Klio #2 (62) 2012


The document is published for the first time

Diary of S.O. Makarov about his residence in Russian America (introductory article and the commentary by A.V. Grinev)………. 3

The reader is invited to a previously unpublished excerpt from the private diary of Admiral S.O. Makarov, who in 1864, being a young cadet at Nicholas Naval School, visited Russian colonies in the New World. The text of the diary contains some interesting sketches on the life of Russian America and information about its inhabitants.

Letter of S.M. Budenniy to Comrade K.Y. Voroshilov, People’s Commissar of the USSR Defense and Marshal
of the Soviet Union (introductory article and the commentary by Grover Furr, the USA, and Vladimir L. Bobrov, Moscow)……….. 8

For the first time this letter of S.M. Budenniy published in full. This is the letter directed to the People’s
Commissar Defense of the USSR K.Y. Voroshilov where the author described his impressions of the behavior of M.N. Tukhachevsky and the other accused at the trial of the military tribunal. Grover Furr and Vladimir L. Bobrov conducted a detailed analysis of the document and expressed their scientifically grounded opinion.


Diaries, memoirs

Chetverikov B.D. (Saint Petersburg). “Stezhky-dorozhky” (“The pathways”) (continuation)………. 25

The autobiographical novel by B.D. Chetverikov tells us about the writer’s life that can be called «the outline» of the history of our country in the 20th century.

Katukova E.S. (The Moscow Region).  Something to remember (continuation)………. 47

These memoirs narrate Yekaterina Sergeevna Katukova’s life course that was inseparably linked with the outstanding military leader Mikhail Yefimovich Katukov. The memoirs cover many decades; events of the Great Patriotic War, however, hold the central position.


Source studies

Lebedev V.M. (Saint Petersburg). Reading the “War Diary” of Franz Halder. Semantic errors in the translation of a German document………. 59

Having studied the contents of the original edition of the diaries of Colonel General Franz Halder, the
author found semantic errors in the text of the Russian language edition. Y.M. Lebedev tried to explain the reasons for discrepancies of the translation and introduced his explanation in the contents of the original text.

Gurov V.A. (Tolyatti). The use of the Armed Forces of the USSR and Russia in resolving the armed conflicts during 1988–2008: a brief scientific review of some archival sources………. 60

The article reviews certain archival documents and materials stored in several archives, including the current ones that can be used as a source when developing scientific problems of the use of the Armed Forces of the USSR and Russia in resolving the armed conflicts during 1988–2008. The paper is written as a brief scientific review. The author does not purport to a complete review, it is simply beyond the power of one researcher. Meanwhile, an attempt is made to review those documents and materials that may constitute at least the outline of the research of the issue in question.



Pronin A.A. (Yekaterinburg). Scientific schools of historians and emigration specialists………. 63

The author endeavored to identify scientific schools of historians and emigration specialists through the content analysis of abstracts of theses upheld during 1980–2005 years.

Shevchuk I.I. (Brest, Belorussia). The Institute of the history of the Belarus National Academy of Sciences in anniversary editions………. 69

The article deals with the research history of the Institute of the history of the Belarus National Academy of Sciences over several decades. The author analyzed, mainly, the most significant publications dedicated to anniversary dates in the history of one of the first academia in Belarus. Attention is paid not only to positive aspects of this process, but also to available opportunities for further study of the history of the leading scientific centre of the Republic in order to reflect its path more accurately.

Stagis I.K. (Novosibirsk). The Stalinist conception of the nation in the historiography of 1990s………. 78

The author analyzes the contents of historical works of 1990s on the Stalinist conception of the nation in the context of the present state of historical scholarship. The specifics of approaches to understanding the problem, existing at that time is explored, the relationship of the state of historical scholarship and political situation in the country is illustrated, an attempt is made to trace the evolution of approaches to the understanding of the topic.

