Klio #4 (100) 2015


About the International Academy of History and Social Sciences………. 3



Solodkin Ya.G. (Nizhnevartovsk). When did Russia acquire Siberia? (Opinions of contemporaries and judgments of historians)………. 5

Many 17th century Siberians, including the indigenous population, linked the birth of the “Russian” Siberia to Yermak’s campaign. This conviction was deeply rooted in the contemporary chronicles that originated in both Tobolsk and Moscow to be fully reflected in the Russian historiography in the mid­18th – 20th centuries. Nonetheless, certain scholars suggested a different view, according to which the Cossack raid over the Urals failed to yield stable results, but shook the foundations of Kuchum’s realm, thus accelerating its downfall. A number of historians argued that the genuine acquisition of the Siberian khanate arose from the 1585–1587 expeditions by I.A. Mansurov, V.B. Sukin, I.N. Myasnoy, D.D. Chulkov. These expeditions were organized by the Muscovite government and are occasionally thought of as the second Russian acquisition of Siberia. A better­founded point of view seems to consist in the Cossack detachments having been sent over the Urals by “saint” czar Fyodor Ivanovich and his court only to complete the acquisition of Siberia, started by Yermak’s Cossacks with the support of the Stroganovs. V.I. Sergeev’s conclusion that the Russian authorities had no intention of acquiring the new lands until 1593 and were satisfied with the vassal relations imposed on the local princes does not seem well­founded. For instance, the construction of Berezov and Pelym was preceded by the introduction of the Siberian harvest duty, the establishment of the voivode governance in Tyumen and Tobolsk counties, which were subject to Moscow’s departments and quickly turned into exile destinations, the servicemen campaigns against Tavda, the Bigger Konda and the Piebald Horde. The building of Asian Russia, with Yermak­led acquisition of Kuchum’s khanate being its foundation stone, became a major landmark in the Russian late Middle Ages and the opening decades of the Russian modern age.

Key words. Kuchum’s khanate, Yermak, Russian acquisition of Siberia, Russian government expeditions over the Urals in the mid­1580s, foundation of the Ob town, Tyumen and Tobolsk, servicemen campaigns to the north of Western Siberia, downfall of the Pelym principality, Yugra’s integration into Russia.

Nazipov I.I. (Perm). “Patriotic wickedness”. The problem of Russian lands affiliation to the Horde in historiography………. 11

The article presents historiographic research on the problem of state legal relations of the Horde and Russian lands. Historical national science keeps to different standpoints in this issue. These standpoints are provided not in special research works of political legal status of Russian lands in the system of their relations with the Horde but in more common research works of Russian­Horde relations. Analysis of historiography in the article is made with the use of deductive method, – from more common research works authors’ standpoints on their determination of the state status of Russian lands are revealed. Five such evaluative standpoints have been determined. The first standpoint is presented by research works of N.M. Karamzin, N.I. Kostomarov. According to this standpoint, exploitation of Russian lands by the Tatars was mischief for Russia, however, by historical results of the Horde impact on Russia, it turned out to be a benefit for historical destiny of Russia in the form of absolutism and country unity. Another one is presented by research works of S.M. Soloviev, V.O. Kliuchevskii. According to this viewpoint Russian­Horde relations are insignificant factor in political history of Russia. Russia respectively was not part of the Horde. The third standpoint was expressed by Russian historian­emigrants in the 20–30s of XX century, who called themselves «eurasians» – G.V. Vernadskii, N.S. Trubetskoi, P.N. Savitskii. For them the main factor in Russian history was state unity with peoples living on the territory of the former USSR. During the Horde period, Russia was part of such state. The fourth standpoint is a negative evaluation of the Horde impact on Russian lands, both according to the form of this impact and historical development consequents. It is represented by «soviet» historiography. The scientists of this group confirm that Russian lands were in feudatory dependence from the Horde, but maintained state system. The fifth standpoint is presented by L.N. Gumilev. He thinks that Russian lands and the Horde were independent allied states.

Key words: Russian lands, the Horde, state relations, historical science, movements in historiography.

Sverdlov M.B. (Saint Petersburg). Russia in historical studies of A.P. Sumarokov………. 15

Eminent Russian poet and play­writer A.P. Sumarokov (1717–1777) is an author of historian studies too. It was his answer on the objective needs of Russian intellectuals to study native history. This studies had not only scientific importance but state importance too. Sumarokov began his historian studies in 50th by pragmatic investigations on inscriptions on ancient tombs. They were sources for investigations on the history of Moscow and Russia as a whole. As a result of an influence of discussions on importance of Russian culture and Russian language in particular Sumarokov tried to define the origin of Slavonic languages. In his opinion there was a one historical process in European countries. He objected against the idea of division of Russian history into two periods of barbarism and of civilization. He was Russian intellectual with highly developed social sense who assimilated humanitarian experience of West­European culture. According to traditions of Peter the Grate he has formulated in recent history of Russia the problem of virtue and honor in service to the State unlike to wide spread career according to gentle birth, senior officials and riches. Sumarokov formulated the most important problems of his time: possibilities of a free peasant to be the same useful to the fatherland as a noble man, morality of Russian public life, “extermination of sponging”. It is possible that this idea of morality and justice in modern history had as a consequence a peculiar Sumarokov’s attention to people’s revolts in Russia. He added to narrations about people’s revolts their hidden reasons. He condemned this revolts, murders of noblemen and destructions of their estates, but he took into account the objective reasons of this events. It was a scientific part of this studies. Sumarokov has formulated the problem of morality in historical studies when historians aimed at “relieving the essence of being”, substituting the essence by inadequate and therefore unscientific term. He termed such historian “the enemy of fatherland” who wrights a “false history” according to his ideas. In this statement he has fallowed the principles of Peter the Grate too. However in his writings on Russian history he came into conflict to his humanitarian and scientific principles as a result of his social status.

Key words: history of Russia, moral virtues, service to the State, free peasantry, revolts of the people.

