Klio #3 (75) 2013


Actual interview

Historical studies in the West and the East (Interview with a Professor of Temple University in Philadelphia and a Professor of the Londonschool of Economics V.M. Zubok (the interview of А.S. Gogun)………. 3

By the request of the editorial Board of the journal Alexander Gogun has interviewed Professor of Temple University in Philadelphia, the scholarship holder of the Woodrow Wilson Center, and since May 2013 – Professor of the London school of Economics, the author of many books on the history of the cold war and Soviet culture Vladislav Martynovich Zubkov. The theme of the interview – the development of research on the Soviet Union, the difference between Russian and Western academic approaches to the study of the problem.


The document is published for the first time

Unpublished letters to the Minister of marine Ivan Konstantinovich Grigorovich (The author-composer and the author of the afterword – Olga Vadimovna Petrova, the granddaughter of I.K. Grigorovich)………. 8

In the journal the letters from well-known researchers of the Arctic A.I. Vilkicky, his son B.A. Vilkicky, N.V. Vilkickaya and Vice-Chairman of the Imperial Russian geographical society  Yu.M. Shokalsky to the marine Minister of Russia I.K. Grigorovich are published for the first time.

Zotova A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). On the report of the food Commission of the Military Council of the
Leningrad front about the trade and public catering in Leningrad in the period from 22 June 1941 to 1 April 1943………. 12

The recently declassified document is published for the first time – the report of the food Commission of the Military Council of the Leningrad front about the trade and public catering in Leningrad in the period from 22 June 1941 to 1 April 1943.


Diaries, memoirs

Chetverikov B.D. (Saint-Petersburg). «Stezhky-dorozhky» (The pathways) (continuation)………. 18

The autobiographical novel by B.D. Chetverikov tells us about the writer’s life that can be called «the outline» of the history of our country in the 20th century.


Theoreticl issues

Minnikova T.N. (Saint-Petersburg). The attempt of interpretation of Palaeolithic paintings in the mainstream of modern evolutionary ideas. Capov’ cave (Shulgan Tash) in the southern Urals………. 25

There is an attempt in the article to analyze the animalistic symbols of the Paleolithic era in the context of the «reasonable-matter» of its evolutionary tasks. The initial myth as the basis of an ancient fine art is considered. Special attention during the birth of symbol is given to the action of the projective functions of the human psyche. The main characters of Capov’ cave are tested, as well as the problem of community style of rock art of the Urals and Western Europe is posed.


Source study

Solodkin R.Ya. (Nizhnevartovsk). The tsarist Duma in the image of J. Fletcher (to the interpretation of a number of unique information about the treatise «About the Russian state»………. 33

Speaking about the part of the tsarist (Secret) of the Council at the Fyodor Ivanovich, the author of a
famous treatise «About the Russian state» J. Fletcher allocated two groups of boyars: «dumnye» and which were not included in the surroundings of the Moscow Tsar «for honors». Treatment for dozens of other sources – and Russian, and foreign (including English), leads to the conclusion that among the boyars, although their range was heterogeneous, such categories were absent. Speaking about them, Fletcher, perhaps, wrongly interpreted the testimony of J. Gorsey or other persons, who were close to the Tsar’s court.

Barykina I.E. (Saint-Petersburg). Comparative review of «Vsemilostiveyshih» (the all-merciful) manifests as a source on the history of state governance………. 36

The article considers comparative review of «Vsemilostiveyshih» (the all-merciful) manifests, compiled by the Office of the Committee of Ministers in the second half of the XIX century. Introduction into the scientific circulation of these sources and their analysis complement representation of the gracious acts of the XIX century, their structure, the «recruitment» of the highest honours, the breadth of coverage of different parties in public life.



Soloviev К.А. (Moscow). The problems of power relations in the Moscow state in the second half of the XV century in the works of Russian historians 1960–1980………. 45

The article is devoted to comprehension of the national historiography of the 1960s–1980s’ of the problems of power and power relations, which were developing in the Moscow state in the period, when in power was the great Prince Ivan III. The article presents the points of view of the leading Russian historians of that period, the conclusions about outlined in that time trends in the study of the relationships of power, as in close connection with the socio-economic processes, and also as an independent subject for historical research were made.