Arsentieva E.I(Saint Petersburg). Nautical theme in ancient glyptic………. 81

The Hermitage collection of antique glyptic is widely regarded as one of the largest collections in the world.
It contains the works of ancient stone carvers starting from the Bronze Age, II millennium BC till the fall
of the ancient civilization in the IV century BC. A variety of plots of antique gems makes them
an invaluable source for the reconstruction of many aspects of life in ancient society. A nautical theme
on antique carved stones is not an exception in this sense. The article covers almost the entire range
of images connected with the sea that can be seen on the monuments of ancient Hellas, Etruria and

Pronina E.A. (Saint Petersburg). “Fathers of the history” of France and Great Britain: André Duchesne and
William Camden (to the issue of the origin of the national history writing in the European countries of early Modern Times)………. 86

The author believes that the movements of antiquarians and scholars in England and France in early
Modern times are related to the formation of ethnic and cultural and religious identities in both
countries. This process, as well as an altered attitude toward history and historical writings,
was reflected in the heritage of André Duchesne and William Camden considered in this article.
The article also outlines the similarities and differences in approaches of Camden and Duchesne to the history writing.

Zharova I.Y. (Ryazan). The struggle for the patriarchal throne of Constantinople in the XVII century (based on the “Proskynetarion” by Arseniy Sukhanov)………. 89

The article highlights an insufficiently explored episode of the religious life in Russia in the XVII
century linked with the murder of the Patriarch Parthenios Oksis. The subject of the study is
reports of Russian agents. The author analyzes the extent to which outlined information
impartially characterizes the existing relationship between Moscow and the Ottoman Empire. The conclusion is made about a fundamental significance of information obtained by the author for the Russian society.


The history of Russia

Trufanov S.V. (Kursk). The participation of the legal commission of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR in the development of the domestic legal framework of the judicial system………. 92

By studying the documents in the State Archive of the Russian Federation the author analyzes the
activities of the Legal Commission of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR in the first half of the 1960s on
developing and initiating discussions about draft of regulatory and legal acts and those of official interpretations of law affecting the operation of the judicial system. Mechanisms of law-making in the Soviet Union are investigated.

Golovin A.V. (Moscow). The position of Russia in the UN Security Council concerning the Iraqi crisis in the late XX century (to raise the question)………. 94

The article investigates the position of Russia in the UN Security Council in solving the Iraqi issue in 1990–
2003 since the beginning of the Iraqi invasion to Kuwait until the overthrow of Iraqi leader Saddam
Hussein by U.S. forces and their allies. The process of adjustment of Russia and the UN to the
evolving world order is described on the example of one of the major conflicts of the past two decades.
A wide range of sources, including UN documents, press materials as well as documents of the U.S. Congress was used.


The history of Russian regions

Kurmakaeva D.Y. (Saratov). The features of urbanization processes in the Lower Volga in the late XIX century–1930s………. 101

The author examines the features of urbanization processes in the Lower Volga as a multidimensional
demographic, socio-economic and historical process importance growth in the development of

Vinogradov S.E. (Moscow). Obukhovsky steel plant in the construction of dreadnoughts in Russia, 1907–1917: Issues and modernization experience………. 105

The article deals with the modernization of the Obukhovsky steel plant to meet the needs of production of heavy artillery for the – dreadnoughts of naval programs in 1907–1917 years. It describes the measures taken for the timely development of metallurgical and engineering base of the enterprise, the implementation of its modernization program.

Portsel A.K. (Murmansk). Soviet-Norwegian contacts at Svalbard before the war 109

The author explores the relations developing between workers of Norwegian and Soviet mines at Svalbard
in the 1930s based on the analysis of documents stored in the collections of the State Archive of Murmansk Region.

 Zadorin A.V. (Krasnoyarsk). The policy of resettlement from the northern territories in Krasnoyarsk region in the

1990s………. 113

The article investigates the policy of resettlement from the northern territories of Krasnoyarsk region in 1990s: conditions of origin, direction, results. “Shock therapy” had a particularly severe impact on the residents of the Russian North, including Krasnoyarsk region.


Military history

Malinnikov M.V. (Saint Petersburg). The first commander of a separate Corps of internal guards of the Russian Empire, the Adjutant General Count Y.F. Komarovsky………. 117

The article considers the activities of the first commander of a separate Corps of internal guards of the

Russian Empire, the Adjutant General Count Y.F. Komarovsky. On behalf of the Emperor, he drafted a special military and police structure to ensure “peace and quiet” at the Empire, and then actualized this project and led a newly created institution called the Separate corps of internal guards (OKVS) for a long time.

