Klio #3 (63) 2012


Transcript of the round-table meeting “Actual historical issues of the Siege of Leningrad” (27 January 2012)………. 3

On the 27 of January 2012 the editorial office of journals KLIO and THE HISTORY OF SAINT PETERSBURG hosted a round-table meeting attended by leading military historians of Moscow and Saint


Document is published for the first time

Sobolev V.S. (Saint Petersburg) N.I. Bukharin is the chief director of the Institute of History of Science and Technology………. 11

In the 1920s the activities of the academic “Commission on the History of Knowledge” (KIZ) founded in 1921 by Academician V.I. Vernadsky showed significant scientific results and had wide publicity. By the early 1930s quite a legitimate need had arisen to convert KIZ into the Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR of the corresponding profile.


Diaries, memoirs

Chetverikov B.D. (Saint Petersburg). “Stezhky-dorozhky” (“The pathways”) (continuation))………. 15

The autobiographical novel by B.D. Chetverikov tells us about the writer’s life that can be called «the outline» of the history of our country in the 20th century.

Katukova E.S. (The Moscow Region). Something to remember (continuation)………. 26

These memoirs narrate Yekaterina Sergeevna Katukova’s life course that was inseparably linked with the outstanding military leader Mikhail Yefimovich Katukov. The memoirs cover many decades; events of the Great Patriotic War, however, hold the central position.


Source studies

Ippolitov G.M. (Samara). Anton Pavlovich Denikin: in search of the historical truth in archival sources………. 36

The author of this article has been engaged in developing the historical portrait of Lieutenant-General A.I. Denikin for more than twenty years. During this time a huge layer of archival documents has been analyzed. The article gives a summary of its specific characteristics, in accordance with the Russian source study methodology.



Zotova A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Publications of main Russian scientific journals on the history of Japan (the historiography of the early XXI century)………. 41

The article reviews the state of contemporary Russian historiography related to the history of Japan. Having studied the publications of the Russian journals reviewed, which were published from 2000 to 2011, the author considered the attention of the researchers to the study of the past of our eastern neighbor to be insufficient.


General history

Lebedeva A.A. (Saratov). At the root of the medieval history of Olomouts, from the Old Slavonic settlement to the capital of the Moravian Duchy………. 47

The article deals with the ancient history of Olomouts as well as substantiates its periodization based on the change of the functions performed by the city in the early Middle Ages.


The history of Russia

Galanov M.M. (Saint Petersburg). Basic issues of staffing activities of the Roman Catholic department in the years of the reign of Paul I………. 50

This article reviews the history of the state governing body of the Roman Catholic Church in Russia during the reign of Paul I. The author studied all staff appointments and dismissals therein at that time. The periodization of personnel changes is given on the basis of the involved material.

Nikolaenko P.D. (Saint Petersburg). The role of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the development of the medical service in Russia at the beginning of the XIX century ………. 55

The article highlights the drastic measures undertaken by the Ministry of Internal Affairs on the organization of medical support of the Russian population in 1803–1807.

Shatalova O.V. (Saint Petersburg). On the history of state regulation of economic relations with private persons in the Russian Empire………. 57

The article considers the history of the origin and development of economic relations between the state and private persons, the establishment of the supply agreement in the pre-revolutionary Russia.

Alieva S.I. (Baku, Azerbaijan). The development of the oil industry in Azerbaijan and North Caucasus (pre-Soviet period)………. 60

The article states that in the early twentieth century natural resources in Azerbaijan and North Caucasus
were developed extensively and the new cities appeared and then became industrial and economic centers. The oil extraction played the greatest role. Azerbaijani oilmen attached great importance to the North Caucasus region, opening up their businesses there. The political events of the early twentieth century
(The First World War, the Revolutions of 1905, 1917) had an impact on the pace of development of oil industry.