Kornatskii N.N. (Moscow). «Split among nihilists» («Raskol v nigilistakh»): the results and prospects of research………. 30

The article deals with an outstanding episode of the Russian controversy between two democratic magazines “Sovremennik” and “Russkoe slovo” in 1863–1865, named «Split among nihilists» («Raskol v nigilistakh»). It is spoken in detail how both Soviet and Russian researchers described this controversy’s causes, course of events and assessed the participation of Mikhail Saltykov­Shchedrin, Maxim Antonovich and Dmitrii Pisarev. Much attention is given to unsolved problems of historiography. In particular, the aspect of personal relationships, the perception of readers, publisher of “Sovremennik” Nikolai Nekrasov’s attitude to the controversy publisher, etc. Conclusions are drawn about the prospects of research.

Key words: «split among nihilists», «raskol v nihilistakh», magazine “Sovremennik”, magazine “Russkoe slovo”, M.E. Saltykov­Shchedrin, M.A. Antonovich, D.I. Pisarev, N.A. Nekrasov, nihilism, the sixties of the XIX century, the first revolutionary situation 1859–1861.

Kogan E. (New York, USA). History of Russian regiments in New York Public Library………. 39

The author traces the ways of replenishment the fund of the New York Public Library with Russian­language publications. Works on the history of the Russian army regiments (Semenovski, Estland, Irkutsk, Oldenburg, Tenghinka et al.), written and published mainly in the XIX – early XX century make up a significant proportion of the fund. Their content and structure of them, illustrative design are viewed.

Key words:New York Public Library, Slavic­Baltic Division, auctions, dealers, Russian language collection, the Russian army, regiments, history, illustrations, bibliography.


General History

Andreev A.S. (Saint Petersburg). Reading Open Letter: Communist Party of Uruguay and Comintern in 1928–1931………. 44

The history of the Comintern is still “the lacuna of historiography.” Despite the fact that in the early 1990s researchers had access to the documents of the Communist International (CI), the history of formation and development of institutional links between the national Communist parties and the Comintern aren’t studied enough. In Russian and foreign historiography there is a lack of publications about the pre­war history of the Communist Party of Uruguay, although this party was one of the most developed communist organizations in the region. The article based on the archival materials of Russian State Archive of Social and Political History (RGASPI) and of the Center of Investigations in History and Culture of the Left Movement (Buenos Aires, Argentina) deals with one of episode in the history of relations between the Communist Party of Uruguay (CPU) and the Comintern – the “Open Letter” published in October 1929 by the PCU’s Central Committee to its own members, in which all past party work was called as a mistake. The content of this publication and discussion about it in the national Communist media, at the meetings of the Comintern sections allow us to characterize the state of institutional links between the CI and its Uruguayan national section. The article analyzes the content of party debate, notes the caused of “Open Letter” publication, shows the attitudeof the Comintern to the party and its work. The main problem of the Communist Party of Uruguay was the searching for harmony between the realization of the ideas of the Communist International and the solution of actual problems of society. The shortage of communication between the CPU and the international workers’ movement was the great reason of erroneous actions and slogans. Ideas of the Comintern weren’t based on objective economic and political situation in the country, and the real problems of Uruguayan workers found no response in the theory of the International Communist. The publication of the “Open Letter” was an example of the lack of understanding between the CPU and the Comintern organization, strong organization and ideological relationship between the party and the Comintern. The presidency of Gabriel Terra started in 1931 and establishing of his dictatorial regime led to the degradation of the Communist Party and the final loss of its institutional links with Moscow.

Key words: Comintern, Communist Party of Uruguay, E. Gómez, F. Pintos, J. Humbert­Droz, G. Terra, “La Justicia”, “Open Letter”, “Class against Class”.

Andreeva A.A. (Moscow). The new paradigms of war against drugs’ proliferation in Europe and Latin America………. 50

Every year the number of drugs’ consumers in Europe increases. The attitude of common people also is changing, more and more Europeans affirm that they don’t see nothing wrong in drug consumption. Latin American States also are more facing the problem, which have been characterized until that moment by relatively low index, and which policy, generally speaking, was directed to struggle with illicit planting and drug cartels. Till now the major number of Latin American States has been stuck to “prohibitive paradigm” that meaned using hard power towards all “links of the chain”: from drug lords and distributers till drugs’ consumers. However, in fact it did not lead significant reduction in substantial lowering of drugs’ producing and its markets. In 2011 the Global Commission on Drug Policy in its report stated that “the global war with drugs has been lost”. Moreover, during 8 years of drugs’ struggle in Mexico more that 70 millions of people died. The prohibitive paradigm has its alternative –­ soft policy, which is adopted in Europe. The major difference between them consists in transferring of drugs’ consumption from defense area to healthcare. The methods of struggle are still the same, however the treatment of drug addicts has significantly changed. Now they are not seemed as panders of the big drug mechanism functioning, which must be punished, but as ill persons who need a medical help.

Key words: drug proliferation’, struggl

Ivannikov I.G. (Saint Petersburg). The Initiatives of Reforming the Administrative and territorial Organization of the Territorial Collectives in France or «Decentralization а la Sarkozy»………. 54

The following article addresses specific features of decentralization process of the FrenchRepublic. The research is based on a case study of Nicola Sarkozy’s territorial collectivities reform. Regions, departments and communes are France’s principal administrative divisions, also called territorial collectivities. Urban, agglomeration and commune communities, as well as layered inter­municipal structures together form the so­called French «layer cake». The territorial collectivities reform carried out between 2008 and 2014 aimed at clarification, modernization and simplification of the institutional structure of the FrenchRepublic. This was to be achieved by improving local democracy performance, specifying institution’s responsibilities, carrying out a tax reform. The President’s Team initiatives for country’s administrative division reform were surely impressive. Some regarded them with favour, others with fright.

Key words: France, decentralization, Sarkozy, administrative­territorial division, territorial groups, the Committee of Balladur, regions, departments, commune, Grand Paris.


