Klio #3 (87) 2014

Problems of theory

Petrov A.Y. (Moscow), Vorobyova T.V. (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky). Views of Russian and Foreign Scholars on the Russian-American Frontier Theory……… 3

The history of Russia and the USA is indissolubly related to the process of colonization. Numerous papers dealing with this process have been published in both countries. This paper deals with one of the methodological approaches used both in Russian and English-speaking historiography – the frontier theory.

Keywords:Russia, USA, frontier, Russian America, colonization, Russian-American relations, Asia-Pacific Region.


Diaries, memoirs

Vasenko P.G. (Saint Petersburg). Memoirs of My Life and Everyday Life in the Past (continued; prepared for publication by V.V. Mitrofanov)……… 15

This publication is the continuation of the recently discovered and in all probability last work by a well-known Russian historian, a representative of St. Petersburg historical school P.G. Vasenko. This writing belongs to a genre new for him – memoirs. It deals with interesting facts about education development in Russia in the mid-19th century, contains biographic data about relatives, acquaintances and friends of the Vasenko family.

Keywords: P.G. Vasenko, A.N. Tkachyova, memoirs, boarding school, education, friends.


Source studies

Kislitsyna I.L. (St. Petersburg). Letters by A.M. Bakunin to F.N. Olenin (1803) As a Source for Studies of Bakuninism’s Origins……… 24

The paper treats the problem of continuation in the evolution of Russian social thought in the 19th century. The origins and the background of Bakuninism – a Russian democratic world outlook within the ideology of the Russian Enlightenment have been determined on the basis of the concrete historical analysis of the views of A.M. Bakunin – a member of the late 18th – mid-19th century enlightened Russian nobility, father of M.A. Bakunin – the ideological leader of anarchism and the Narodniks movement.

Keywords: A.M. Bakunin, Bakuninism, Narodniks movement, Russian Enlightenment, social thought in Russia in the 19th century.

Valeghina K.O. (St. Petersburg). Towards Characteristics of Sources for the History of the Implementation of the February 19th Reform (As Exemplified by Tambov Government)……… 30

The paper analyzes a variety of sources for the history of the implementation of the February 19th 1861 Reform. Tambov Government was selected as the object of study. The author illustrated the potential of such mass sources as charters, buy-out bills and the materials consequential to them which are on files concerning buying out land plots by peasants who remained temporarily dependent on their landlords (from the fund of the Principal Redemption Office of the Russian State Historical Archive). Materials of official state and local government statistics were also used during research.

Keywords: Emancipation Reform of February 19th 1861, charter, Tambov Government.



Potapova N.V. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Studies on the History of Evangelicalism and the Baptists in 1917–1922 in the Far East of Russia in the Latter Half of the 20th Century Soviet Historical Science………35

The paper analyzes the latter half of the 20th century Russian studies of the history of Evangelicalism and the Baptists in the Far East during the Revolution and the Civil War in Russia. The author determined the main types of such studies (propagandist and agitational, historical, historical and legal) and points out new features of studies of protestant denominations which emerged in that period.

Keywords: historiography, Civil War, Revolution, Far East, Evangelicalism, Baptists.

Koltsov I.A. (St. Petersburg).Coverage of N.K. Schilder’s Writings in Russian Historiography of the 20th – Early 21st Century……… 39

The article deals with the use Soviet and modern Russian literature on history makes of the writings by N.K. Schilder, compares various opinions. It outlines further ways of studies of original and unique works of this eminent Russian historian.

Keywords: historian, historiography, source, writings, Alexander I, N.K. Schilder.


World history

Minkova K.V. (St. Petersburg). The Hanseatic League: Reasons for its Rise and Decline……… 44

The Hanseatic League is a unique for its time confederation of cities, rules of trade which dominated a large part of the trade along the coast of Northern Europe. The paper deals with main political, economic and social reasons for the rise and decline of the Hanseatic League.

Keywords: Hanseatic League, trade, merchants, Steelyard, Novgorod, Bruges, Visby, Bergen.



Russian history

Korzinin A.L. (St. Petersburg). Servicemen of the RussianState According to the Data from the One Thousand Book of 1550……… 50

The paper focuses on vexed questions concerning the implementation of one of the most important Ivan the Terrible’s reforms – the One Thousand Reform of 1550. The author analyzes the One Thousand Book of 1550, the social composition of the landowning servicemen registered in it and arrives at the conclusion that those one thousand men belonged to the Tsar’s Court and that estates near the capital were awarded by the Tsar’s edict to small feudal lords of Muscovy (except to those from Novgorod, Pskov and Velikye Luki).

