Klio #3 (111) 2016

Actual Interview 

Interview of A.S. Gogun  (Berlin, Germany) with Professor Bernd Greiner (Berlin, Germany). The study of the history of the Cold War in Germany ………. 9

ALEXANDER SERGEEVICH GOGUN — Candidate of Historical Sciences, Doctoral student at the Free University of Berlin,  Friedrich Meneke Institute, Germany. Koserstr. 20, 14195  Berlin, Germany.

e-mail: a.gogun@fu-berlin.de

This interview with one of the most influential German expert on the history of the Cold War, Professor Bernd Greiner, head of the BerlinCollege of the Cold War studies, discussed the different ways of approaches of the German and American historiography of the Cold War and the foreign policy of the Soviet Union. US experts based on the global perspective, the German specialists for a long time based on the «provincial» approach of the study of the confrontation between two systems. For a long time Germans have been focused on the German-Russian issues. The interview also discusses various myths about the Kremlin’s foreign policy. In particular, long time it was considered that if you gave the USSR a concession, it would only provoke its appetite and lead to the World War III. In addition, the West feared that if the Communists came to power in one country, the neighboring countries would soon fall under the pressure of the domino effect. New myth that is well-known now in Germany is about that the Cold War was a consequence of the cultural differences between East and West.

Keywords: The Cold War, Third World, historiographical myths, German historiography, American historiography, US foreign policy, the foreign policy of the USSR.

Interview of R.I. Shchuka (Saint Petersburg) with Professor Michael Hartman (Berlin, Germany). The elite in Germany and immigrants ………. 15

ROMAN IOSIFOVICH SHCHUKA — Candidate of Historical Sciences, Researcher. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskiyj pr.,11.

e-mail: clioscience@gmail.com

An interview with the famous researcher of elites Michael Hartman discussed the considerable closeness of the ruling stratum of three leading European countries – France, Germany and the UK. 80% of managers in large enterprises are from 4% higher society in German. It is slowly increasing number of women in leadership positions, as well as people from East Germany and immigrants. Recently there is the alienation of the undereducated and unemployed immigrants and children of immigrants from the policy, including the electoral process. Nevertheless, the experience of neighboring countries, such as Britain and France, shows that in the long term immigrants and people who have immigrant origin may become ministers in European countries too.

Keywords: elitism, Germany, prejudice, racism, closeness of society, immigrants, evolution.



G.M. Ippolitov  (Samara), S.N.  Poltorak (Saint Petersburg). Historiography of the Civil War in Russia during the first postwar years (1922–1932) ………. 21

GEORGIY MIKHAYLOVICH IPPOLITOV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Researcher of Institute of Russian History RAN (Samara), Professor of Department of Philosophy, Volga State University of Telecommunications and Informatics (Samara). 443101, Russian Federation, Samara, Novomolodezhnihyj per., 21, #58.

E-mail: pfiri@ ssc.smr.ru; gippolitov@rambler.ru

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of journal for scientists «Klio», Professor of Department of History and Regional Studies, Bonch-Bruevich Saint Petersburg State University of Telecommunications. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskiy pr.,11.

E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

This article is a logical continuation of the authors’ publications dedicated to researching the history oа the Civil War in Russia. The authors study and use a lot of historiography sources related to the 1920s.The article shows many aspects of the history of the Civil War in Russia (November 1917–1922). It isn’t possible to consider all of them in the singe article. So having worked on the study of the Civil War in Russia authors focused on certain aspects of the problem. The authors take into account the fact that the period of the 1920s years in Russian historical science – was a time of relative creative freedom of historians, which began to fade in the beginning of the 1930s. Also the article considers that the historiography of those years described the recent events and that fact had both advantages and disadvantages. The authors don’t claim that they fully examined the topic, which their article is dedicated to.

Keywords: Civil War in Russia, historiography, documents on the history of the Civil War, M.N. Tuhachevsky, N.A. Kakurin, main historiographical tendencies, publications of White emigrants, White movement, intervention, archaeography of the 1920s.

