Klio #2 (98) 2015

Spotlight interview

The Interview A.S. Krymskaya (Saint Petersburg, Russia) Had with a Professor emeritus of the Indiana University A. Rabinowitch (Bloomington, the USA) Alexander Rabinowitch, historian of the Russian revolution: interview with a scholar………. 3

Alexander Rabinowitch, one of the most authoritative scholars of Russian history, had an unusual opportunity to interact with many distinguished representatives of the Russian intelligentsia abroad who played a significant role in Russian history. In the interview, he discusses how his views of Russian history were originally shaped and describes the scholarly results of his study of the Russian revolution. He was among those who participated in Soviet­American scholarly exchange programs. Since 1968 he has worked at IndianaUniversity. In 1975–1984 he was Director of the Indiana University Russian and East European Institute. He tells about the Russian emigrés Michael Karpovich and Boris Nicolaevsky as well as the well­known American experts on Russia Leopold Haimson, Robert F. Byrnes, and John M. Thompson. Alexander Rabinowitch also explains why it is important to study the history of the 1917 Russian revolution today.

Key words: Alexander Rabinowitch, Russian history, Russian revolution, Bolsheviks, American Russian studies, Soviet­American scholarly exchanges, Michael Karpovich, Boris Nicolaevsky, Leopold Haimson, Robert F. Byrnes, John M. Thompson, IndianaUniversity.


Theoretical issues

Kislitsyna I.L. (Saint Petersburg). The concept of the main impact of natural-climatic factor on the development of society and narodnic ideology………. 11

Created by academician L.V. Milov concept of the main impact of natural­climatic factor on the development of preindustrial soCreated by academician L.V. Milov concept of the main impact of natural­climatic factor on the development of preindustrial society has established the compensatory mechanisms of the development of Russian society, which had minimum surplus product. This concept gave the concrete historical substantiation of particularities of the Russian historic process, of the development of East Europe societies. That is why L.V. Milov’s investigation has fundamental scientific importance. The evolution of the Russian state presents in it as organic (inherent) process of self­organization of society.

At the same time considering concept calls forth some principle objections attitude to the questions that lay out of the level of preindustrial period. The matter is idealization of the Russian state and its policy in the period of decaying feudalism and strengthening capitalism. Anti­peasant character of reforms of 1860­es years is conditioned in this concept by objective necessity, caused by natural­climatic factor. Such proposition is at variance with the facts that peasant farming was the most effective type of farming in Russia of that time, and its efficiency depended on a degree of its independence and self­dependence. Consequence of idealization of the Russian state of that time is, connected in this investigation, treatment of Narodnik world­view as utopian, caused by the unreal willing of intelligence to make much better a hard life of the people in Russia and by the great influence on Russian public thought of the West. Narodnik ideology was caused by real conditions of development of Russia (XIX – the beginning of XX century).

Key words: historic development of society, the people, the state power, natural­climatic factor, history of Russian public though, Narodnik ideology.


Document is Published for the first time

Roshchevskaya L.N. (Syktyvkar). Republic of Komi in publications of the Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the RussianAcademy of Sciences………. 16

The article reveals as a provincial academic scientific institution tried to get a permission for publishing, broadened diversity of genres by publication of scientific monographs, collections of articles, booklets, abstracts, periodicals and also such unique works as “The Red Book”, maps, atlases, encyclopaedias, and also improved equipment. Complicated and long process of accumulation of the author’s, editor’s, publisher’s and polygraphic experience in the Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences made it possible by the beginning of the XXI century to create a complex of fundamental researchers’ studies on history, culture, nature of the northern region of Russia – the Republic of Komi. The scientific production offers to specialists and a wide readers circle detailed scientifically well­founded characteristics of the large northern resources extracting region and perspectives of its development.

Key words: Republic of Komi, the RussianAcademy of Sciences, the Ural Branch, the Komi Science Centre, publishing, periodicals, type­setting machinery, computer processing of manuscripts, scientific literature


Source studies

Mitrofanov V.V. (Nizhnevartovsk). «One can not work … without a good special library»: S.F. Platonov and N.I. Dranitsyn’s cooperation on creation of NPSAC library………. 26

Contemporary researchers’ increased interest in Nizhny Novgorod regional ethnography is logical. In this connection, S.F. Plat, S.F. Platonov and N.I. Dranitsyn’s cooperation on creation of NPSAC library.

Contemporary researchers’ increased interest in Nizhny Novgorod regional ethnography is logical. In this connection, S.F. Platonov’s relations with local scientific and historical societies and Nizhny Novgorod provincial scientific archive commission are actively studied. Alongside with undoubted achievements in this question, there are still many controversial and debatable ones which require careful study, first of all, with the involvement of archival documents. The epistolary recordings in bulk deposited in S.F. Platonov’s personal collection are of particular importance for this analysis. He was the one who maintained productive relations with many provincial historical societies, in particular, with NPSAC over a period of several decades. They began in 1888, when the young scientist was elected to the commission. All succeeding years he kept up regular correspondence with notable figures of the Nizhny Novgorod local ethnography, particularly, with N.I. Dranitsyn, an active member of the library construction. The published letters are an important historical and historiographical source on the forms of the scientist’s cooperation, his role in the formation of the NPSAC library. It is this work, that along with other forms of S. F. Platonov’s interaction fully allows us to judge the educational activities of the scientist in the Russian province.