Keywords: landowning servicemen, Tsar’s Court, Ivan IV the Terrible, social politics.

Pavlushkov A.R. (Vologda). Great Anathematization Practice in the History of State and Church Relations in Russia………56

The paper attempts to reconstruct the evolution of such institution of ecclesiastic law as the anathema. The institutional features of the anathema and its use for political and punitive purposes are clarified with the help of documentary sources.

Keywords: greater excommunication, lesser excommunication, anathema, anathematization, ban, interdict, ecclesiastic jurisdiction, penance, heresy fighting, political repressionsState and Church relations.

Sinova I.V. (St. Petersburg). World War I and Children’s Deviations……… 61

The paper demonstrates World War I’s impact on the increase in children’s homelessness and, as a consequence, in children’s deviant behavior and, in the first place, juvenile delinquency. The author analyzed the provisions made by the State, public and private organizations in wartime conditions to satisfy children’s primary needs and their needs in upbringing and education.

Keywords: World War I, childhood history, children’s deviant behavior, children’s homelessness, charity.

Opryshko T.S. (Kiev, Ukraine). The Gart, Plug and Molodnyak Magazines in 1927–1928: Creation of the Proletarian World Outlook in Ukrainian Literature……… 63

The paper deals with the activities of such press organs as the All-Ukrainian union of proletarian writers’ Gart, the proletarian peasant writers organization’s Plug, and the young writers literary union’s Molodnyak directed towards creation of the proletarian world outlook in Ukrainian literature of 1927–1928. The paper focuses on relationships of these magazines, on their efforts to create a common international communist culture.

Keywords: press organs, All-Ukrainian union, proletarian writer, writers’ organization.

Gumenyuk A.A. (Saratov). Social Development in the USSR in1929–1941……… 65

The paper analyzes such lines of social development in the Soviet Union of the 1930s as social security, development of housing and public utilities, health care, service sector, conditions and safety of labor, youth policy. Main attention has been paid to the activities of the People’s commissariat for social security. The paper is based on Russian law and, partially, on the data from publications which concern individual aspects of these problems.

Keywords: barracks, handicapped person, ration cards, shop, pension, teenagers, security, rate of accidents.

Kulumbegova L.I. (St. Petersburg). The “Alien” and “Extraneous” Images of People from the Caucasus
Created in Mass Perception through Mass Media (Monitoring of the Russian Press of the 19th – 21st
Centuries)……… 72

The paper, on the basis of the analysis of Caucasus-related problems from the Russian press in the 19th – 21st centuries, deals with the importance of the national idea as an integral part of the country’s spiritual life. The author suggests that the powerful spiritual potential of the peoples from the Caucasus should be used to revive their many-sided culture.

Keywords: national idea, ethnic and national factor, Caucasian representativeness, transculturation, confessions’ equal rights, informational tolerance.


Russian region in the past

Ivanova N.M. (St. Petersburg). Public and Private Charity Works During WW I (As Exemplified by Petrograd)……… 79

The paper, on the basis of the analysis of numerous documents from archives, deals with many-sided charitable functions of various organizations and individuals in Petrograd during World War I. It is emphasized that the support of charitable activities by the government could have greatly increased their efficiency.

Keywords: World War I, charity, Petrograd, All-Russian union of country councils, All-Russian cities union, Petrograd city committee of All-Russian cities union, military hospitals in Petrograd.

Dianova E.V. (Petrozavodsk). Towards Military Corporate Assistance to Northern Cooperation in the 1920s……… 89

This paper, on the basis of archive documents which have been used for research purposes for the first time, deals with various features of the Red Army’s corporate assistance to Northern cooperation.

Keywords: cooperation, Red Army, military corporate assistance, material and technical supply.

Smirnova T.M. (St. Petersburg). Acculturation of Recent City Inhabitants in Leningrad Peoples of the East House (1928–1937)……… 93

The paper analyses the experience of the acculturation of people from “oriental ethnic groups” – gypsies, Assyrians and the Chinese who were officially considered “culturally retarded” in the 1920s – 1930s – in the form of illiteracy elimination and functional illiteracy overcoming in their native languages and in the Russian language. Most of these persons belonging to national minorities were recent inhabitants of Leningrad with their typical features of everyday life and traditional culture. The Peoples of the East House was very important for their adaptation to city environment.