A.V. Philippov (Saint Petersburg). Immortal Classics in the historiography of Japanese history. A review from the XX century to the Russian and English books ………. 38

ALEXANDR VIKTOROVICH PHILIPPOV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor, Head of Department of Japanology, Faculty of Oriental Studies,  Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab. 11.

e-mail: PhilAlex2005@mail.ru

The article is a historiographical review on Russian and English literature of Japanese history. It deals with the appearance of the early data and publications on Japan, first scientific publications on its history. Classics (due to the author’s consideration) are the number of printed materials that appeared in the mid XIX–mid XX centuries. The article reviews the most significant English research papers as well as some biographical remarks concerning such foreign Japanologists like William E. Griffis, Frank Brinkley, James Murdoch, George B. Sansom and Edwin O. Reischauer. Classics of Russian Japanology are historians such as V.Ya. Kostylev, A.A. Nikolaev, N.I. Konrad, K.A. Harnsky and E.M. Zhukov. It’s analyzed their greatest works. In spite of these fundamental works have been rarely used and studied in the last half-century, a lot of prominent data represented in them should be potentially useful even for modern scholars. The article shows the significance of such honored classics, and they should be studied and reprinted.

Keywords: William E. Griffis, Frank Brinkley, James Murdoch, George B. Sansom, Edwin O. Reischauer, V.Ya. Kostylev, E.M. Zhukov, N.I. Konrad, K.A. Harnskiy, A.A. Nikolaev, history of Japan, historiography of Japan.


General History

A.N. Sherba  (Saint Petersburg). V.I. Yakovenko  (Temryuk). The Cimmerians and Scythians: the problem of historical continuity ………. 49

ALEXANDR NIKOLAEVICH SHERBA – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Researcher of Research Department (military history of North-western region of Russian Federation), Research institute (of military history), Military Academy of the General Staff. 191055, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Nevskiy pr. 10.

E-mail: a.n.sherba@mail.ru.

VLADISLAV IVANOVICH YAKOVENKO – local history researcher, engineer. 353500, Russian Federation, Krasnodar region, Temryuk, ul. Lenina 94, #19.

E-mail: vlad99@bk.ru.

The article considers the problems of historical continuity of two known ethnicities – Cimmerians and Scythians. Their place and influence among the people of Antiquity were so considerable, that without researching of their history it’s impossible to understand many processes having taken place in that historical period. Because of the fact that these events happened more than 2 thousand years ago, many dogmas, connected with this important scientific issue, were created, and they still dominate in Russian and world historical science. Under the influence of number of objective and subjective factors, on vast territories of North Black Sea region these people closely cooperated. Their relations had contradictory character and weren’t stable. It’s important for historical science to understand the character of this cooperation and its evolution, because during the cooperation there were difficult ethnic processes which caused the formation of many nations of modern Europe, including ancient Slavs.

Keywords: Ancient world, Cimmerians, Scythians, ethnic belonging, nomads, military campaigns, historians, geographers, natural habitat of spreading, economic structure, cultural traditions, historical process.


History of Russia

V.A. Valerov , A.V. Valerov (Saint Petersburg). Features of the evolution process of the political system of Novgorod the Great in the XIII–XV centuries (based on German medieval acts) ……… 57

VALENTIN ALEKSEEVICH VALEROV – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Russian History From Ancient Times to the XX century, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya 5.

E-mail: a.valerov@spbu.ru

ALEXEI VALENTINOVICH VALEROV – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Theory of Credit and Financial Management, St. Petersburg State University. 191123, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Tchaikovskogo 62.

E-mail: a.valerov@spbu.ru

The article studies the evolution process of the social and political system of Novgorod the Great in the second half of the XIII – middle of the XV centuries. It pays great attention to issue connected with distribution of power between the main political institutions, correlation of their working competencies and principles of acquisition. The authors focus on the analysis of authentic terminology kept in medieval written sources, including foreign ones. The authors associates traceable institutional changes with the intensification of inhomogeneity of the Novgorod society, first of all, with a clear forming of the political positions of the social groups that have been deeply integrated into the market relations, had a large amount of money and sought to weaken the political role of the conservative classes, whose influence was based on archaic forms of property and corresponding them institutions.

Keywords: medieval Novgorod, German medieval acts, social and political history, princely power, governorship, posadnichestvo, veche, tysyatsky, «Council of Lords», the community.