History of Russia

Shipilov A.V. (Voronezh). Russian craft in the first half of the XVIII century………. 60

Solving the problem of common features and characteristics of the formation of institutions of industrial society in Russia in the first half of the XVIII century includes the task of assessing the place, role and importance of urban crafts as an institution, is one of the carriers of early capitalist tendencies of social and economic development. A necessary condition for its solution is the analysis of factual and statistical material. In accordance with this comparative quantitative analysis has been subjected information on the number of craft and other artisans, their citizenship and social status, professional specialization, the amount of capital. It turned out that in Russia in the first half of the XVIII century there were few cities, in towns were few residents, and among the townspeople were few artisans. Russian urban craft within the period under review had the minimum organizational and technological differences from rural crafts, but if rural crafts were employed hundreds of thousands of people, in the craft ­ only tens of thousands. Another competitor of crafts was a manufactory, whose financial and technological potential qualitatively exceeded its possibilities. Products of manufactures and rural crafts dominated the domestic market and in the composition of exports, while the craft has experienced serious difficulties even with self­reproduction. Thus, it can be stated that in Russia during the first half of the XVIII century the urban craft­guild loses in competition with rural crafts and manufactories, so its role in socio­economic development of the country was negligible.

Key words: crafts, city, guild, trade, manufactory.

Galanov M.M. (Saint Petersburg). The position and activity of the Holy Governing Synod in regard to Catholics and Uniates in the reign of Paul I………. 68

This article analyzes the position of the Holy Synod (PCA) with respect to Catholics and Uniates. The questions concerning the life of the non­Orthodox denominations and discussed at a meeting of the Synod: Churches appeal from one denomination to another, the state of the Roman Catholic Department, funeral heterodox, wedding interfaith marriages, correspondence Orthodox, Catholic and Uniate bishops and others. The author concluded, that (PCA) didn’t have clear and principled position to defend the interests of Orthodoxy, and that it depended on the state in addressing interfaith issues. Leadership of Russian Orthodox church seriously was not involved in the problem of inter­confessional relations in Russia in the late XVIII century. (PCA) did not show proper initiative in resolving inter­confessional relations.

Key words: Synod, the Senate, the Roman Catholic Department of the Russian Orthodox Church, confession, consistory, the diocese, the bishop.

Kislitsyna I.L. (Saint Petersburg). The idea of “alien” social environment in contemporary researching of the Russian intelligence………. 75

At the end of the XX century – beginning of the XXI century extending the researching and expansion of the range of problems have taken place in studying of the Russian intelligence’s phenomenon. This has become apparent in creating the integral comprehensive notion about the essence and distinguishing traits of the intelligence, in researching the internal world, daily life of the Russian intelligence’s representatives. The other feature of contemporary studying is reticence of analysis of the intelligence, absence of system approach in investigation. Need of such approach is coursed by the fact that society is the system but not some separate elements which exist simultaneously. The idea of “alien” social environment to the intelligence is asserted without researching this environment. System approach demands investigating the problem of connection between the two phenomena: the intelligence and “the people” (social environment to the intelligence) on the base of concrete comparative­historical method. As a result of such investigation it has been ascertained that exaggerated idea about the “alien” environment to the intelligence and, connected with it, setting of Decembrists’ views against the revolutionary Narodnik ideology are groundless. Absolutization idea of “alien” environment is a consequence of ignoring common in the minds of the people and the intelligentsia of human nature ­ human dignity, individual aspirations for independence and self­realization, and the need to create the social conditions for the implementation of this commitment.

Key words: the history of the Russian public thought of the XIX century, the Russian intelligence, the people, social environment, the revolutionary Narodnik ideology, Decembrists.

Veremenko V.A. (Saint Petersburg). “Fasting, Mother…”: noble families and religious food restrictions (second half of XIX – early XX centuries)……….  83

The article characterizes the attitude of the Orthodox nobles to one of the fundamental religious restrictions – fasting. Attention is drawn to the almost complete noble families’ denial of the observance of day fasting on Wednesdays and Fridays and highly selective attitude to seasonal ones.

From four seasonal fasts (the Lent, the Apostles’ fast, the Assumption fast and the Christmas fast) the majority of nobles treated relatively seriously only the Lent. However, it was not fully observed, mostly some days during the fast or the whole 1–2 weeks of 7. In those days, such as Christmastime or Good Friday, when the complete denial of food was supposed, even religious noble families took ritualized meatless meals. Noble­parents rarely observing fasts extended this practice to their children, forming the nihilistic attitude toward this church requirement.

It is concluded that on the one hand, widespread of denial to fulfill one of the essential requirements of the church in the noble families became the important factor of growth of indifferent attitude to other rules of Orthodoxy among the noble youth, until the development of nihilistic and atheistic attitudes. On the other hand, noble intelligentsia, even those who stated their commitment to Christian tradition, opposed their “civilized” religion to people’s “ritual” faith by the fact of denial the ritual side of Orthodoxy.

Key words: noble families, Orthodoxy, Church ceremony, day and seasonal fasts, religiosity.

Gessen V.Yu. To the history of statistical education in Russia at the beginning of XX th century (according to archive data)………. 88

The article characterizes the general condition of the teaching of statistics in higher educational institutions of Russia in connection with the needs of foreign­scientific societies. «The note» of A.M. Zolotarev, director of the CSK, comprising in the system of the MIA is reviewed in details. For the first time in it the need of creating of its subordinate special educational institution for preparing of qualified statisticians – Statistics courses. Development on the basis of its “Time provision” about courses, their approval of the minister, then emperor. Preparation of the program of activities on the first and second year students. The list of teachers for giving lectures and workshops. The composition of the students and student meetings in 1905. Difficulties with employment of people graduated from the course. Attempts to convert courses in Statistical Institute and the struggle of different opinions on this issue. The cessation of the existence of CSK MIA after October 1917. Submission courses Commissariat of Education. Difficulties in activity of courses in this period: the arrest and leaving of teachers, financial difficulties. The elimination by the government  of the statistical course.

Key words: statistics, finance, education, courses, regulations, curriculum, Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Central Statistical Committee, Education Committee, editor, listener.

Jablochkina I.V., Kholodniy M.A. (Moscow). Changes in the traditional property relations in the Russian village under radical changes in 1917–1925………. 103

The paper investigated the nature of property relations in the Russian village under the NEP. Analysis of the basic sentiment that characterized the peasant perception of changes in the economic sphere, showed obvious actualization as norms of customary law and the ideas that were proposed and implemented by P.A. Stolypin. However, a decisive influence on the relations of property the systematic violation of the rights of the owners of the representatives of the Soviet bureaucracy had. It was found that in the conditions of war communism brought to the absurd idea of ​​poverty met quite active resistance of the community. As a consequence, in their activities committeees of poor peasants most often tried to avoid extreme solutions that could lead to large­scale community conflict. Along with this, even at the peak of the era of War Communism the ideas of recent Stolypin agrarian reform were popular, in particular, the idea of ​​unloading the agricultural center and the resettlement of peasants. In the future, during the transition to the new economic policy the growing desire of “advanced” farmers to enter the farm and cut was also noted.