Keywords: acculturation, oriental ethnic groups, Peoples of the East House, elimination of illiteracy, gypsies, Assyrians, the Chinese.

Zelenskaya Y.N. (Petrozavodsk). Living Conditions of Railwaymen of Kirov Long Distance Railway during the Great Patriotic War……… 98

The paper, on the basis of sources from archives and memoirs, attempts to reconstruct wartime everyday life of railwaymen of long distance railways in the rear such as Kirov railway who enjoyed the same status as Red Army’s military personnel.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Kirov railway, living conditions, social security.

Biryukov S.N. (Pogarsk, Bryansk Region). The Final Stage of Incorporation of Towns around Starodub into the Social and Economic System of the Russian Empire in the Latter Half of the 18th Century……… 103

The paper is based on archive records and published sources. It deals with the completion of the process of incorporation of towns around Starodub into the Russian Empire which took place in the latter half of the 18th century. The author investigates administrative changes, changes in municipal administration and changes in estates system of the towns inhabitants’ social structure. Particular attention is paid to weakening and complete elimination of the Magdeburg Law and to the impact of the incorporation on social and economic development of the towns around Starodub.

Keywords: incorporation, centralization, administrative reforms, Magdeburg Law, government, county.


Military history

Bannikov A.V., Przhigodzkaya O.V. (St. Petersburg). Vegetius on Traditional Roman System of Training Recruits……… 107

In his treatise Epitoma rei militaris (“Brief Treatise Concerning Military Matters”) Vegetius dealt with issues which concerned training and preparation of conscripts. Vegetius realized that the main problem of the Roman Army was, in the first place, the lack of good soldiers and proposed to return to the methods and techniques of military training which were used as far back as at the time of the Roman Republic or of the Early Empire and enabled Romans to beat the enemy.

Keywords: Vegetius, recruits, training, campi doctors, barbarians.

Paraskevov V.S. (Moscow). Particular Features and the Background of the Development of Soviet Artillery on the Eve of and during the Great Patriotic War……… 110

The paper deals with the activities of the State Defense Committee and of the Main Artillery Directorate in the field of improvement of artillery armament during the Great Patriotic War. The author studies main lines of artillery development, measures taken by the State Defense Committee and the Main Artillery Directorate for increasing production of armament in order to reinforce the fire power of the Red Army.

Keywords: artillery, Main Artillery Directorate, State Defense Committee, modernization, armament, pieces of artillery, mortar, artillery battalion, artillery division, artillery ammunition.

Kurmyshov V.M., Verbovoy A.O. (St. Petersburg). Establishing a Fleet in the Black Sea (Towards 230th Anniversary of the Fleet and the Crimea’s Incorporation into the Russian Empire)……… 113

The paper deals with the problems of the First Russo-Turkish War during the reign of Catherine II (1768–1774) with the details of military action of the Don and Danube Flotillas and, as a consequence, of establishing a Russian fleet in the Black Sea. The paper also describes the action of the military personnel during the defense of the Crimean Peninsula, of the Caucasus coast-line and of the assault on Ochakov and its seizure.

Keywords: Russo-Turkish War, Danube Flotilla, Don Flotilla, surface combat squadron, Black Sea, galliot, galley, dispatch boat, landing, xebec, snow, frigate, flotilla, fleet.


History of international relations

Randazzo F. (Perugia, Italy). Russia, the Caucasus and Italy during the Period while the Treaty of Versailles was being Signed……… 117

Relations between Italy and Russia during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 demonstrate two particular features. In the first place, no Bolsheviks took part in the negotiations, in the second place, Italians hoped that some Dalmatian territories could be recognized as theirs. Bolsheviks from the very beginning tried to gain the affection of the peoples of the former Empire of the Tsar, whose independence had been recognized de jure, and their tactics was targeted at weakening counterrevolutionary opposition.

Keywords: Italy, Caucasus, Russia, Versailles, Turkey.


History of culture

Balabko T.V. (St. Petersburg). Scientific Research Activities of E.A. Polyakova at CityMuseum (1918–1941)……… 124

The paper analyses the scientific research activities of Evgheniya Alexeyevna Polyakova, one of the oldest staff members of City Museum who made an invaluable contribution not only to the development of museology but also to the theory and practice of “amenity planting”.

Keywords: “amenity planting”, CityMuseum, E.A. Polyakova, department of cities bureau, library and information department, landscape section, conservation and study of art memorials and monuments of the past.