Nikologorskiy A.S. (Moscow). Disputes of contemporaries related to the issue of civil marriage in Russia at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries………. 63

This article analyzes the views of contemporaries (lawyers, experts in the field of ecclesiastical
law, journalists) on the institution of civil marriage and the need for its introduction in Russia.
The author also examines the controversy surrounding the law of 1874 on raskolnik marriages
considered by many contemporaries as the first step to establishing civil marriage in the Russian

Kuznetsov V.D. (Saint Petersburg). On the role of religious teachers of pre-Revolutionary schools in the religious upbringing of students in 1881–1917………. 66

On the basis of vast historiography this article explores the problems of religious education of
students in Russian schools during one of the most complicated periods of the Russian history:
the late XIX–early XX century, the intensive progress the country showed in field of capitalist development, the role of religious upbringing in education, the position of a religious teacher, attitude of students
toward him.


The history of Russian regions

Malysheva S.Y. (Kazan). Professionals, “harpists”, “amateurs”: prostitutes in Russian provincial towns in the second half of the XIX–early XX century………. 72

On the materials of provincial Kazan the article considers the growth of prostitution resulting from the development of consumer market and the entertainment industry in the second half of the XIX–early XX century. The unprecedented increase and the variety of “supply” in the “love for sale” sphere made prostitution one of admissible models of everyday existence and created subculture that had a dramatic impact on the everyday practices and mentality of the lower and middle strata of the city, the city’s culture as a whole.

Kokoulin V.G. (Novosibirsk). The agricultural tax in kind and the New Economic Policy in the Siberian village (1921–1924)………. 80

This article discusses peculiarities of the tax in kind collection in Siberia during first years of the new economic policy period, legislative support and the actual implementation of the tax in kind, the response of the peasantry to the current policy and its impact on development of agricultural production and agricultural organizations in the village. The article reveals the mechanism of economic policy implementation under specific conditions. The author used archival documents obtained from the funds of Sibprodkom and Gubprodkoms, as well as materials published in periodicals.

Ivanov V.A. (Saint Petersburg). The blockade concealed from the majority (Art. 19–59, p. 3 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR. Investigation. Military tribunal. Conclusions)………. 91

One of the issues disputed both among historians and among the lawyers is that of the effectiveness of emergency legal regime of martial law during the Siege of Leningrad. Some individuals engaged in the discussion tend to ignore the responsibility of all institutions of the regime for the numerous cases of cannibalism and anthropophagy both in the city and at the front. The author proposes to look at these phenomena taking in account the impartial protocol materials of investigative agencies and the military tribunal.

Nagornaya V.A. (Chelyabinsk). National issues in the Southern Urals, a national cultural policy in the field of Education and Culture: Past and Present………. 93

The article considers such terms as cultural policy, social policy, as well as reviews three periods of the Southern Urals region development in the XVII–XX centuries. Directions of cultural policy in the region at the present stage of social development, the prospects for ethno-cultural education development in the Southern Urals, development trends the spiritual life of Southern Urals population are discussed.



Krivitskiy V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Engraved animalistic images at the significant sites of the ancient crafts in the North Caucasus………. 97

On the basis of historiographical data the author analyzes the features of images of animals engraved at the significant sites of the ancient crafts in the North Caucasus.


Military history

Grenbenshchikova G.A. (Saint Petersburg). Catherine I and Abdul-Hamid: Russian sailors at
Constantinople………. 101

After the Russian-Turkish war of 1768–1774 favorable economic prospects and opportunities
for further development of trade opened up for the Russian government. Control over
the strategically important Straits – the Bosporus and Dardanelles – allowed Turkish sultans to
dictate terms to other powers, especially to Russia. One of these episodes related to the situation
around the Crimea and the Russian fleet caught up in Constantinople at that time is considered in
the article.

Poznakhirev V.V. (Saint Petersburg). On the mortality of Turkish prisoners of war in Russia during the First World War………. 108

The article is devoted to the mortality of Turkish prisoners of war in Russia during the First World War. Studying archival sources and published materials the author critically analyzes the views expressed on this subject both in Russia and abroad, determines and justifies the amount of Ottoman soldiers who died in Russian captivity in 1914–1917.