Posvyatenko O.N. (Samara). Propaganda in the armed forces of the Red Army during the Civil War
(1918–1920s)………. 120

The article highlights some aspects of propaganda in the armed forces of the Red Army during the Civil War. The attempt is made to reconsider the historical experience of the organization of mass agitation work in the Red Army.

Bobkova E.Y. (Samara). The political education of soldiers of the Red (Soviet) army: an analysis of national historiography of 1920–2000………. 123

The article traces the dynamics of the historiography of political education of soldiers of the Soviet Armed Forces, the Russian army in 1920–2000 years.


Historical characters

Nikolaenko P.D. (Saint Petersburg). 1822: Minister of the Interior V.P. Kochubey and closing of the Masonic lodges in Russia………. 125

The article discusses the reasons why Alexander I changed his loyalty to the Russian Freemasons for its prohibition and the participation of V.P. Kochubey in closing the Masonic lodges in Russia.

Dmitrieva N.V. (Vyborg). P.P. Bakunin and A.L. Nicolai “at the head of the scientific estate”……….. 128

The article investigates biographies of some leaders of the Russian Academy of Sciences of the XVIII century who were the agents of British influence on the Russian culture. The author makes a number of original findings based on the analysis of a wide range of Russian and foreign historiography.

Sulaberidze Y.S. (Tbilisi, Georgia). V.O. Klyuchevsky and A.S. Khakhanashvili: a teacher and a student………. 132

The author explores those forms of scientific relationship that linked the work of V.O. Klyuchevsky and the Georgian scientist A.S. Khakhanashvili. According to the author, the influence of the teacher on the student was multi-dimensional: it is detected in the methodology of knowledge is reflected in the topics of scientific interest. Communication with advanced Russian science opened up possibilities for the development of Georgian science.

Kogan E. (New York, the USA). Jealous of keeping the memories. Alexey Goering………. 136

The article refers to the activity of A.A. Goering in the emigration – a former White Guard officer who became an editor and publisher and devoted many years to promote the military and naval history of Russia.

Gavrilyuk A.V., Belozerov D.A. (Kursk). Social and political activities of the writer and journalist V.V. Ovechkin (1904–1968)………. 141

The study, based on declassified documents of the Kursk Regional Party Committee introduced into scientific use for the first time, is dedicated to some poorly studied aspects of social and political activities of Valentin Vladimirovich Ovechkin (1904–1968), a member of the Union of Writers of the RSFSR and a member of the editorial board of “New World”.



Voskanyan S.S. (Volgograd). G.K. Zhukov: the failed Ruler of the USSR?………. 145

In the second half of the 1940s due to health deterioration and advanced age J.V. Stalin had to find a successor. Modern historians often consider A.A. Kuznetsov and N.A. Voznesensky to be eventual successors of Stalin. However, some facts and events cast doubt on this opinion and allow offering a version that, J.V. Stalin saw G.K. Zhukov as his successor.


The reviews of scientific publications

Mihailov V.V., Puchenkov A.S. (Saint Petersburg). Review to the monograph by A.Kh. Daudov and D.I. Meskhidze “National state of Mountain Peoples of the North Caucasus (1917–1924)”………. 148

The authors analyze the contents of the monograph by A.Kh. Daudov and D.I. Meskhidze devoted to the study of the national statehood of Mountain Peoples of the North Caucasus in the 1917–1924 years. They mention undoubted advantages of the monograph, the contribution of authors in the development of the historiography of the problem, express suggestions concerning the methods of solving research
issues raised in the book: Mountain bolshevism, national policy of the White movement in the Northern Caucasus, etc.

Alekseev T.V., Losik A.V., Shcherba A.N. (Saint Petersburg). An interesting analysis of one of the development challenges of the national army in the past war………. 152

This article analyzes the contents of the monograph by A.P. Zharsky about the state of communication on the higher levels of management of the Red Army before the Great Patriotic War and its development during the war.

Fortunatov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Review to the monograph by N.V. Yershov “The formation and development of the national military space activities (second half of the 1940s – first half of the 1970s)”………. 154

The review assesses the content of the monograph by N.V. Yershov “The formation and development of the national military space activities (second half of the 1940s – first half of the 1970s)”. The author emphasizes the novelty of the published paper, mentions its positive aspects and expresses a number of recommendations for future reissues of the monograph.


Colleague’s memories

Memories of Anatoly Viktorovich Remnev ………. 156