Key words: Historiography, S.F. Platonov, N.I. Dranitsyn, library, historical source, correspondence, Nizhny Novgorod province, scientific archive commission.

Rosenthal I.S. (Moscow). Revisiting the adaptation strategies of Russian intelligentsia before and after 1917 (Source: Korney Chukovsky’s journals)………. 50

The article reviews the value of Korney Chukovsky’s journals in studying the development of Russian intellectuals in the beginning of the 20th century, and explores their distinctive ways of adapting to the economic, political and ideological changes of that time. Chukovsky’s observations extend our understanding of the factors that influenced the intelligentsia, Russian cultural scene and the society at large. From that perspective, the article revisits the crucial moments in the recent history of Russia: the Revolution of 1905, the time before and after World War I and the first decades of the Soviet regime. The adaptation methods are strongly influenced by the personality factor; Chukovsky’s journals contain not only his own reflections and self­studies, but also a wide range of portraits of his contemporaries: writers, artists, journalists and publishers, such outstanding personalities as Alexander Blok, Maxim Gorky, Ilya Repin and Ivan Sytin, as well as numerous other representatives of the epoch, among them. The materials allow us to determine how much of the intelligentsia’s actions was predicated by the social environment and the power circles, and how much – by their own individual opinions. We can evaluate the impact of the distinctive aspects of their mentality – enlightenment, humanism, rejection of bourgeois ideology – on their behavior. That, and their perception of the swiftly changing reality, determined their attitude towards the political regime, the choice of their adaptation strategies, the characteristics of their creative work and their ways to perceive the reality and predict the future.

Key words: adaptation, intelligentsia, bureaucracy, Bolshevism, censure, mentality, entrepreneurism, publishers.

Kashevarov A.N. (Saint Petersburg). The church life in the pages of “The Moscow Patriarchate journal” (1931–1935)………. 60

Summary he article shows that one of the major achievements of Metropolitan Sergius in terms began at the end of the 1920s a new offensive of the Soviet state religion and the Church was the official permission for the publication of the «Journal of the Moscow Patriarchate», produced in 1931–1935. The author considers the history and characteristics of the publication of this magazine, established the names of three authors and two editors. Published in the journal materials allow to identify and examine the major trends and operating conditions of the highest ecclesiastical authority in the late 1920s – early 1930s. The magazine also reflected a general breakdown of church life and the fall of church discipline, which had an impact on the state of the Orthodox episcopate. At the height of the persecution of the Church among the clergy were many people who not only voluntarily left his orders, but also with the public – in the temple, through newspapers or written statements to the civil authorities – has denied the faith. When considering all of these cases the Supreme Ecclesiastical Authority seeks to establish and strengthen ties with the diocese and help them to streamline local church life. Analysis published in the «Journal of the Moscow Patriarchate» materials shows that despite all the harassment continued and church life in the face of the Patriarchate, Metropolitan Sergius and members of the Provisional when it Patriarchal Holy Synod, remaining the only legalized authority of church government was doing everything possible in those incredibly difficult conditions to support on the basis of some canonical order and discipline in the Church and not to let it fall apart.

Key words: church press, the Moscow Patriarchate journal, chronicle of church life, Higher church governance, episcopate, eparchies, church districts, church discipline.



Koltsov I.A. (Saint Petersburg). «Valuable contribution made to Russian historical science will not disappear» (N.K. Shilder’s works in appreciation of pre-revolutionary historians)………. 66

Appreciation of N.K. Shilder`s works in pre­revolutionary Russian historical literature and using of the materials in contemporaries` works are considered: prominent native historians: V.I. Semevsky, A.N. Pipin, grand duke Nicholas Michaelovich), V.O. Kluchevsky, A.A. Kizevetter, A.E. Presnyakov and others.

Such important problems as: personality influence of Alexander I on Russian’s state life in internal and foreign policy; division into periods of Alexander I reign are analysed for the objective appreciation of Shilder’s heritage of the past according to the work “Alexander the First, his life and reign”. Different conceptions are compared on the base of considered works analysis, common and individual in their considerations are determined.

In conclusion of the article soviet historical literature short review is done, where Shilder and his contemporaries’ works are appreciated. Negative attitude to their works in soviet historiography is paid attention to. It is noted that only between XX and XXI centuries attitude to Shilder works and his followers in modern Russian historians works is changed considerably and they have taken place in prominent research rank devoted to the native history problems of late XVIII – the first half of XIX.

Source base of the article is the following: original publications of N.K. Shilder`s works and his contemporaries, materials published in historical­literary magazine “Historical Herald” (1900–1917), in illustrated magazine “Literature. Politicians and modern life” (“Niva” – 1898–1902) and others.

Key words: historian, historiography, work, source, division into periods, Alexander I, N.K. Shilder, Grand duke Nicholas Michaelovich, A.N. Pipin, A.E. Presnyakov, S.F. Platonov.

Frolov M.I, Kuzenkova M.V. (Saint Petersburg). German historians and memoirists about the battle of Stalingrad………. 76

Article is devoted to the views of German historians and writers of memoirs on the value of the Battle of Stalingrad and its role in the progress and outcome of the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945. and World War II.