Manoylenko А.S., Manoylenko Yu.Е. (Saint-Petersburg). Power and social movements in the South-Western region (the experience of the historiography of the issue)………. 48

The article considers the Russian and foreign historiography of the problem of relations of the public movement in the South-Western region of the Russian Empire with the local and Central bodies of state power in the reign of Nicholas I.


General history

Ponomareva Т.I. (Saint-Petersburg). The annexation by Italy of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica………. 54

The article is devoted to the annexation by Italy of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, which was announced by Italy on 5 November 1911, in spite of the duration of the war with the Ottoman Empire over the territory and active resistance of the local population of the Italian invasion. The article examines the causes that prompted Italy to take this step.

Vasilenko P.V. (Моscow). The democratic party of the United States as an important component of the American political system (a brief history and political science digression)………. 56

The article examines the place of the Democratic party of the USA in the system of the authorities of the United States. The author paid special attention to economic issues in the program of the Democrats: the «new course» of Franklin Roosevelt and his continuity of the policy of Barack Obama.

Mahova А.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The theoretical basis of the ideology of the extreme right………. 60

The article is devoted to the study of the place of the extreme right ideology in the political spectrum. The author emphasizes common and different in the ideologies of the right-wing and extreme right-wing parties. The author defines the criteria under which a political party is described as the right or the left, holds little historical digression into the history of the development of the political spectrum.


National history

Sinova I.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Historic discourse of crimes and punishment of children and adolescents in Russia in the second half of the XIX – beginning of XX century………. 64

The article shows the evolution of the system of penalties for the offences of minors and young children, as well as the formation of prevention of violations of law by one of the basic directions of activity of the state and philanthropists. In the article considered, as in the second half of the XIX – beginning of XX century was the humanization of punishment, substitution of imprisonment in the correctional institution for minors, the establishment of child labor. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the activities of the special court on Affairs of minors.


The past of Russian regions

Kokoulin V.G. (Novosibirsk). School education in Siberia (1920–1929)………. 68

The article considers the history of the development and reform of school education in Siberia in the period of war communism and the new economic policy. The author investigated the archival documents of the funds of the Siberian and provincial departments of public education, as well as the materials of periodical press. The article shows the direction, the mechanism and the results of development of school education in Siberia, the financial position of teachers and contradictory processes of reform of the content and methods of teaching, as well as the reaction of students in these processes.

Kustyshev А.N. (Ukhta). Labor resources of corrective labor camps of the Gulag in the European North of Russia in the years of first five-year plans………. 75

The article contains the analysis of the structure and dynamics of the labor force of corrective labor camps of the Gulag in the European North of Russia in the years of first five-year plans. The author shows incomplete, fragmentary compliance of the Soviet penal system to the needs of mobilization economy of the USSR of the 1930s.

Hudyakova N.D. (Saint-Petersburg).  Leningrad – to the country (1943–1945)………. 81

The author of the article publishes it on the eve of her 100 birthday anniversary. It is devoted to the study of the problems of the national help to the besieged Leningrad. The article is based as on the big actual material, as on the personal memoirs of the author, who survived the siege of Leningrad.


Military history

Posvyatenko  О.N. (Samara). Dynamics of military-historical studies in Russia in the early twentieth century………. 85

This article investigates the conditions in which researchers of the Russian Empire did the military-historical work in 1900–1914. By the beginning of XX century on the development of the military-historical science the long-term consequences of the military reform of D.A. Milyutin, as well as the experience of the Russian-Turkish war (1877–1878), were influenced.

Poznahirev V.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Combat application of the 1-st shooting regiment of the Turkish red army in Zangezur in November 1920………. 88

Using archival documents and published sources, the author explores the procedure and peculiarities of formation of the 1-st shooting regiment of the Turkish red army, analyzes the level of combat training and the political and moral condition of its personnel, shows the relationship of command of the regiment with the leadership of the Soviet red army on the eve and in the course of operation in Zangezur, and also reconstructs the battle path of this military unit.