Key words: new economic policy, the Russian peasantry, land ownership, land management.

Podrepnyy E.I. (Nizhny Novgorod,). Native aviation industry and modernization of the fleet of distant aircraft during the first postwar five-year………. 108

The article considers the activity of the plants of the USSR Aircraft Industry Ministry in organizing serial production of the first soviet strategic bomber Tu­4. The projection of a new heavy bomber began in 1944, plant № 22 inKazan was appointed for its production. On June 26th 1945 plant № 22 began preparations for the production of the airplane B­4 that was a Soviet analogy of the Boeing B­29 Superfortress. 675 engineers were working out the technology of a new airplane. Three new shops were built in a short period of time. 2200 units of equipment were removed. 950 enterprises of our country worked in cooperation with plant № 22. The plant in Kazan got 300 units of the trophy equipment from Germany. Every day 2500 prisoners worked at the plant building new shops. A new powerful engine for the bomber was production was produced by plant № 19 in Perm. An airscrew was production by plant 467 in Pavlovo­on­the Oka. The main construction of the aircrews Petrov N. N. was awarded Stalin Prize.  The first flight of the airplane B­4 was on May 4th 1947. Molotov V. M. inspected the testing of a new bomber. In 1948 this airplane was named TU­4. It was produced by plant № 23 inMoscow and plant № 18 inKuibyshev. All in 1295 airplanes were produced. TU­4 made a revolution in Soviet aircraft industry. The airplane was in service up to 1960. In China TU­4 flew up to 1990.

Key words: aircraft industry, bomber, plant, shop, equipment, personnel.


History of Russian Regions

Zibrova T.V. (Воронеж). From the history of state duties: “poruchnya records” for customs’ authorities of the South Russia in the XVII century………. 113

Тhe article is devoted to one of the most controversial chapters in the history of relationships between the authorities and society: the problem of resourcing of customs houses in Russia in the XVII century. According to the Council’s code of 1649 the head of the customs had to get out of «choice» or «faith» among the local population, if the collection of customs revenue was not at the mercy, but the South of Russia, where the tenements were distinguished by small size, had its own peculiarities. The edge position of the County, a high role of local administration in the person of commander also left its mark on the characteristics of picking southern customs house. The main criteria for candidates, according to the documents studied on the selection, it is, above all, the assurance of their integrity and prosperity: «soul direct and bellies subsistence». The presence of personal property is essential for the future candidate, as it can guarantee the ability to cover possible abstractions of money in the eyes of the state at the expense of the customs. The «choice» of celovalnik could be even more difficult problem. According to the documents, celovalnik of the South of Russia could be in his position for many years, not just two years, as was the case in the center of the country. Dyachok, in turn, as a rule, performed his obligations under the customs house all his life long. There were not enough literate people, and customs duties were associated with the conduct of a large number of the documentation: draft and stationery books, account books, unsubscribe, etc. The article deals with the sources of acquisition of the customs houses in the South of Russia, the conditions of being in the office of customs servants, namely, the customs head, Dyachok and celovalnik, describes a kind of «system warranty» of their impeccable service from the rest of the local population.

Key words: customs house, “poruchnya records, customs head, the Governor, the clerk, kissing the cross, celovalnik.

Derevnina E.A. (Saint Petersburg). Management of educational process in women’s gymnasiums of Mariinsky department based on the example of Kolomenskaya women’s gymnasium………. 117

In 1858 as a result of reforming the system of female education in Russia there appeared a new type of educational institution – women’s schools for visiting students, who only attended school for classes (women’s gymnasiums since 1862) which were governed by the Department of institutions of Empress Maria. This article analyzes the educational process in women’s gymnasiums of Mariinsky department as well as the changes taking place in it, based on an example of a typical gymnasium – Kolomenskaya, which was opened in Saint Petersburg in October, 1858. The work of all educational institutions of the Department was strictly regulated; thus, the educational work of Kolomenskaya women’s gymnasium has been studied on the official records regulating the educational process in secondary women’s educational institutions of the Department. The analysis revealed that the main objectives of the new educational institution – providing all­round education to girls and preparing them for real life – were successfully achieved. The main course of sciences included study of Russian language and literature, mathematics, history, geography, natural science, physics, basics of pedagogy. Particular attention was paid in the gymnasium to the study of foreign languages. The reason for that was the fact that the gymnasium was a classical educational institution in which the focus was on studying languages. However, unlike men’s gymnasiums, Kolomenskaya women’s gymnasium didn’t offer the study of ancient languages (Greek and Latin), so the emphasis was on learning modern languages (French and German). Despite a certain conservatism, by 1917 Mariinsky women’s gymnasiums reached the level of education provided to female students in other women’s educational institutions.

Key words: Department of institutions of Empress Maria, Kolomenskaya women’s gymnasium, class, educational process, school subject, curriculum, examinations, graduation ceremony.

Shramkova O.V. (Saratov). Ethnic minorities in space of the Volga region provincial Saratov city in the second part of XIX century – at the beginning of XX century………. 123

In this article the history of Saratov city is observed from the point of view of polyethnic city. There was a majority of Russian people in the urban structure, although by the the end of XIX century there were quiet many Germans, Polish people, Tatars and Jews. In the urban structure they organize their own ethnic groups and in economical sphere could take their niches and positions. For the preservation of ethnic identity the social institutes were organized. They included religious and religious institutions, charitable, cultural and educational societies, periodicals, national schools, which in addition to their regular tasks performed the function of intraethnic consolidation and manifested diaspora behavior of the certain national community. Owing to the influence of quickly developing industry and trade the main tendency of developing integration processes became which produced interethnic connections, interference and mutual respect.

Key words: polyethnicity, national group, confession, ethnic minority, national and religious community, church, cultural and educational society, charitable society.