The article noted that among German historians there is no consensus in the assessment of the Battle of Stalingrad. The authors analyze the views of as few German historians who degrade the Battle of Stalingrad influence on the course and outcome of the war, as well as the opinions of those German historians who give an objective picture of what happened in the battle on the Volga. The article is conclusively proved that German authors write about the huge military­political and moral significance of the Stalingrad Battle. For the first time in the history of World War II instead of bravura marches on the radio in Germany funeral music sounded and three days of mourning was declared.

The authors make a convincing conclusion that the majority of German historians agree in assessing the Battle of Stalingrad as a disaster for the German nation and the victory of the Soviet troops at Stalingrad meant not only a radical change in the course of the war in the East, but also had a decisive influence on the entire course of World War II.

Key words: Stalingrad battle, historiography, memoirs, decisive role, a radical change, the victory, the Great Patriotic War, the war, the Wehrmacht, Nazism, German literature.

Kalmykov I.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). Training of new workers at Soviet aircraft factories during the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945: experience of the historiography………. 79

The analysis of the existing Russian historiography on a training problem at aircraft factories of the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War is provided in article. Works of the Soviet and Post­Soviet period as on stories of aircraft constructing, and modular plants of different regions of the country are used. On concrete examples the scale and technology of training is shown (individual and group methods, training for leaders and who doesn’t implement the plan, lessons in plants and in schools, etc.). The teenagers and women who succeeded the workers mobilized in army and often earlier not working should improve the skills at Stakhanov schools, technical minimum courses, to master adjacent professions. As appears from the published researches, before the Great Patriotic War at the enterprises long forms of education prevailed. New conditions demanded not only intensifications of production, but also training acceleration. The individual and brigade apprenticeship became the main method of training of new workers. There are examples when at plants in the years of war departments of training were created that meant reduction of this work in strict system. To all this, as shown in historiographies, plants are obliged by high efficiency of work. The conclusion concerning completeness and prospects of illumination of a personnel policy in scientific and popular scientific works is drawn.

Key words: Great Patriotic war 1941–1945, aircraft industry, historiography, workers, personnel policy, educating, school.

Kirillov A.V. (Moscow). Connivance to the falsification of the Great Patriotic War a crime against modern Russia………. 82

The article gives a counter attempts to falsify the historical victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War. A thorough analysis of the polar reviews online on the multi­serial documentary «The Great War» is conducted. To detailed criticism hasty statements made by some politicians and the press coverage distorting the most important events of the Second World War, indiscriminately denigrating the Soviet people and the leaders of the country during the Great Patriotic War, are subjected. Some fraud and internal contradictions of the pseudo discoverers of history of the war are showed. In particular, the critical analysis of torture is given to prove that the Soviet troops during the transition to the counteroffensive at Stalingrad had a great numerical superiority that Kiev was ordered to vacate the anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution, the opinion of the advisability of putting Leningrad. Presented documents reject accusations of deliberate distortion of the real situation in the documents of the Soviet command. In conclusion it is emphasized that without countering attempts to falsify our history Russia will not acquire the spiritual and moral stability.

Key words: prevent falsification, impartiality, events of the Second World War, critical analysis, competence.


History of Russia

Sobolev V.G. (Saint Petersburg). Russian schools for indigenous population in Turkestan: in search of “Obrusenie”………. 87

The article using new archival documents deals with the process of creation and development of the Russian schools for indigenous population (Russko­tusemnye) in Turkestan at the end of XIX – beginning of XX century. The creation and functioning of such schools shows a number of characteristic traits of Russian colonial administration, that distinguish Russia from other European empires. “Russko­tusemnye” schools in Turkestan conceived as a tool of policy of “obrusenie”, that is, they were ment to contribute to the rapprochement of local residents with Russian culture and consolidate the population on the basis of common citizenship. At the same time, in the early decades the Russian administration adhered to so­called policy of neglect towards Islam. Although formally Russian policy in the region towards Islam varied, the author tries to show that de facto, these changes were not felt and realized. This is especially true of Muslim education, which until the Revolution of 1917, remained without any administrative control. A similar situation developed in “native” classes of “Russko­tusemnye” schools. At the same time the Muslims of Russia at the turn of XIX–XX centuries actively involved in social and political life of the country and developed the movement of Jadidism. In terms of Turkestan, this led to the fact that “Russko­tusemnye” schools not only contributed to Russification (or Obrusenie), but, on the contrary, in some cases led to Turkization of local population.

Key words: Russian Empire, Turkestan, Russian schools for indigenous population (Russko­tusemnye schools), jadidism, new­method schools, Islam, madrasa, maktab, colonization, obrusenie, russification.

Zverev V.O. (Omsk). Preparation of lists of the military and naval data which announcement in a Russian press was forbidden (1912–1914)………. 104

Military espionage considered as a craft, and later and as an art, has its roots in antiquity. No large state, tending to occupy a unique place in the world­howl proscenium and strengthen their own power, did not refuse to use spies. In number of leaders who had the early twentieth century, long­term and effective spy (military intelligence) infrastructure within national boundaries and beyond, primarily consisted of England, Germany, Austria­Hungary (in the West) and Japan (in the East). Leading intelligence services in Europe and Asia, as well as, eventually, commence exploration neighboring Russian Empire countries (eg Sweden, Turkey, China), through its spies were actively collecting information about its military and naval power. One of the main sources of their knowledge became the published in the periodical press articles about the status and progress of modernization of the Russian army and navy.