Yu.V. То(Saint Petersburg). Russian writers on the service in the central department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the middle of the XIX century ………. 70

YURIY VIKTOROVICH ТОT – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,  Head of the Department of History of teaching at natural and humanitarian faculties, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya 5.

e-mail: y.tot@spbu.ru

The article deals with participation of outstanding Russian writers V.I. Dalj, M.E. Saltykov and P.I. Melnikov in the preparing process of police reorganization projects in Russia in 1840s–1850s. V.I. Dalj summarized proposals concerning police reorganization, which were suggested earlier, in 1830s – period of strengthening of Nicholas I monarchy. P.I. Melnikov and M.E. Saltykov considered this problem before the Great reforms of Alexander II didn’t begin. P.I. Melnikov, using substantially the materials of V.I. Dalj, made a critical review of the situation of police. M.E. Saltykov considered that the police activities could be improved by more intensive using of electoral principles in local administration. The author studies the connection between these projects and analogical ones, which had been developed earlier, as well as those projects, which were developed later – in the end of the XIX–beginning of the XX centuries.

Keywords: V.I. Dalj, S.S. Lanskoj, M.E. Saltykov, P.I. Melnikov, Interior ministry, police, local administration, reorganization, reform.

E.V. Spitsina  (Saint Petersburg). «Ideological» war in Geneva in the end of the 1870s–the beginning of the 1880s: the «Black Repartition» against M.P. Dragomanov ………. 79

EVGENIYA VIKTOROVNA SPITSINA – Postgraduate student, Department of Russian history, Faculty of Social Sciences, Herzen State Pedagogical University. 191186, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Moika river emb., 48.

E-mail: evgenia.spitsina@yandex.ru

The article discusses the issue of relationships between Russian political emigrants in Geneva in the end of the 1870s–the beginning of the 1880s. Particularly it studies the conflict between the leaders of the «Black Repartition» group and famous professor, writer and Ukrainophile from Kiev M.P. Dragomanov. The article gives a detailed analysis of the memoirs and articles dedicated to social and political issues written by M.P. Dragomanov, G.V. Plekhanov’s group and others. Based on the analysis of these documents there are represented different versions of the origins of conflict, evaluated the degree of their inner inconsistency in the article. The author attempted to find out the real causes of conflict between Plekhanov’s group and M.P. Dragomanov. Particular attention is paid to comparative analysis of political programs of both sides of conflict and also specifics of political biographies of opponents.

Keywords: «Black Repartition», M.P. Dragomanov, G.V. Plekhanov, L.G. Deich, Ya.V. Stefanovich, Ukrainophiles, emigration, federalism, socialism, revolutionary movement.

V.Yu. Gessen (Saint Petersburg). The destruction and seizure of property of foreign representative offices in St. Petersburg (1918–1923) ………. 86

VALERIY YUL’EVICH GESSEN — Candidate of Economic Sciences, independent researcher. 196233, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya ul. 11/ 2, #140.

E-mail: gessen27@mail.ru

This article is a continuation of publications on the theme connected with the destruction of St. Petersburg culture by the Bolsheviks in Petrograd in the decade after the October 1917. Based on the documents of Central State Archive of Literature and Art (CGALI) and the Central State Archive of Russia in St. Petersburg, it studies the events connected with seizure of property of foreign representative offices in the former capital of Russia. It identified the leading role of the Emergency Committee in conducting the searches in them and it was necessary to coordinate with the Emergency Committee activities of «Division» to seize the artistic and historical valuable objects. The article shows that there were several competitive organizations engaged in the implementation of inventories and seizure of valuable property, which was in foreign representative offices. It emphasized that there were requirements of housing authorities related to accelerate this process for placing people. The author shows some cases related to the seizure of property by foreign citizens, moving to their homeland.

Keywords: Petrograd, foreign states, embassies, consulates, Commissioner, Russian State Archive of Literature and Art (RGALI) in St. Petersburg, Division of monument protection, property, seizure.

V.A. Yakimov  (Saint Petersburg). Russian Cossacks in the 1990s: basic discourses of the revival process ………. 99

VLADIMIR ALEXANDROVICH YAKIMOV – Postgraduate student, Department of the Regional History Studies, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendellevskaya liniya 5.