Gerasimov D.A. (Murmansk). “From February to October: political situation in 1917 on the Kola North”………. 128

The article studies the February period of the Revolution in the regions of the Kola North, which at that period was a part of Arkhangelsk province. The peculiarity of this region in 1917 was an significant role of military authorities. Even forced concessions that were made to new organizational structures, didn’t lead to the elimination of the value of military leadership. Moreover, that public organizations do not always act in unity, following their local interests. The most important public organizations were: military sailors and railwaymen. The organization of Navy sailors – Central committee of Murmansk fleet –became a part of Murmansk Soviet as a military section. By the period of October events, Murmansk region already had elective organizations based on radicalizing population. Taking into consideration some social structure of local population, the most part of which were migrants the Soviets became the main and real form of self­government. They cooperated with military bodies because they tried to unite all forces in the face of military operations. As local authorities couldn’t secure due order, the Provisional Government established the post of the Chief of Murmansk Region and Murmansk Fleet. This post was given to Rear­ Admiral K.F. Ketlinsky who tried to do everything to solve the vital problems of Murmansk Region and so the political situation in this region (during February period of the Revolution) was more or less stable in comparison with other regions of Russia.

Key words: Kola North, First World War, revolution, political situation, compromise, social structure, social processes, a railway, a port, a naval base.

Kustyshev A.N. (Saint Petersburg). The problem of occupational injuries in the Gulag’s camps and colonies in the European North of Russia………. 133

Article considers a problem of occupational injuries in labor camps and colonies of Gulag on the territory of the European North of Russia. Low level of safety of work was substantially connected with existence of cheap labor in divisions of Gulag. According to the author of article, the quantity of cases of occupational injuries was much higher than the indicators recorded in documentation of medical and production parts of camps as many episodes connected with receiving injuries weren’t considered. The author considers occupational injuries as the factor influencing qualitative structure of workforce of labor camps and colonies, death rate of prisoners. Article gives the comparative analysis of level of traumatism in various sectors of Gulag economy, and among prisoners and civilian structure. The problem of occupational injuries is considered in more detail on the example of coal­mining and logging industries. The factors determining growth of operational injuries were: lengthening of the working day of prisoners and deprivation of their rest days, non­compliance with safety measures, lack of training in safe methods of work, lack of providing prisoners with work wear and serviceable tools. According to the author, the low level of safety of work was peculiar to the Soviet system of production and represented one of its characteristic features. The problem of occupational injuries had permanent character. The author of article attracted and analyzed an extensive circle of sources. Practically all these sources are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.

Key words: Gulag, correctional labor camp, European North of Russia, prisoners, forced labor, safety measures, occupational injuries, workforce, coal mines, logging.

Remneva S.V. (Saint Petersburg). The analysis of the social composition of the persons, who were convicted of a crime in the Leningrad region from the second half of the 1950s to the first half of the 1960s (based on the militian statistics)………. 138

The author identifies three social groups, the members of which most often committed a criminal offence and were punished: workers, convicts, beggars, on the basis of data from militia statistics about persons who had committed crimes in the Leningrad region in the period of “Thaw”. The author also tries to give an explanation to that fact based on an analysis of the socio­economic situation in the Leningrad region from the second half of 1950s to the first half of the 1960s. High crime rates among workers author explains because of the mass labor migration to Leningrad and the inability of the city to provide decent housing visitors and interesting leisure. Contributed to an increase in crime and drunkenness and the population, the majority of crimes were committed during alcohol intoxication. The reason for the high recidivism rates in the period under review the author considers amnesty in 1953 and 1955 as well as the unwillingness of the police to control such a mass emerged from prison officials. In addition, the city attracted beggars and cripples, touring the country that without shelter and livelihood often took the path of crime.

Key words: convicted, workers, beggars, vagrants, cripples, recidivists, deviant behavior, social adaptation, drunkenness.

Danilov A.A. (Cheboksary).High-quality changes of cultural and educational function of regional television of Russia………. 143

The article summarizes the results of researching the transformation of cultural and educational functions of television of Chuvash, Mari and Mordvin republics, recommendations for state policy in the field of television broadcasting, in the issues of interethnic relations making up a modern information society – digital broadcasting standards are offered, the introduction of online technologies in traditional media, online journalism, genres and forms of the content of television programs with regional and national component. Modern information policy in the field of expansion of cultural and educational function of television in Mari, Chuvash Republic of Mordovia is marked by a very strong influence of state structures on the media. In contrast to the period of Soviet Russia, when television was an integral part of the party and  the state apparatus, in the post­Soviet period it is often observed and defined as a “the fourth power”. The media are able to wield power without possessing any coercion resource of the state or instruments of economic pressure. Their “powers” are in the spiritual and ideological spheres. The media of the reviewed region have not reached that yet. The implement of the legal and economic preconditions is necessary to ensure the prerequisites of truly independent media, not burdened with the pressure of private or public capital. There is a need for active expansion of information and communication technologies in the framework of a regional information space for working out the precise mechanisms to convert analog to digital television broadcasting. In modern conditions of the high demand for specialists in the field of media and trends for further growth there is a need of modernization of the classic journalism education of students in universities and re­training of television journalists according to the new information technologies. Inter­ethnic relations in these republics are important. Increase of public funding for national television themes, development of regional television market, including inter­regional are needed.

Key words: television, cultural­educational function, Chuvashia, Mari El, Mordovia, state information policy, journalism.



Abed Amir Najm Abed (Izhevsk). «The expansion of Uruk» and the influence of new archaeological excavations on the assess the early urbanization of Mesopotamia………. 146

This article analyzes the modern archaeological data showing early Mesopotamian history. Archaeological work in the vast territory of modern Iraq, Iran, Syria helped to better understand the content and stages of formation of the first city­states (such as Uruk). The originality of the material culture typical of Uruk, in the proceedings of many other settlements, which allowed to allocate the archeology of the Middle East phenomenon of «Uruk expansion.» The expansion of the material and spiritual culture took place at different times in different directions and all stages and aspects of colonization reflected in the materials excavation. However, termination of archaeological work in connection with a complex geopolitical situation in the Middle East does not allow to expand the study.

Key words: Mesopotamia, Uruk (Warka), the city­state, archeology of Iraq, expansion, «the expansion of Uruk».