The article discusses the process of improvement of the Russian criminal laws against treason through espionage. The development of three regulations designed to stop the publication of a military and naval secrets to Russia are analyzed. We study the degree of participation in this case the Council of Ministers, individual statesmen and military leaders. The results of the examination of major military and naval publications on the subject of their information from the point of view of foreign spies are represented.

Key words: newspapers, magazines, espionage, military data, secrets, Russia, army, fleet, bylaws, Council of ministers.

Danilova E.N. (Moscow). Familiarizing of foreign workers and specialists to the Soviet system (first half of the 1930s)………. 112

The central place of the article takes research on the situation of migrant workers – foreign specialists and workers who arrived in the USSR from different countries, mainly from Germany and the USA in the late 1920s – early 1930s.The Soviet leaders’ main purpose of the invitation of the foreign workers was the desire to involve them to the implementation of an extensive industrialization program of the country. Counting on the migrant workers help in the building of industry giants, to the transfer of their rich industrial experience, to training for new technological methods of Soviet workers the government at the same time tried to ideologically influence foreign workers, familiarize them to the Soviet way of life, to show the advantages of the Soviet system of norms and values.

This article investigates some forms, methods and means of the Soviet ideological machine of influence on the processes of Sovietization of foreign migrant workers. The processes of their retracting in the socialist production relations of and lifestyle are examined. As a result of deliberate ideological work the majority of the foreign workers and professionals were involved in socialist competition, shock work, were engaged in inventive activity and innovation. Constant and exclusively close attention was paid to an agitation and propaganda work among foreigners, promoting positive lifestyle aspects of Soviet citizens, acquaintance with Soviet Russia. This work was conducted by trade union and party organizations. The article identifies particular features of an agitation and propaganda work among the foreign contingent.

The forms of this kind of work were different – from creation of clubs, various circles (on studying oRussian, political education and so forth) to the organization of leisure and rest (excursions, trips about the country, carrying out holiday in the Soviet rest houses, participation in the Soviet mass holidays, etc.). At the same time a secret control of foreigners was fixed. Examples of office reports in the higher organizations with messages on discontent of specific people with the Soviet orders, their critical statements about the Soviet system are given. Charges of unreliability, espionage of foreign labor migrants become an everyday occurrence in the years of repressions and some of them appeared in camps or on the settlements.

Key words: industrialization, foreign bureau (office), migrant workers, foreign specialists, foreign workers, ideology, socialist competition, lifestyle, innovators, shock workers.

Lyutikov M.Yu. (Saint Petersburg). Pre-election campaign before the second round of the presidential elections of 1996………. 120

In the article pre­election campaign before the run off poll of the presidential elections of 1996 was examined. There the desIn the article pre­election campaign before the run off poll of the presidential elections of 1996 was examined. There the description and analysis of the major events that have influenced the final results of the vote are given in the publication. Campaigns of B.N. Yeltsin, and A. Zyuganov between the two rounds of elections are analyzed. The role of the A.I. Lebed in the final distribution of votes between B.N. Yeltsin, and A. Zyuganov in the second round of voting is examined. A brief analysis of the results of the second round of voting and the main factors that determined the victory of the incumbent President are also given there.

Key words: The 1996 presidential elections, the runoff poll B.N. Yeltsin, G.A. Zyuganov, A.I. Lebed, the results of the second round of elections.


History of Russian regions

Fedirko O.P. (Vladivostok). The charitable activity in the Amur region in the First World War………. 127

The article in hand deals with charitable activity of individuals, public organizations and state in the Amur territory during the First World War. The article presents information about the activity of all­Russian public organizations initiated by the imperial authorities: Charity Committee of Great Princess Elizaveta Feodorovna , the All­Russian Refugee Aid Society, the Committee for Aid to the Wounded, Injured and Sick Warriors and Their Families, and the regional branches of these organizations: The Priamurskiy Committee for Aid to the Wounded, Injured and Sick Warriors and Their Families, the Blagoveshchensk branch of the Russian Red Cross Society, the Committee of Blagoveshchensk Sisters of Charity Community, the Church School Eparchial Committee for Raising Funds for the Needs of the Army and Refugees. The author adduces the information on how individuals participated in the charity work. The author evaluates their contribution to aid for socially unprotected groups of the Russian society: refugees, widows and orphans, disabled and wounded people. The analysis of the forms and methods of charity will help both to illustrate the situation in the Far East during the First World War and to contribute to organization of charity actions in the present day Russia.The article is based on archives and some of them have been disclosed for the scientific research for the first time.

Key words: сharitable activity, World War I, the Russian Far East, Amur Region, the refugees.

Ilyin A.Yu. (Tambov). The combination of natural and planned beginnings in the development of urban space (on materials Penza, Ryazan and Tambov)………. 131

In the article on wide factual material three typical Russian regional centers are considered a change in the ratio of planned and unplanned urban development began in the specific space of urban settlements. The author points to the planned construction of fortresses in Penza, Ryazan, Tambov and notes the initial adaptation of these cities to the natural environment. Particular attention is paid to the problem of short­sightedness and lack of system in the implementation of development plans of urban space. Consequently, the inhibiting role in the development of urban areas played not only natural obstacles, but obstacles of human nature, the results of ill­conceived urban planning. Specifically addresses the issue of readiness cities such Penza, Ryazan, Tambov in the perception of advanced global delivery models of urban space. The author suggests that the city considered “mature enough” to the perception of urban innovations until the end of the XX century.