E-mail: VladimirYakimov1985@yandex.ru

The article considers the process of revival of the Cossacks in the beginning of 1990s which was a unique phenomenon. The characteristic features of this process were not only the appearing of the non-governmental organizations of the Cossacks, but also the formation of different views on revival process inside the Cossack environment. The author shows that Cossacks views were characterized by claims to a special role in the uniting process of the patriotic masses. Options of political Cossacks self-realization revealed in the whole socio-political space: the requirement to «return» the forms of relations between the state and Cossack troops, which existed before the revolutionary events in the beginning of the XX century, transformed into struggle for the treating as a «separate nation» and requirements of applying the rehabilitation regulations both towards «repressed people» and restitution of Cossack troops’ property which was lost during the Civil war. This article identifies and analyzes the main opinions of the Cossacks about the revival process that were characterized in 1990s.

Keywords: Russian Cossacks, contemporary Cossacks, discourses of revival, territorial unit, Cossack ethnicity, Cossack class, socio-cultural practices.


History of Russian Regions

A.S. Kholod  (Saint Petersburg). The work of district public libraries of Saint Petersburg province in the beginning of the XX century on the example of the Novaya Ladoga Public Library named after A.S. Pushkin ………. 106

ALEXANDR SERGEEVICH KHOLOD – Postgraduate Student, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7/9.

E-mail: valaquenta@rambler.ru

The aim of the study is to examine the work of district libraries of Saint Petersburg province in the beginning of the XX century on the example of the Novaya Ladoga Public Library named after A.S. Pushkin. Similar libraries existed in some provincial towns of Saint Petersburg province (except Novaya Ladoga they were also in Shlisselburg, Gdov). By their nature these libraries were public, i.e. they were used by almost all the inhabitants of district town for a fee. Library functioning there was carried out on the public principles: the society managed the library and guaranteed its financial security. We pay special attention in this article to the statistics data, which illustrate library’s development in the course of time (number of books, subscribers and their separation connected with estate and gender distinctions). The work of district public library in the beginning of the previous century is interesting not only from the point of view of the librarianship, but also shows us the level of cultural development of a typical Russian province town in general.

Keywords: Saint Petersburg province, Novaya Ladoga, district public libraries, librarianship, cultural history, Russian history.

V.S. Izmozik  (Saint Petersburg). Correspondence of Russian emigrants living in China with the inhabitants of Leningrad in the middle of the 1920s ……… 111

VLADLEN SEMENOVICH IZMOZIK – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of History and Regional Studies, The Bonch-Bruevich St. Petersburg State University of Telecommunications. 193232, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, pr. Bolshevikov, 22/1.

E-mail: izmozik@mail.ru

The article based on the archival documents analyzes the contents of the letters of Russian emigrants having lived in the 1920s in China. They sent their letters to the inhabitants of Leningrad who were from different social groups. Also they wrote to anonymous addressees. Correspondence of emigrants with Leningrad people was controlled by NKVD and that fact allows us better to understand the specifics of that time. The author of this article pays attention to diversity of themes of these letters and it makes it possible to better imagine the range of issues surrounding people in their everyday life almost a century ago. In conclusion the author notices that the correspondence of emigrants with Leningrad people in the middle of the 1920s helps us to hear real voices of past, understand their worries, hopes, thoughts, recreate a multicolored picture of the daily life of people that time and avoid simplifying and schematics in the perception of the history of that time.

Keywords: correspondence, emigrants in China, Leningrad people, middle of the 1920s.

A.V. Antoshkin (Sterlitamak). Trading and supplying in consumers’ cooperation activity in Bashkiria in conditions of the transition towards accelerated industrialization ………. 116

ANATOLIY VASILYEVICH ANTOSHKIN – Candidate of Historical Sciences, teacher, Gymnasium no. 2 (Sterlitamak). 453100, Russian Federation, Republic of Bashkortostan, Sterlitamak, ul. Artyoma 25, #63.

E-mail: aav151284@rambler.ru

The article is dedicated to the issue of the development of trading and supplying in consumers’ cooperation activity in Bashkiria in the late 1920s–early 1930s. On the basis of archive materials it analyzes the evolution of consumers’ cooperation in Bashkiria in conditions of the transition towards accelerated industrialization. In the first five-year plan cooperative trading was projected by the People’s Committee for Trade independently of all the rest of the cooperative sector. Consumers’ cooperation had the most part of retail trading in the Republic. Cooperating and accumulating shares were increasing. In the beginning of the first five-year planning period consumers’ cooperation in Bashkiria was represented by six county-based unions which acted absolutely independently within their own counties. In 1929 it was decided to organize the Central All-Bashkiria Republican Union of Consumers’ Societies which had departments and bases. Consumers’ cooperation played an especially important role in the grain procurement and the standardized provision of grain suppliers with manufactured goods. Consumers’ cooperation, being based on the plan-based socialist production, was to contribute to the increasing growth of the people’s welfare. In reality, though, the supply system activity retained significant shortcomings and could not fully satisfy the consuming needs of the people in Bashkiria.