Military History

Verbovoy A.O. (Saint Petersburg). The role of the Danube Flotilla in the Russian-Turkish war of 1787–1791 and the storming of Izmail (to the 225th anniversary of the capture of Izmail)……….  149

The article is dedicated to an issue of the role of Danube naval flotilla in victories of Russian army during the Russian­Turkish war 1787–1791 and storming Ismail fortress with troops of general­anchief A.V. Suvorov. There are analyzed actions of this tactic river naval group during war campaigns of that war. A special attention is paid to its helping to troops during war actions. In particular much attention is paid to actions of the flotilla during taking Ochakov that was before capture Izmail and other Turkish fortresses on Danube. There were described measures for assisting Black sea fleet from flotilla side in the fight with Turkish ships. So in the article course of the Machin battle is analyzed that is not often mentioned in works on a topic of Russian­Turkish wars and a role of Danube flotilla in victory of it is described. Besides, military and naval topic the article touches a problem of causes of Russian­Turkish wars which were not only aggressive plans of Osman Empire and English interests but also interests of Russia in Black sea and Caucasian regions.

Key words: Danube, flotilla, Dnieper leman, ship, frigate, boat, shebec, feluge, galley, oak, Ochakov, Izmail, storming fortress, battle.

Fedulov S.V. (Saint Petersburg). Mystery of purchase of Russian South American cruisers in early XX century………. 159

Attempt of  purchase the South American cruisers by the Navy Department of the Russian Empire of during the Russian­Japanese War (1904–1905 years) is one of the most dramatic and instructive in the history of the domestic fleet. the research work S.A. Smooth “Undercover operations for the acquisition of cruisers for Russia”, V.J. Krestyaninov “Cruisers of the Russian Imperial Navy 1856–1917 years” were devoted to this issue.

In this article, based on archive material the role in secret activities of the Naval Ministry for the purchase of these ships of the marine agent of Russia in France Captain 2nd rank G.A .Yepanchin is shown. He became a link in the negotiation process. This occurred for various reasons, firstly, GA Yepanchin was a first­class professional. Secondly, Paris has accumulated activity of marine, financial, commercial and industrial world elites. Thirdly, the Navy Department of the Russian Empire instructed its agents, that it is most the most safely to get valuable information in the host country about the other countries.

Key words: Navy Department, the Naval Staff, marine agent, Pacific squadron, the Argentine government, armored cruisers, the firm “Ansaldo” company “Flint & Co.” firm “Vossidlo & Co.” firm “Gibbs & Co”.

Koltochikhina A.A. (Moscow). Activity of the Association of compassionate benefit to poor families of Jewish involved in the war and needy Jewish inhabitants affected by the war’s actions (1915–1916) ………. 159

The article tells about the refugee’s mass that left the frontline area during the First World War and about the situation in Russia connected with refugees. The Jewish population, who left their houses by the order of authorities, was a special category of the refugee’s mass. In the article it is illustrated the reaction of the various representatives of the educated Russian society to the expulsion of Jews and also the view of the various representatives of the Russian intelligentsia about the “Jewish question”, which was aggravated in Russia in the war’s period. As one of the initiatives of Russian progressive community aimed at smoothing away the situation by the “Jewish Question activity of the Association of compassionate benefit to poor families of Jewish involved in the war and needy Jewish inhabitants affected by the war’s actions, which was created by the intelligentsia representatives in the period of the First World War is showed. According to the archival materials the author tells about the origin of the organization, its objectives, the initial membership, management of the organization, finance. As an example of the Association’s activity it the work of one the medical and nutritional groups, created by the representatives of the Association in Minsk is showed. In addition to the Association’s activity the article tells about activities of the Russian Society for the Study of Jewish Life, which was also created by the representatives of the Russian intelligentsia during the First World War. It is emphasized the connection between these two organizations through common membership and common goals. The author focuses on the fact that the characteristic feature of these two organizations was a lack of commercial purposes. These organizations set the cultural, educational and philanthropic purposes. Analyzing the activities of these two organizations, the author concludes a high degree of public initiative and enthusiasm in the life of pre­revolutionary Russia and the ability of Russian society to consolidate for the sake of common goals and objectives.

Key words: The First World War, refugees, the expulsion of Jews from the frontline areas.

Kim S.P. (Moscow). Political work in soviet labour camps of the Ministry of Inner affairs and detached labour battalions of the Ministry of Armed Forces for Japanese prisoners of war (1945–1950)……….  164

Thousands of Japanese soldiers were surrendered to the advancing soviet troops in the august of 1945. They were considered as prisoners of war by the soviet leadership. Japanese pow’s were assigned on soviet labour camps of Ministry of Inner affairs and detached labour battalions of Ministry of Armed forces for the purpose of recovering Soviet Unions’ economy. Within 5 years (from 1945 to 1950) Japanese pow’s participated in coal mining, construction of residential and non­residential structures, road laying, disafforestation thus contributed to the execution of the 4th (post­war) five­year plan for the economy of the USSR. However authorities of the Ministry of Inner affairs and of the Ministry of Armed forces placed high emphasis not only to issues connected with pow’s labour and its usage. Political work was carried out in labour camps and in detached labour battalions in order to form friendly image of the Soviet Union after pow’s repatriation to Japan. Political work carried out in labour camps and detached labour battalions is examined in this article based on the documents from the Russian federal archives. The principal aim of the article is to cover its organization, forms and methods. Author of the article also makes and attempt to investigate reasons of counteraction of some groups of pow’s. The results of political work are studied in the conclusion of the article.

Key words: Japanese internees; prisoners of war; labour camps; GUPVI; “Siberian internment”; political work; Ministry of Inner affairs; Ministry of Armed forces.


History of Science and Technology

Kirillov A.V. (Moscow). Innovation of Great Patriotic (Soviet Innovation in the Great Patriotic War) ………. 169

The article deals with the experience of innovation creators of military equipment during the Great Patriotic War. The author’s view of the concept of innovation is presented. The ways of convergence of science and practice in order to address specific technical and economic problems are analyzed. The role of competition of similar systems in the creation of the Soviet models of small arms, which are superior to overseas, including German counterparts. Much attention is paid to the introduction of scientific research in the field of artillery weapons in the practice of producing guns, mortars and multiple launch rocket systems. The examples of the scientific organization of work on the modernization of Soviet artillery artillery systems. Displaying targeted scientific support for the development of devices surveillance and fire control is shown. Successful discoveries of Soviet science and design ideas to improve tank weapons during the war are considered. The use of the achievements of Soviet scientists in new areas of materials is investigated during creating advanced aircraft. As an example, a series of successful innovations upgrading the Il­2 is taken. In conclusion, the use of military expertise to expand domestic innovation in modern conditions is proposed.