Key words: urbanization, the history of the city, urban space, natural and anthropogenic factors


History of International relations

Falko S.A. (Kharkov, Ukraine). The Russian military-diplomatic service in China during the reign of Alexander III (1881–1894)………. 136

The article is devoted to complex research of intelligence services’ activity of the Russian Empire War House in China late of 1881–1894 years. The research was necessitated by the need to generalization the historical experience of operating of important element of the military intelligence – military agent during the period of increasing of Russia’s foreign activity in the East Asia. The research deals with the questions that concern to special features of operating of legal military agent intelligence service in specific conditions among the East Asian civilization. Special attention is paid to the personnel policy of the General Staff of the military department in the selection of military agents, financing, method of work of the military diplomats in China.

The main source of the study were reports of military agents stored in the Russian State Military Historical Archive, as well as materials of intra­periodical publication «Collection of geographical, topographical and statistical materials in Asia», published in the General Staff of the Russian army in 1883–1914 years.

Key words:China, military intelligence, military agent, office of the General Staff, the War Department of the Russian Empire, military intelligence service.

Ablizin V.A. (Saratov). The treaty of mutual assistance of the Soviet Union with the Baltic States (September – October, 1939)………. 146

The presented article is devoted to signing of the Soviet and Baltic treaties of mutual assistance in September – October, 1939. By the present moment the matter was already repeatedly brought up on pages of home and foreign press. But polemic round it, nevertheless, doesn’t cease that is connected with two reasons: firstly, the appearance of new, earlier unknown and unclaimed documents and, secondly, great importance of a question: the agreements issued by the parties were the first serious condition for fast Sovietization of the Baltic region. Article of the author allows specifying representations how process of registration of agreements proceeded, what conditions and arguments to them allowed the Stalin management to impose in the shortest possible time to the Baltic governments, favorable to the Soviet combinations of a solution.

Key words: confidential protocol, contract on mutual aid, Vilnius question, Soviet­German relations.


History of culture

Gorobets S.V. (Saint Petersburg). The musical- enlightenment organizations of Petersburg at the beginning ХХ of the century………. 152

Article is dedicated to musical­enlightenment activity in Petersburg at the beginning ХХ of century. The information about such organizations is given as: Emperor Russian musical society, the concerts of graph A.D. Sheremeteva, M.P. Belyayev, “the evenings of contemporary music”, “Concerts s. Kusevitskogo”. The analysis of the usable programs is conducted. In more detail the author is stopped on the activity of Alexander by Ilyich Ziloti and his enterprise “concerts a. To Siloti”. In spite of the big merit in the musical culture Alexander’s name Ilyich for a long time was not mentioned in the literature, it was forgotten, in connection with his emigration. On the basis of the analysis of the concert programs, conducted in Petersburg in the flow of 15 years and archive sources is made the conclusion about significant role, which played a. To Siloti in formation and development of domestic musical culture.

The historical survey of the musical­ enlightenment organizations of Petersburg at the beginning ХХ of century attests to the fact that this form of activity is tightly connected with questions of training, formation, aesthetics. The familiarizing of people with the best models of culture and the propagation of knowledge about the music was the basic task of enlightenment. Musical propaganda envelopped practically all sections of the population, the rich musical atmosphere was created. The sum of the activity of the musical – enlightenment organizations of Petersburg, which composed one of the steps of the stairs of the glory of domestic skill, is summed up.

Key words: musical and educational organizations, programs, artists, concerts, A. Siloti, culture of Petersburg.

Terekhova M.V. (Saint Petersburg). Decorative collar as a fetish: semiotic cultural analysis of a Soviet female costume of the 1930s………. 157

An element of a soviet female costume as a reflection of semiotic cultural codes is researched in the article. Such cultural phenomena as soviet deficit, commodity fetishism, ideological dogmas are considered in their most demonstrative and characteristic vestimentary implementations. An analysis is based on examples provided by popular films, visual arts, literature, mass media alongside with evidences of contemporaries.

An existence of special objects serving as semiotic focus­knots within the soviet culture is stated. According to a special mode of soviet optics, such wide­spread costume element as decorative collar is argued to be considered one of the most characteristic semiotic vestimentary focus­fetish of the 1930s.

Key words: semiotic cultural codes, soviet costume, costume semiotics, soviet vestimentary practices, soviet deficit, commodity fetishism.

Golovin V.V. (Saint Petersburg). The first comparative research in the field of children’s folklore, or criticism through two centuries and seven years………. 161

The article deals with the first native experience of comparative analysis of the texts of children’s folklore – the chapter «Supplement to the Russian mothers» from the book of F.V. Rostopchin «Oh, the French! Composing the story of byley, wrote in Russian» (1806–1807). In his book, Rostopchin, having based on the accepted notions of pedagogical function of children’s folklore, criticized the two English and two French texts of children’s folklore. Content of foreign nursery rhymes was criticized as harmful to Russian children. As an ideal text one of the versions of Russian tales «The thieving magpie» was proposed. For all the criticism of the Rostopchin’s concept, this is the first article comparing native and foreign­language texts of children’s folklore and the first translation of the English and French folklore texts for children in the Russian language. Also for the first time Rostopchin analyzed children’s library fabulous repertoire, giving the advantage to four «Russian Fairy Tales», three of which have foreign­language source. However, Rostopchin confirmed his day view of the fabulous genre, which indicates «blur» representations to the story at the beginning of the XIX century. Criticism of Rostopchin’s text, first of all, fixation of the logical contradictions, deliberateness of the translation of the English phrase «A nasty slut», as well as the selective targeting of foreign language texts for his rhetorical concept. In conclusion, we present a number of well­known Russian children’s folklore texts as opposing the pedagocical idea of V.F. Rostopchin.