Keywords: trading, supplying, consumers’ cooperation, five-year plan, prescriptive planning, procurement, grain procurement, «BashSoyuz», Bashkiria.

A.I. Azhigulova  (Orenburg). Epidemic diseases in the Orenburg rural area having influenced on the demographic situation of the population in the 1930s ………. 124

ALBINA ISLAMOVNA AZHIGULOVA –  Postgraduate student, Department of General History and Methodology of Teaching History and Social Studies, Orenburg State Pedagogical University. Russian Federation, Orenburg, ul. Proletarskaya 308, #102.

E-mail: malinka-02.92@mail.ru

This article shows the results of researching causes of the demographic changes in the rural population of the Orenburg region in the 1930s, which were caused by increasing amount of epidemic diseases. Such diseases as malaria, diphtheria, dysentery, whooping cough were the most dangerous ones. Tuberculosis, lobar pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, pneumonia and bronchitis are the most common respiratory diseases among children and adults. The causes of epidemic diseases were the weakening of immunity after experiencing hunger, the low-skilled medical care, the high density of population in the centers of industry, non-compliance with the rules of hygiene, lack of medicines. The article analyzes the special notes from heads of political departments, describing the situation in the regions. Medical experts and special groups were sent to the centers of the epidemic in the fight against diseases. Often doctors from the district centers were sent to collective farms for the surveys of population.

Keywords: collectivization, industrialization, malaria, typhus, smallpox vaccination, statistics of morbidity, epidemic diseases.


History of International Relations

A. Icyer  (Ankara, Turkey). Russian view on the Serbian-Turkish relations in the years of the Young Turk Revolution ………. 128

ABDURRAHMAN ICYER – Postgraduate Student,  Department of History of Southern and Western Slavs, Faculty of History, Moscow State University. Turkey, Ankara, Yenimahalle, Demetevler mah. 366.sok. 9/10.

E-mail: abdurrahman.icyer@gmail.com

The article considers the Serbian-Turkish relations in the years of the Young Turk Revolution through the Russian view. At the beginning of the XX century the relationship between Russia and Turkey differed in terms of respect to territorial integrity of each other. The Russian Empire, undoubtedly, was close to convergence with Turkey as this rapprochement had to become a new guarantee of ensuring tranquility on the Balkan Peninsula. The policy of Imperial Russia in relation to the Young Turk Revolution in Turkey didn’t differ from policy of other states. Imperial Russia excluded a possibility of occupation of passages that has proved the Nelidov project in 1896. Therefore the most acceptable policy was to support the status quo on the Balkans and in the Ottoman Empire. Due to the uprising in Macedonia in 1903 the Balkans drew attention of states again. From this point up to 1908 the question of reforms in Macedonia had been taking the central place in the Balkan policy of states. The population of Macedonia consisted of Muslims (Turks, Serbians, Albanians) and the orthodox population. Situation was complicated by the fact that Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia actively strove for the division and capture of Macedonia.

Keywords: Young Turks, Russia, Serbia.

O.V. Katysheva (Saint Petersburg). Middle East and Mexico: personalities or strategy? ……….. 133

OXANA VLADIMIROVNA KATYSHEVA – Postgraduate Student, Department of Theory and History of International Relations, School of International Relations, St. Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Smolnogo 1/3,entrance VIII.

E-mail: grinenko.o.v@gmail.com

The article considers relations between Mexico and countries of the Middle East in the early XXI century. At that time these relations were only relations between certain leaders. They’re not structured and mostly had a wave nature. Mexican foreign policy in the Middle East still isn’t based on long-term strategy. It’s considered that trying to diversify its foreign policy, Mexico has increased the attention to the region in political, trade-economic and cultural sides as well as on the international level through the discussion of the Middle East problem in multilateral forums. The article notices that one of the positive results in trade-economic sphere is making a Free Trade Agreement with Jordan that allows Mexico to expand its presence in the region.

Keywords: Mexico, Middle East, UN, GCC, bilateral relations.