Key words: innovation, science, small arms, artillery, tank weapons, aviation technology.


Historical Characters

Tsintsadze N.S. (Tambov). G.R. Derzhavin and the «Jewish question» in Russian Empire in the late XVIII – early XIX century………. 175

Тhe article on the basis of a detailed analysis of writings G.R. Derzhavin and his contemporaries, the research Russian and foreign scientists studied the problem of the genesis of the «Jewish question» in Russian Empire at the beginning of the XVIII–XIX century and the role played by the G.R. Derzhavin. The paper deals with the position of supporters and opponents of Derzhavin in resolving the issue of incorporation of the Jewish population of Belarus in the Russian society. In particular, the points of view of historians Y.I. Hessen, J. Klier, A. Springer, writers and literary critics, I.N. Boguslavsky, E.G. Etkind, writer A.I. Solzhenitsyn are given. In the work some interesting information about the historical existence of «Opinion about disgust in Belarus hunger and organization life of the Jews» G.R. Derzhavin, a recognized expert on Judaism and Jewish history of the Moscow D.Z. Feldman are reported. Due to this note, Derzhavin already in his lifetime acquired a steady reputation as anti­Semite, actively supported in the future. The article draws attention to the ideological affinity senator proposed measures to improve the lives of Jews in Belarus and similar plans representatives of the Jewish Enlightenment. G.R. Derzhavin did not insist on the assimilation of the Jews, did not encroach on their identity, admitting their cultural and religious autonomy. Gavriil Romanovich wanted only to equalize the rights of Jews and Christians. It is concluded that accusations G.R. Derzhavin in anti­Semitism are unsubstantiated. Making his project, Derzhavin was guided by the legislation and the specified the official trend in solving the «Jewish question» in the Russian Empire. He took over the unpopular function to voice that the Russian government igently planned and Jewish enlighteners timidly suggested.

Key words: G.R. Derzhavin; «The opinion of disgust in Belarus hunger and organization life of the Jews»; «Jewish question» in Russia; Belarusian Jews; Jewish Enlightenment (Haskalah); M. Mendelson; the law of the Jews; Judeophobia.

Maydanova M.N. (Saint Petersburg). I.I. Sosnitsky and natural school………. 183

This article studies the creative work of Ivan Ivanovich Sosnitsky, one of the greatest actors of Saint Petersburg in the 1840s. The fulfillment of possibilities of certain character structure developed in his earlier works and connected with that expansion of the semantic content of the image led to more criticism in his works, made his image of reality more objective and physiologically truthful, increased attention to the inner life of a person and made interaction between a person and the outer world. It made the actor the part of the NaturalSchool that was significant phenomenon of artificial life of Saint Petersburg. The new tendencies are recognized to be the results of inner evolution of Sosnitsky himself. The peculiarities of the actor`s creative manner explain the reasons of his inclination to social and psychological philosophy of the Natural School mainly connected with the name of Turgenev, and the reasons of his rejection of some of its program principals (terms `person of a little mark`, `life of Underworld people`). The most significant roles of this period were Ruggiero, Wurm, Balagalaev – the roles performed in the plays written by N.A. Polevoy, F. Schiller, I.S. Turgenev.

Key words:NaturalSchool, the theatre of Saint Petersburg, the art of acting, the stage image, creative manner, psychological truthfulness, outer world, reality, character, tendency.

Kholyaev S.V. (Yaroslavl). Stolypin between the black hundreds and the octobrists………. 189

The article shows the relations between the two largest parties in Russia in the early XX century, the Union of the Russian people and the Union of 17 October, the period when P.A. Stolypin for creation of a Pro­government majority in the III State Duma aimed to attract them to his side. The purpose of Stolypin was the inclusion of these parties represented the interests of the right­wing circles and Patriotic part of the liberals, in the official political system and combination of their efforts to prevent revolution. Cause of the ultimate destruction of premiere­reformer was the radicalism of the Octobrists, the ambitions of their leader, A.I. Guchkov, who refused in 1911 to continue cooperation with Stolypin. In the end, the conflict of forces – Russia’s black hundreds and Octobrists – designed to strengthen Russia, determined the collapse of the monarchy of Russia, and in general put to the brink of nonexistence the Russian statehood. Failure of Stolypin brought Russia to a dangerous point, which viewed the threat of total collapse of Russia.

Key words: P.A. Stolypin, The Union of Russian People, the Union of 17th of October, A.I. Dubrovin, State Duma, N.E. Markov Second, A.I. Guchkov.

Baranenko V.V. (Belarus, Minsk). Bishop Melhisedek (Payevsky) and the Renovationist Movement in the Soviet Belorussia (1922–1923)………. 195

This article covers events related to the commencement of the Renovation’s Movement in the BSSR. For the first time, archival documents introduced for scientific use add to the history of Renovations, its interaction with state authority representatives. An attempt was made to divide the evolution of attitude to the Renovation’s Movement of the Orthodox clergy and church members of Minsk eparchy into periods.

The author has managed to specify the previously unknown membership of the progressive clergy and laity group in Minsk eparchy which was created in August 1922 and aimed at struggling against the Metropolitan Bishop Melhisedek and attracting as many eparchy clergymen and laypeople as possible to the Renovation’s Movement. The composition of the initiative group “Alive Church” created in the late May – early June, 1922, under supervision of the Archbishop of Minsk and Turov Melhisedek, was partially restored.

Proclamation of Belarusian Metropolitan church by the city clergy of Minsk is emphasized as an initial event which caused separation of part of clergymen and laypeople of Minsk eparchy from the Metropolitan Bishop Melhisedek (Payevsky).