Key words: V.F. Rostopchin, Russian children’s folklore, comparative analysis, translation, teaching folklore, fairy tale, Charles Perrault, French children’s folklore, English children’s folklore, education.


History of science and technology

Fedulov S.V. (Saint Petersburg). Military-technical cooperation on between Russian empire and Italy underwater shipbuilding before and during the First World War………. 164

Military­technical cooperation of the Russian Empire during the First World War was of multifaceted and implemented many economic developed countries: the USA, Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan. In this paper, on the example of unsuccessful contract with the Italian company «Fiat San Giorgio», the author shows his malignancy and the lessons to be learned from its implementation.

On the eve of World War I Marine Ministry has decided to buy in Italy built submarines «Laurenti». However, the outbreak of hostilities was not allowed to perform the test and calculation for it. However, in accordance with international law (1907 Hague Convention Articles 6 and 7) to the neutral state, which at the time was Italy, were forbidden to sell warships directly warring countries. To circumvent this requirement, the Italian side made a clumsy attempt to translate a submarine in the port of another State, who has decided to transfer its Russian. As a result of these manipulations submarine was arrested by the French authorities in the port of Ajaccio in Corsica. Brewing a major international scandal, in order to prevent that the Italian government requisitioned the Russian order.

With the entry of Italy into World War I on the side of Russia, the situation has changed dramatically. Therefore, in 1916 the Ministry of the Navy of the Russian Empire returned to this request. In March 1917 the submarine began testing, and in May 1917 it was awarded the title of «Saint George». At the same time it was a question where it could be used. The Black Sea and the Baltic translate submarine in combat conditions was not possible, so it was decided to include it in the newly formed fleet of the Arctic Ocean and overtake the port of Arkhangelsk. In Italy, the Russian crew was directed to the development of the ship.

Unprecedented, heroic move the submarine «Saint George» with a displacement of just 252 tons of its course of action in the areas of German surface and submarine forces length of 5,000 miles from the port of Genoa in the port of Arkhangelsk began on June 18, 1917 and ended on September 8, 1917. However, the technical capabilities of the Italian submarine in the North were not possible to exploit.

Lessons and conclusions on this, an unsuccessful request actuality in our days, so you must take them into account in the conditions of military­technical cooperation.

Key words: Russian Empire, the company «Fiat San Giorgio», the submarine, the General Directorate of shipbuilding and logistics, Department of General Affairs, the Naval Staff, marine agent, Minister of Marine, contract, order, payment.


Military history

Strelnikov V.A. (Moscow). The impact of changes in of the Russian army completion on their moral spirit (second half of the nineteenth century)………. 169

The article deals with the transition from military recruitment system of the Russian army to conscription, analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of these systems, and reveals the impact of changes in manning to their morale.

The author in his article showed advantages and privileges presented to recruits due to marital status, kind of work and education in accordance to the Manual of conscription. He also showed comparative information about the level of education, physical training and marital status of Russian recruits and men called up for military service in Germany, Austria­Hungary and France.

The article marks that during the elaboration of the Manual of conscription great attention was paid to the contribution of its articles to the strengthening of cohesion of military units, increasing of moral spirit of the Russian army. This Manual in comparison to the Recruits regulations was more fair and allowed as little as possible subjectivism in detection the place of service. In accordance with the new Manual the term of active service was radically reduced and that allowed faster to create the required number of military­ trained reservists in war time.

Key words: Russian army, recruits, the Charter of the military service, discipline, morale.

Gladkikh S.A. (Kotlas). The two strategies of Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905: E.I. Alexeyev and A.N. Kuropatkin………. 176

The article analyses the conflict of two concepts of strategy in Russo­Japanese War of 1904–1905: aggressive posture offered by Admiral E.I. Alexeyev, Commander­in­Chief, and defensive strategy, offered by Commanding General of Manchu Army A.N. Kuropatkin. The origin of the conflict goes back to pre­war policy, when A. N. Kuropatkin supported the idea of boarders fortification in Western area of Russian Empire, and E. I. Alexeyev took a stand in favour of strengthening armed forces on the Far East. Departmental disunity between irrespectively directed army and navy, traditional for Russian governmental system priority of personal relationship over duty connections as well as ineffectual deployment of posts, marked a negative imprint on relationship between the two commanders. During the war A.N. Kuropatkin being guided by pre­war plans, tended to consolidate the troops for striking at concentrated opponent forces. E.I. Alexeyev relied on the current moment needs and required to strike at the opponent whose troops were dislocated within the battle ground. He considered delivering some separate destructions as a way to contribute to total success in war. So, Commander­in­Chief tended to intercept a strategic initiative, and Commanding General tended to delay this date for indefinite period of time. Rightness of E.I. Alexeyev’s strategy was proved by the events of May­June 1904, when actions of navy and inland troops forced the opponent to essentially correct its strategic plans. But this remained unknown for Russian commanding authority and didn’t allow to come to a success. As a whole, military events showed an extreme inactivity and dogmatism of A. N. Kuropatkin’s strategy, against the background of which E.I. Alexeyev’s strategy appeared to show its volume and dynamism. However, a complex conflict of Commander­in­Chief and Commander of Manchu army didn’t allow to realize long­rage strategic complex of E.I. Alexeyev within the theatre of military actions.