K. Yu. Meshcheryakov (Saint Petersburg). The Russian-Kyrgyz relations after the April revolution (2010–2013): the time of wasted dreams ………. 139

KONSTANTIN YEVGENIEVICH MESHCHERYAKOV – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Deputy Head of the Department of the Post-Soviet studies, School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Smolnogo 1/3, Entrance VIII.

E-mail: k.mesheryakov@spbu.ru

The article identifies the key features of the Russian–Kyrgyz relations after the April («People») revolution in Kyrgyzstan (in 2010–2013). It studies the evolution of the bilateral cooperation, analyzes its trends and problems and provides a detailed analysis of its regulatory base. The article based on a wide range of sources originating from Russia and Kyrgyzstan, most of which are first put into academic circulation. The author concludes that in the period under review the Russian-Kyrgyz relations were highly turbulent and hardly corresponded with their allied status. For almost four years, Moscow and Bishkek had not managed to progress in solving of concerning issues and that stage of the bilateral relations might be termed the «time of wasted dreams».

Keywords: Russia, Kyrgyzstan, foreign policy, diplomacy, international relations, strategic partnership, militarypolitical alliance, post-Soviet integration, Customs Union, Eurasian Economic Union, inter-ethnic conflicts, «Osh Massacre».

T.V. Khruleva  (Saint Petersburg). Influence of Russian-Turkmen relations on the formation of neutrality of Turkmenistan ………. 156

TATIANA VLADIMIRIVNA KHRULEVA – Master of International Relations, Faculty of International Relations, St.Petersburg State University; Assistant of Deputy of the State Duma, Saint Petersburg. 198206, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Novobelitskaya ul. 6, korp.1, #151.

E-mail: t26783@yandex.ru

After the collapse of the Soviet Union the political picture of Central Asia has dramatically changed. New independent states had to shape their political identity from scratch, what included the search of priority guidelines of foreign policy. Turkmenistan became the only one state in the region that didn’t choose close cooperation within a framework of different integration structures. It declared its permanent neutrality status instead, which was always an efficient political tool for states happened to be at the interface between spheres of interests of leading states in the region. Independent Turkmenistan became a point of interest of different states including Russia, one of the main actors in the region. The author argues that the relations with the Russian Federation during the last decade of the XX century became one of the main reasons to choose the neutrality status as a ground for the foreign policy of independent Turkmenistan.

Keywords: neutrality, Turkmenistan, Russia, Central Asia, security, economy, energy cooperation.


Military History 

A.G. Mikhaylik  (Moscow). Participation of Hungary in the Second World War: background and context of events ………. 165

ALEKSANDR GEORGIEVICH MIKHAYLIK – Doctor of Economic Sciences, Doctor of Juridical Science, Deputy Head of the Central Department of Federal Service for Ecological, Technological and Nuclear Supervision (Rostekhnadzor). 125993, Russian Federation, Moscow, Gazetnyj per. 3, korp. 5, #1.

E-mail: mikhaylik2015@inbox.ru

Hungary’s entry into the World War II as a Germany ally against the Soviet Union was a result of irredentist policies of the regime of M. Horthy, who sought to revision of the Treaty of Trianon and the restoration of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1914. Having lost about half of Hungary armed forces in 1941–1943 in the Soviet-German front, the state tried to get out of the war and become a member of the United Nations, but its attempts were failed: the country was occupied by German troops and power in the state was captured by the fascist government of F. Szбlasi. Therefore, military actions of the Red Army on the territory of Hungary in 1944–1945 got the character of the struggle for liberation from the German occupation and the Nazi regime.

Keywords: Hungary, M. Horthy, Soviet Union, Red Army, military actions, liberation.

G.D. Pilishvili (Kursk). The way of the People’s Militia soldiers’ of the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War on the example of the 74th and 89th Guard Infantry divisions ………. 174

GEORGE DZHUNGLOVICH PILISHVILI – Candidate of Historical Science, Associate Professor,  Department of Sociology and Politology, Kursk State University. 305000, Russian Federation, Kursk, ul. Kirova 5, #59b.