Historical characters

Kinshin V.V. (St. Petersburg). The Spanish in Russian Service: Lyceum student Alexander Mikhailovich Espejo……… 128

This paper is a biography study of the life of one of the last descendants in Russia of the Spanish noble family Espejo who graduated from Imperial Alexander Lyceum – Alexander Mikhailovich Espejo, the grandson of Miguel Espejo – a friend and a companion-in-arms of Augustin de Betancourt. The main attention is paid to studying A.M. Espejo’s work in various social, orthodox and charitable organizations.

Keywords: Mikhail Mikhailovich Espejo, Alexander Mikhailovich Espejo, Imperial Alexander Lyceum, Ministry of Home Affairs, Penza government, charity works.

Vagabova E.R. (Baku, Azerbaijan). Forgotten Names – Grigoriy Grigoryevich Pisarevsky. Towards his 145th Birthday (October 7th 1868 – September 11th 1952)……… 130

This paper on the basis of a large historiography deals with the activities of a leading scientist G.G. Pisarevsky, whose works, in the author’s opinion, are of immediate interest even now.

Keywords: G.G. Pisarevsky, Archive of A.A. Bakikhanov Institute of History, Azerbaijan State University, WarsawUniversity, Baku.

Koltochikhina A.A. (Moscow). “She Avidly Absorbed Life and Generously Gave Back Life’s Impressions”. Social Activities of E.P. Letkova-Sultanova……… 134

This paper is about the life and social activities of the writer E.P. Letkova-Sultanova, a Russian feminist. It deals with development of female education in Russia in the latter half of 19th century and covers the origins of the intelligentsia.

Keywords: E.P. Letkova-Sultanova, feminist movement, “women’s question”, intelligentsia, literature, Higher women’s courses, MoscowUniversity, Literary fund.



Ablizin A.V. (Saratov). The BalticRepublics in 1940: Occupation, Anschluss, Annexation?……… 138

The paper analyzes military and political events at the time of the beginning of World War II. The author gives his opinion on relations of the Soviet Union and the Baltic Republics and attempts to clarify what happened to the Baltic Republics and to demonstrate if some scholars’ opinion about their occupation by the Soviet Union is true to reality.

Keywords: agreements, occupation, annexation, Anschluss, BalticRepublics, international law, Kremlin diplomacy.


Reviews of scientific publications

Rogozin I.I. (St. Petersburg). A review of the monograph by M.M. Galanov Russian Autocracy’s Policy towards Catholics and Uniates during the Reign of Paul I……… 142

The review highly praises the monograph by M.M. Galanov and points out that the materials and conclusions of the monograph can be useful not only to experts on political history of Russia but also to researchers and teachers in the field of Religion Studies.

Keywords: M.M. Galanov, Paul I, Catholics, Uniates

Ezhov M.V., Frolov M.I. (St. Petersburg). People’s Patriotism as the Main Source of Victory……… 145

The review by St. Petersburg historians of the writing by E.M. Malysheva points out that the author has succeeded in creating an intellectual work on history on a new quality level which provides a means of objective coverage of one of the most complex and poorly studied questions of Russian history.

Keywords: E.M. Malysheva, Great Patriotic War, patriotism.

Yazykova A.I. (Samara). Scientific and Social Work of Piotr Mikhailovich Yazykov (1820–1851)……… 147

The paper deals with the personality and work of Piotr Mikhailovich Yazykov (1798–1851) – scientist, public figure and patron of arts who left a conspicuous mark in the history of Simbirsk Region and occupies the rightful place in the pleiad of his famous fellow-countrymen. This paper is the synthesis of materials of the author’s Ph.D. thesis in history where she studied P.M. Yazykov as a historical character.

Keywords: Piotr Mikhailovich Yazykov, Russian science of the latter half of the 19th century; social work in Russia in the latter half of the 19th century; article, historical characters, documents, memoirs.


In memory of a colleague

Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg). Natalia Vasilyevna Yukhneva (1930–2013): Scientist, Public Figure, Teacher, Educationalist……… 151

This scientific biography of N.V. Yukhneva analyzes her scientific, social, pedagogical and educational work. It points out that N.V. Yukhneva made a great contribution to the development of Russian science.

Keywords: N.V. Yukhneva, S.N. Valk, Institute of Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Anthropology and EthnographyMuseum of RussianAcademy of Sciences, Faculty of History of LeningradStateUniversity.