Key words: Russo­Japanese War of 1904–1905, military strategy, E.I. Alexeyev, A.N. Kuropatkin.

Izonov V.V. (Moscow). From the history of accommodation and settlement of the Russian army during the First World War (1914–1918)………. 187

Тhe article is devoted to some aspects of the accommodation and settlement joints, parts and units of the Russian army at the front and in the rear during the years of the First world war. Armed struggle was conducted millions of armies, armed with numerous and varied technique. Unprecedented number of human reserves and resources have been continuously enrolled in the theaters of military operations. The article contains information about the size of the Russian army, and human resources. Shows the periods of war, the creation of the army of Russia newbraunfels structures (marching camps, bunkers, dugouts, point of care) in front. Reveals the activities of the provincial Executive committees, district land management, public urban and rural departments to address issues of housing allowances troops. Discusses the activities of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire, the Main control barrack allowances of the troops on the creation and maintenance of barracks and housing, stables, wagon trail sheds, hangars and Zakharov for storage of weapons and military equipment.

Key words: Russian army, billeting, equipment, barracks and housing, a camp, medical care, dugout, dugout.

Bezugolniy A.Yu. (Moscow). The historical image of the Great Patriotic War in modern historical description and public image of the highland people of the North Caucasus………. 194

The article is devoted to features reflect events Great Patriotic War in the mass consciousness, journalism and regional historical literature of national regions of the North Caucasus. It is shown how the image of war is refracted through the North Caucasus ethnic groups relevant to contemporary political problems is the problem of the prestigious competition with each other and raising the political status at the federal level. Actualization of military subjects in contemporary social and political process contributes to the erosion of mythologizing and image of the Great Patriotic War, “splitting” its up to the individual events and feats, to which the most part of regional literature is devoted. Generalizations, problem analysis with such an approach remains little room, and the most adequate methodological steel shell Soviet substantially approaches in the study of the historical process.

Key words: Northern Caucasus, patriotic adages, adats, traditional Islam, spiritual Renaissance, NorthCaucasianRepublics, historical description of the Second World War.


Historical characters

Demakov I.S. (Saint Petersburg). Lomonosov as an advisor of the academic Chancellery………. 198

So called “The academic Chancellery” occupied the central place in the organizational structure of the St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Sciences in the XVIII century. This article is dedicated to the cause and nature of the confrontation between scientific and administrative staff of the Academy in the 1747–1761. Analysis of the correspondence of full professors with the President of the Academy of Sciences and the highest state institutions let reconstruct the organizational restructuring project of the Academy of Sciences, which was based on the original idea – to give some administrative functions to professors. Only in 1757 a number of leaders of the Office entered an ordinary member of the Academy – M.V. Lomonosov. In the funds of the academic archive the related to Lomonosov organizational and administrative documentation was found, these materials have the characteristic as a historical source.

Key words: Lomonosov, St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, XVIII century, institutionalization

Soldatov A.V., Voronina M.M., Medvedev V.I., Osmanov A.I. (Saint Petersburg). Creativity of the academician М.V. Ostrogradsky and his role in development of the Russian mechanics and mathematical education in the 19th century………. 205

Work is devoted to the outstanding Russian mathematician, mechanic, teacher, academician of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences M.V. Ostrogradsky (1801–1861). He was born in Ukraine, got education in France, all further life of Ostrogradsky was connected with Petersburg. He was engaged in scientific work, taught in five higher educational institutions of Petersburg. His lectures on the higher mathematics, mechanics, ballistics and others are important both with scientific, and with pedagogical the points of view. Some courses of its lectures were summarized by listeners, and subsequently are published lithographic or typographical way.

Since the end of the 40th years of the XIX century Ostrogradsky was invited in Educational Committee and was appointed as the General Supervisor of teaching mathematical sciences in military schools. Since then Ostrogradskii started to work over organizational questions – selection of teachers, examination of textbooks, creation of elementary mathematics textbooks.

The courses of lectures read by Ostrogradsky, his idea, his methods of teaching through his numerous pupils have spread across the country. The characteristic feature for all school Ostrogradsky is communication of mathematical sciences with engineering art.

Key words: PetersburgAcademy of Sciences, mathematics, mechanics, technical education, pedagogy, history of science


Will be history tomorrow

Surzhik D.V. (Moscow). Master of a brush………. 211

The author of the article examines the major milestones in the life and work of the artist, Eugenia Yakovlevna Kokoreva. In the article the main directions of the artist, describes her achievements, awards, and numerous awards. The author in his work examines the Eugene Y. Kokorev not only as an artist but as a person, as a talented organizer held a great school and has absorbed all the best from it. The article also dwells to the unique style of the artist that is based on the use of an open color and uncovering of a way, that show any little mistake of a painter. As it was stated by many art critics, E.Ya. Kokoreva is very skillful in balancing of the means of artistic expression in any genre, of which she works. That’s why all her pictures are respected by her colleagues­professionals and many nonprofessionals.

