. (Ulyanovsk). A.L. Kazembek: Little-Known Pages of Life and of Social and Political Activity………. 132

The article reviews the personality of the Russian emigrant Alexander Lvovich Kazembek. Based on a wide range of sources, his personal life and social and political activity are displayed. He was elected the leader of the youth movement “Union of Young Russia”, supported claims to the thronelaid by the Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich, but did not reject the Soviet system of representation. For his slogan «The Tsar and the Soviets», émigré community gave him and the movement ambiguous estimate. Kazembek reacted with interest to fascism, admired Mussolini, and allegedly,even met with him. At the same time, National Socialism proclaimed by Hitler exited his extreme negativism, which resulted in dissolution of the party of Mladorossi during the World War II. After the meeting with a Soviet diplomat in 1937, the immigrant community accused him of collaboration with the Soviet security officials. In 1940, he was arrested and sent to the internment camp. Through the help of his friends, he was able to break free and move with his family to the United States. The article shows that in the US, Kazembek could not find a suitable occupation;he wrote articles and taught the Russian languageunder continuous control of the security services. In 1956, he managed to get a visa to the USSR, and without telling the family, he left America. The issue of his move holds many mysteries: in the USSR, he was promoted to Senior Consultant at the Department of External Church Relations of the Moscow Patriarchate, obtained an apartment and decent allowance. He found a way to marry for the second time without divorcing from the first wife. He died in 1977.

For the article, the author used archival documents, émigré periodicals, Kazembek’ssocial and political writings, and memoirs.

Key words: Kazembek A.L., emigration, Union of Mladorossi (Union of Young Russia), Russian émigré, fascism, the Russian Orthodox Church, History of Russia, World War II, France, USA


The opinion

Kamari D.M. (Volgograd). On the Issue of Origin of a Hydronym “Ebro”………. 139

The article deals with a disputable issue of the origin of a hydronym “Ebro”. Most linguists apt to consider right H. Schuchardt’s theory of close connection of the name of the river with the Basque language advanced in the very early 20th century and supported by many recognized scientists, including those from Spain. Other research workers, e.g. H. Blaskes Martinez consider that the Greeks gave that name to Spain due to common features of the Caucasian and European Iberia, without specifying, which of them was the first to get the name, and why.

In his turn, the author advances a hypothesis for Semitic origin of the name of the river, primarily resting upon the data suggested by a historian of the later Romanesque period, Avienus Rufus Festus on existence of a smaller river in the South, which gave the name to the former. It is known that in the South of the Iberian Peninsula, the Semites exerted steady influence both on economy, and on culture, therefore, there is a high probability that it were they who introduced the hydronym rather than the Basque living far in the North.

Data of linguistic comparative studies that confirm availability of analogues of the word “Ebro” in Semitic languages are also used as evidence to the theory. In this respect, the author suggests that some rooted provisions and conventional views of the origin of the name of the Ebro­river should be revised.

Key words: Ebro, historical and linguistic tradition, Phocaea citizens, the Phoenicians, Avienus, Massaliote Periplus, Phoenician ceramics, Huelva.

Zhukov S.A. (Saint Petersburg). Did the USSR Prepare to the Russo-Finnish War of 1939–1940?………. 142

Based on archival documents, the author considers the problem of preparation of the military infrastructure of the northwestern region of the USSRto the war with Finland in the late1930s. The author tries to answer a number of important questions associated with the background of the Russo­Finnish War of 1939–1940. The questions are as follows: When did the USSR decide on attack of Finland? Was Finland an object of possible aggression for the Soviet government in the late 1930s? Were there any signs of preparation of the infrastructure of the North­West of our country to attack Finland? The author attempts to find answers to these and other questions whiletrying to discloseplans of the Soviet government, based on the military and economic documents, since the problems of preparation (or lack of preparation) of the economy of the state, or even of the theatre of war operations may characterize the intentions of the government, political and military authorities of the country.To clear up the level of preparation of the prospective theatre of war with Finland, the author considers sufficient to examine the key questions in this area, that is highway construction, preparation of railways and waterways in the region in the second half of the 1930s. Having made a general survey of the economic situation established in the North­West of the USSR by 1939, based on the archival documents studied, the author arrives at the conclusion that the USSR had no definite aggressive plans to attack Finland in the late 1930s, the war issueapparently not being under consideration. In the author’s opinion, the Russo­Finnish War resulted from the situation as it developed in 1939.

Key words: Russo­Finnish War, Leningrad military district, military infrastructure, highway construction.


Reviews of scientific publications

Volkov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Long-Awaited Work………. 147

The article reviews a book of a famous historian, A.V. Ostrovsky “Production of Grain in European Russia in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries” published by Saint Petersburg publishing house “Poltorak” in 2013. The author of the article reveals A.V. Ostrovsky’s views of natural and demographic fundamentals of grain production in Russia, the level, growth development, vendibility and profitability thereof, state of lands and agricultural systems in the country, development of production means in the grain production industry, and labor efficiency. V.V. Volkov describes in detail historiography base of A.V. Ostrovsky’s research, historiographic analysis made by the latter, and the key problems the historical science has not solved so far, i.e. the issues of development and interaction of the systems of crop rotation and farming, balance between development of production of grain and population growth; availability of bread in the country and food allowances; vendibility and profitability of grain production.

Though in agreement with A.V. Ostrovsky in general, the author of the review exercises judgment in interpreting some of the conclusions. Thus, V.V. Volkov considers A.V. Ostrovsky’s approaches to determination of the share of agricultural labor force to be improperly substantiated. In the reviewer’s opinion, this circumstance had an adverse effect on all further calculations made by the author.

In general, the article shows that A.V. Ostrovsky’s research into production of grain in European Russia of the late 19th and early 20th centuries is reduced to the conclusion that at the turn of the centuries, cropping farm in the country was at a lower agricultural level than appeared. By that time, agriculture had finally lost any possibilities of extensive development, it not acquired resources of intensification of agricultural economy. Under the conditions of drawing­in Russia into the global market, and making export of bread the major part of the Russian export resulted in deficiency of bread both for cattle and population of the country. This fact determines largely devastation of peasants and landholders’ farms, difficulties in implementation of the Stolypin’s agrarian reform, and emergence of an explosive situation in the country.

Key words: grain production, farming, vendibility, plough land, fertilizers, three­field system, bread, cattle, deficiency, consumption, peasant farm, crop rotation, lay land, profitability, market, food.