Surzhik D.V. (Моscow). The battle of Stalingrad in the materials of the Control of military information of the USA………. 92

The article considers the efforts of the leading state propaganda Department of the USA in the years of the Second world war, Control of the military information on coverage of events in the Soviet-German front and the battle of Stalingrad.


History of science and technology

Sobolev V.S. (Saint-Petersburg). «Violent zealots» (from the history of the activity of public research organizations in the early 1930-ies SMMD и UAWSTPSC)………. 94

In the St. Petersburg branch of the Archive of the RAS have been identified documents about the activity of a number of public scientific organizations of the turn of the 1920-1930-ies. Of particular interest are the materials about the work of the Society of militant materialists-dialecticians (SMMD) and All-Union Association of workers of science and technology for the promotion of socialist construction  (UAWSTPSC).


Historical characters

Sulaberidze  Yu.S. (Tbilisi, Georgia). Adolf Petrovich Berge – a researcher of the Caucasus………. 97

In the article the author investigates the sides of the scientific activity of the prominent caucasiologist A.P. Berge, which were still in the shadow of research. The author asserts that «historiography of A.P. Berger» opens new pages of scientific creativity of one of the organizers of the scientific Caucasian studies of the second half of XIX century on the problem of incorporation of the Caucasus into the Russian Empire.

Eldashev А.М. (Kazan). Metropolitan Anthony (Vladkovsky) (Kazan period)………. 102

The article examines the life and spiritual formation of the Metropolitan of St. Petersburg and Ladoga Anthony (Vladkovsky) in the period of his study and work as a teacher and inspector of the Kazan theological Academy, as well as his subsequent communication with the Almae Matris.

Remneva S.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Anatomy of one crime. The fate and the death of the collector N.F. Romanchenko (to the 90 anniversary of the death)………. 113

The article tells about the life and death of well-known in the beginning of the twentieth century St. Petersburg collector Nikolay Filippovich Romanchenko, who was murdered by a gang of Lyonka Panteleyev during the room theft.


Will be history tomorrow

Zolotarev V.А. (Моscow). On the issues of the present reform of the Armed forces………. 123

Relying on historical experience in the development of the Russian Armed forces, studying the features of the reform process at different times, the author provides an attempt to focus on the main directions of development of the modern Russian army.


Reviews of scientific editions

Saksonov  О., Kozhukov Yu. (Моscow). Famous fleet of Catherine the great………. 133

The article analyzes the contents of the monograph G.A. Grebenshikova «The black sea fleet in the period of the reign of Catherine II» (М., 2012, in 2 volumes), devoted to the creation and development of the Russian fleet in the second half of the XVIII century, in the complex geopolitical conditions of the struggle to master the supremacy in the black sea basin.

Gogun А.S. (Berlin, Germany). Departmental gerilyero………. 135

In the extensive review of the classical monograph of the American specialist Kenneth Slepyan is given, though positive, but a critical assessment of his work. It is concluded that the work was written at a high scientific level, however, contains a number of errors, some of which are caused by the conceptual separation of the Soviet partisans from the Soviet state, part – is not justified the confidence of the guerrilla memoirs, part – not attraction of sources in the German language and the confidence of the partisan reports.


Scientific life

Scientific conferences have passed

Petrov А.Yu. (Моscow), Ermolaev А.N. (Kemerovo), Savelyev I.V. (Arkhangelsk). The study of the history of the cultural heritage of Russian America at the international conferences in Russia and abroad………. 138

The publication analyzes the results of the most significant international conferences on the history and cultural heritage of the Russian America.

Cholohyan V.А. (Saratov). On the results of the VI scientific conference «Actual problems of Russian civilization and methods of teaching history»………. 144

The publication tells about the scientific conference held in February 2013 in Saratov «Actual problems of Russian civilization and methods of teaching history», in which took part from Volgograd, Krasnoyarsk, Makhachkala, Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, Saratov, as well as Germany and the USA.


Forthcoming scientific conferences

XXXIII International conference on historical psychology «Encyclopedias and reference books as a historical and psychological source» (13–14 May 2013. Saint-Peterburg)………. 146

All-Russian conference with international participation «Power and society in extreme situations in the past» (17 May 2013, Perm)………. 147