Key words: E.I. Kokoreva, artist, painting, B. Vinokurov, “Art print”, V.D. Polenov, V.A. Serov, K.P. Bryullov, I.I. Levitan, M.Z. Chagall


Reviews of scientific publications

Avrus A.I., Kochukova O.V. (Saratov). The last book of the famous historian………. 213

Reviewers appreciate the last book of the famous Russian historian N.A. Troitsky, notice the dignity of publication, pay attention to the discussion questions. The authors considered recreation of personality type revolutionary 1870s as a major scientific achievement of N.A. Troitsky. The book about Perovskaya provides to the modern reader information about the formation of revolutionary ideology and subculture. The content and conclusions of the monograph provide material for reflection on the meaning of the “People’s Will era” in the history of social movements and the subsequent development of the country. The history of “People’s Will era”, told through the lens of identity and fate of Sophia Perovskaya, confirms the prevailing scientific approaches and conclusions of the famous historian. Scientific biography of Sophia Perovskaya fits easily the created by N.A. Troitsky picture of the ideology and activity of Russian “People’s Will” revolutionaries (narodniki). “Personal” approach to history topics has enabled a more vivid and deep reading it.

Key words: N.A. Troitsky, S.L. Perovskaya, the “People’s Will” revolutionaries (narodniki), “Land and Freedom”, “Will of the People”, regicide, Red and White Terror.

Pilipenko S.A. (Saratov). Between the ideal and the reality: Ukranian bourgeois rebels………. 217

In the book review the work of the author as a historian is highly appreciated as he researches the tragic period of Ukrainian history He tries to prove that in the collapse of the Soviet Union nationalism or patriotism played a certain role not only in Russia but also in other Soviet republics. In the book a higher level of political activism and nationalism in the Western Ukraine is substantiated, a lot of attention is paid to the causes of the sharp interethnic relations in Poland before war. The bloody events are described in detail and the author’s estimation of their personal reasons is given. He describes the specific mechanisms of the progressive mutual Ukrainian­Polish cruelty and states that there is the direct evidence that the Bandera leaders decided to depolonish Volyn. The undoubted advantage of the book is a detailed description who was a collaborator and who was a rebel. On the basis of the archive documents there is a proof that between the Reich and the OUN periodically, depending on the situation, the forced friendship or the outright hostility appeared. The post­war of the nationalists and their antagonists – Soviet authorities is described. The reviewer thinks that the book is worth attention of everybody who is interested in the Ukrainian history.

However the attention is drawn to the politicization за the third edition in favor of political interests of leaders of Maidan. The main problem is that the issue raised by the author hasn’t become the history by the end yet and touches the feelings of the living people who perceive these events as the personal tragedy.

Key words: the Great Patriotic War, the Second World War, the OUN, the UPA, the NKVD, the Western Ukraine, Galicia, Volyn massacre, S. Bandera, the Ukranian nationalists, A. Gogun.

Stogov D.I. (Saint Petersburg). Book review: Kolotilo M. The Tolstoy`s house. The apartment of the prince-chekist………. 222

We have done the analysis of the book­album M. Kolotilo «Tolstoy`s house. The apartment of the prince­chekist». Considerable place is spared to scientific achievements of this work, its contribution to the historiography of Russian history, the complex problems that require further research. It is noted that the author of the monograph­album is limited to only memoir by evidence relating to the life and work of M.M. Andronicov. Meanwhile, interrogations and testimonies to the Provisional Government’s Extraordinary Investigation Commission as the most Andronicov, as those closed to him (the originals are kept in the Fund 1469 (EIC) in State Archive of the Russian Federation), not included in the book, have a huge interest. Partly they were published in the publication «The Fall of the tsarist regime». However, the monograph­album contains many photos of persons closed to the Prince M.M. Andronikov (G.E. Rasputin, A.N. Khvostov, S.P. Beletsky, Archbishop Barnabas, Bishop Isidore (Kolokolov), and others, who had been in the apartment of the Prince), subsequent occupants of the apartment and the Tolstoy’s house in general, archival photos showing the life in the Tolstoy’s house during the siege of Leningrad, stills from films, starred in the Tolstoy’s house, etc. Of course, the monograph­album represents the value of science and will be useful not only for specialists in Russian history of the XX century, but for all people interested in the history of Russia, first of all, of course, the pre­revolutionary era.

Key words: Russian Empire, the First World War, rights, right­monarchist saloons, State Council, State Douma.



Avrus A.I. (Saratov), Matveev G.A. (Rostov – on Don). Scholar, teacher, man. To the 90ty anniversary of professor V.L. Soskin………. 227

The article highlights the main milestones of life and creative path of the famous historian of national culture, doctor of historical sciences, professor Varlen Lvovich Soskin, celebrating his 90th anniversary. The authors analyze the contribution of the scientist into scientific understanding of the history of Soviet culture, the history of Russian intelligents, in the formation of a branch of science as intelligence science, note his role in the promotion of new theoretical approaches in the study of Russian culture, characterize the main stages of his creative evolution, his achievements as a creator of the scientific school, talented organizer of scientific groups, forums and research works. The article highlights the characteristics of V.L.Soskin both as a researcher and a man.

Key words: V.L. Soskin, history of the Soviet culture, the history of the Russian intelligentsia, the relationship of political power and intelliegentsia, history department of the Soviet culture Institute of history, philosophy and philology of the Siberian department of the Academy of sciences of the USSR (RAN).