Semenov D.G. (Murmansk). On the re-establishment of Soviet naval forces in the North in the 1930s………. 110

The article is devoted to the reconstruction of the Northern Navy of the USSR in the 1930s. On the basis of new archival sources it is shown that the views of the Soviet leadership on the role of the Navy in the northern region had evolved in a certain manner, from its actual disregard to the acceptance of the ocean fleet construction project.


Historical characters

Krichevskiy B.V. (Saint Petersburg). Foreign policy activity of Patriarch Nikon………. 113

On the basis of a wide range of sources the article identifies and analyzes the most important directions of foreign policy activity of Patriarch Nikon, and it is concluded that the steps taken by the head of the Russian Orthodox Church in regard to Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and Sweden, were situational and often illconceived.

Smirov V.G. (Saint Petersburg). Academician M.A. Rykachev: the Greenwich way into science………. 117

The article is the first one to describe the path into the science of Academician M.A. Rykachev
(1840/1841–1919), the founder of the synoptic and sea meteorology, one of the pioneers of
scientific aeronautics, the organizer of the study of floods and the Earth’s magnetic field in Russia, Head of the Central Physical Observatory of the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1896–1913), full General in Admiralty.

Yazykova A.I. (Samara). Pyotr Mikhailovich Yazykov: finishing touches on the historical portrait………. 126

Pyotr Mikhailovich Yazykov is an interesting personality concerning the history of the Russian
nobility in the XIX century. Unfortunately, today his name is practically forgotten (as opposed
to the name of his brother Nicolay, a poet). The author decided to fill this gap in
modern historiography and sketched finishing touches on the historical portrait of
P.M. Yazykov. The researcher primarily relied on archival documents and materials deposited
in the State Archive of the Ulyanovsk region, as well as on a few historiographic works of his

Mitrofanov V.V. (Nizhnevartovsk). “A museum is not a big deal, but this is a contribution into the history of education” said S.F. Platonov, a museology institutor in Russian province………. 128

For the first time the article presents a historiographic view on the new direction of scientific
and organizational activity of the outstanding Russian historian of the late XIX – early
XX century S.F. Platonov; the article is based on archives previously not used in research.
Being a member of the Scientific Committee of the Ministry of National Education S.F. Platonov
was directly involved in establishing a number of provincial museums, including the
Tver Museum, the Yaroslavl Museum, the Nizhny Novgorod Art Museum, and the
Krasnoufimsk Museum. The principled stand of the scientist working in collaboration with Tver regional ethnographers allowed to solve numerous problems associated with the fate of the Tver Museum. The entire career of S.F. Platonov is related to museological activities; he should be justly recognized as a respected museologist.

Roshchevskaya L.P., Lisevich N.G., Vityazeva K.A. (Syktyvkar). “… It would be appropriate, I believe, to recall… ”. A biographical sketch dedicated to geologist A.N. Rozanov………. 139

The article covers the facts of life and work of the major geologist of the first half of the twentieth century,
vice-director of the Geological Committee; the article is based on historiographical data and electronic resources.


The review of scientific publications

Gogun A. (Berlin, Germany). The NKVD documents related to the USSR preparation to the war………. 143

The review considered a positive collection of documents of the NKVD, and a number of other departments
of Ukraine at the beginning of World War II (1939–1941). This publication was prepared departmental
public archives of the Security Service of Ukraine and the better is different from the Russian counterparts.
It is concluded that much of the material evidence of Soviet preparations for aggression against Germany and its allies in 1941.

Alpeeva L.V. (Saint Petersburg). We survived this war (on the new novel “My lieutenant” by D. Granin)………. 147

Report on the new work of the classic of modern Russian literature. The novel was published
at the end of 2011 by the publishing house “OLMA Media Group”. In this book the veteran
writer recollects the days when he was a young man wearing officer’s uniform. It is also a
denunciation of the Soviet Union political system, the argument about the essence,
meaning and purpose of life. In the words of D. Granin: “this is a book about me, a man who no longer exists”.


Scientific life

Upcoming scientific conferences

V International Scientific Conference of the Russian Association of Researchers in Women’s History: “Women and men in the context of historical changes”………. 148