E-mail: pilishvili.georg@yandex.ru

This article based on the archives of Voronezh and Kursk regions and also the archives of Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation analyzes the creation of People’s Militia units in Moscow and Leningrad, aims of their creation on the territory of the Central Chernozemic region, indicating the critical situation in the Red Army in the beginning of 1941. The author mentions that People’s Militia isn’t a constant formation, but temporary, only for deciding the certain tasks. First of all, it was the protection of cities and human settlements from the enemy. Brief survey of Voronezh and Kursk defense is used as an example. For the first time, it’s studied the problem of destiny of the soldiers being in regular units of military corps in the Central Chernozemic region. The 74th and 89th guard infantry divisions were taken by example, which displayed their high fortitude as units in the struggle, which had reached Berlin that must be regarded as the merit of soldiers of the People’s Militia, who had taken the direct participation in the struggles.

Keywords: Red Army, People’s Militia, Great Patriotic War, military operations, infantry division, Party institutions.


History of Culture 

S.T. Makhlina  (St. Petersburg). Japan through the life and creative activity of Varvara Dmitrievna Bubnova ………. 180

SVETLANA TEVELJEVNA MAKHLINA – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of Department of Culturology, Saint Petersburg State University of Culture and Arts. 191186, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Dvorcovaya nab., 2.

e-mail: makhlina@pochta.tvoe.tv

The article shows a brief characteristic of Japanese culture. Since 1922 Varvara Bubnova had been living and working in Japan and she’d spent there 36 years creating new works of art. She was born and studied in St. Petersburg and there lately she became an artist. At the age of 72 Bubnova came back to the Motherland and became a member of the Union of Georgian Artists. St. Petersburg connections with Japan came out in the life and creative activity of this outstanding and brilliant artist. In 1982, inTokyo, it was decided to award her the Order of the Precious Crown the fourth degree for achievements in spreading the study of the Russian language and raising the level of knowledge of Russian literature in Japan. When she was 95 years old there was organized her personal exhibition in the Leningrad branch of the Union Artists of the RSFSR. It’s the Leningrad branch of the Union Artists of the RSFSR that helped her to join the world of art.

Keywords: Varvara Dmitrievna Bubnova, St. Petersburg, Japan, translations, painting, personal exhibition.

M.I. Talianova  (Ankara,Turkey). Archetype «person» and motive of masquerade in psychoanalytic method of analysis of folk literature based on Russian and Turkish folk tales ………. 187

MARIIA IGOREVNA TALIANOVA – Postgraduate student, Department of Turkish Language and Literature, Gazi University. 06560, Turkey, Ankara, Teknik okullar, Beşevler.

e-mail: mtalianova@hotmail.com

The article, according to the psychoanalytic method of analysis of folk literature, discusses the concept of «person» – one of the psychological archetypes of the collective unconscious, developed by Carl Gustav Jung. The author shows the analysis of the term «archetype» and the motive of dressing by the characters – «masquerade» in the Russian and Turkish folk tales. In addition to psychoanalytic approach, this motive is analyzed with a historical point of view affecting on the patriarchal structure of society and with the mythological point, when there were socalled rituals of initiation – transition of individual into full-fledged members of society in the culture of many nations, including the Slavic and Turk. The aim of the article is identification of connection between psychological archetype «person» and the motive of changing appearance/ dress-changing of the main character in the Russian and Turkish folk tales, as well as consideration of the factors influencing on this motive.

Keywords: archetype, motive, Russian, Turkish, folk tales, folklore, person, initiation.


The First Publication of a Young Scholar 

S.S. Donskikh (St. Petersburg). Peru in the context of Pacific alliance ………. 194

SVETLANA SERGEEVNA DONSKIKH – Student, Faculty of Economics, St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation. 196105, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Varshavskaya ul. 8.

E-mail: sveta_donskih@mail.ru.

This article analyzes place and role of Republic of Peru in the Pacific Alliance, which was established not so long time ago and now has all chances for successful development. It considers the current situation and possible perspectives of integration in region; particular attention is paid to the problems of inclusion of Peru into this integration group, connected with not enough diversification of export and weakness of infrastructure. In addition, increasing role of the Asia-Pacific region, as one of the most dynamic players in the global stage, is mentioned in analysis. It notices that it’s important for Peru to cooperate with other countries – participants (Mexico, Colombia, Chile) of the Alliance. It is seemed to be important by virtue of the fact that this cooperation allows to form a trading platform for further development of market and access to other states and regions.

Keywords: Peru, Pacific Alliance, integration, the Asia-Pacific region, electrical power, hydraulic power industry, trading platform, Ollanta Humala.