Key words: Russian Orthodox Church, Byelorussian Orthodox Church, Renovationist Movement, Melhisedek (Payevsky), Sergiy (Ivantsov), Byelorussian Metropolitanate, Minsk eparchy, BSSR, “Living Church”, church management in Belarus, Byelorussian eparchy management.

Agaeva D.M. (Moscow). Carlos Prats – Commander of the era of profound change………. 203

On 11th September in 1973 in Chili a military coup happened. It was not the usual type of garrison rebellion, but the well­planned military operation, in the centre of which was made a combined attack using aircraft, artillery and infantry. The rebels immediately engaged all public and government agencies. The officers refused to support the coup were shot. In a coup President Salvador Allende and the ruling party of National Unity were toppled. The power was captured by a military junta, led by General Augusto Pinochet, who succeeded General Cаrlos Prats, a prominent military and political statesman of Chili, which will be discussed in this article. The article tells about the time of his command of the Chilean army, and climax in his military career. What was his role in the dramatic events which took place in Chile in the 70th of the XX century? There are also shown traces of his personal diary, in which General Prats wrote what meant for his country years during the government of Salvadore Allende and what was the real role of the armed forces in the political process of the country.

Key words: Prats, Salvador Allende, Pinochet, coup, armed forces, politics, Rene Schneider, the diary, Chile, the USA, the opposition, the president.


Will be History tomorrow

Tsyrkul E.V. (Saint Petersburg). Cultural and religious identity of Turkey not in European standard………. 209

The article discusses the cultural and religious identity of Turkey as a “hidden” obstacle to the country’s accession to the European Union as a full member. Membership of Turkey to the Islamic world frightens the Europeans much more than mismatches in voiced points of the negotiation process. Although representatives of States – members of the EU refrain from making religious issue openly discussed, they try not to make decisions that are contrary to public opinion in their countries. The article analyzes the reasons for this situation. The issue of confusion between “Islam” and “terrorism» is raised in the minds of people. The article also pays special attention to the analysis of the concept of “European identity” and the question what happened to the policy of “multiculturalism”.

Key words: European identity, multiculturalism, European integration, democracy, terrorism, Islamism, the religious factor in world politics.



Bondarev I.P. (Sevastopol). Spear XII century with silver decoration in teratological style (“Srebryano strouzhie” Kniaz Igor Svyatoslavich)………. 214

A description of the boar­spear with silver plated socket, decorated in teratological style is given. The spearhead decoration combined the idea of the Universe and the echoes of Old Russian churches decor. The spear is dated XII century on the basis of a comparative analysis of the typological characteristics of spear as well technique and decorating style. It is determined that this spear is an excellent example of arms and decorative arts of Ancient Russia and belonged to a person of high status. It is shown that the place of discovery corresponds to theatre of military operations, described in the “Tale of Igor’s Campaign” and synchronous chronicles. Comparison of the spear’s manufacturing time and the events in question allows reliable to assume that the introduced into scientific circulation artifact could be directly related to Prince Igor battle with Polovtsy. Thus, it can be regarded as finally established a place of battle and capture of Prince Igor. The totality of the facts obtained as a result of complex historical, cultural and natural science research confirms the authenticity of the “Tale of Igor’s Campaign.”

Key words: Ancient Russia, XII century, spear, decoration, Romanesque, teratological style, Church, Prince Igor.

Gogun A. (Berlin, Germany). The Gradual Hardening. The Prerequisites of the Anti-Polish Action of the UPA, 1939–1943………. 227

In this paper, the emphasis is on the description of the specific mechanisms of gradual discharge ethnic hatred, which eventually led to the slaughter (Volyn massacre). The focus of the text is focused on the rivalry between the two groups in the local administration in the 1939–1942. Factor gradual mutual brutalization is almost ignored by several historians. Focusing on radicalism itself OUN, on the basis of a number of publications emigre Ukrainian historiography describing pastoral, idyllic neighborhood of Ukrainians and Poles in the 1930s, Samara author Mark Solonin denies element of spontaneity in the massacre of 1943. The American specialist Timothy Snyder’s “Reconstruction of the nation” nominated original thesis, that perhaps the main reason of anti­Polish cleansing was the experience of the Ukrainian policemen, who took part in the Holocaust in 1941–1942, and in the spring of 1943 passed into the UPA. However, the thesis is not confirmed until the documentary. Thus, studies of the Ukrainian­Polish conflict is still not clearly spelled out the simple pattern that almost any ethnic or inter­religious slaughter is due not speculative constructs of political leadership, and as a result of the mass of hatred, pumping mechanisms and which are disclosed in the article.

Key words: Ukrainian­Polish conflict, historiography of the ethnic struggle, Volyn Massacre, Soviet partisans, OUN, UPA, the Home Army.



Reviews of Scientific Publications

Sokov I.A. (Volgograd). Clio: the opinion of American scientist on the place of the history between the humanitarian sciences………. 231

This publication is the review on P.Ch. Hoffer’s book“Clio among the Muses: Essays on History and the Humanities”. The author of the book analyses the reasons of the fall of the prestige of history as the historian’s science and profession. This book is the first one on the similar topic. Peter Hoffer published the remarkable book “The Historian’s Paradox: A Philosophy of History for Our Times” in the same publish house in 2008.

The author of the book tried to find not only the internal historical correlation with other sciences but the place of the history among the sciences. The American scientist worries about the history as the science, which would transform into the everyday market product and as this product would be define by the supply.

The author of the book also analyses the process of the standardization of the American history in the US education, which was accepted by the political order.

P.Ch. Hoffer points to the problems, which are interesting for our native historians and intellectuals. This book is recommended for the reading of Russian scientists.

Key words: P.Ch. Hoffer, History, historiography, American history, American historiography.

Kuznetsov O.L. (Moscow), Losik A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Twelve volumes of Great History………. 233

In a review of the analysis of the content of the fundamental study in twelve volumes, devoted to the history of the Great Patriotic War. It is stressed that the work contains extensive documentary material, much of which was first introduced in the scientific revolution. The feature of the twelve volume study is that the Great Patriotic War is represented in it against the background of national and world history. Edition significantly complements and elaborates our knowledge of geopolitics, political and military strategy. The book reveals anti­human nature of fascism and its ideology, politics, intelligence activities, methods of warfare. Unlike many previous editions of this work is not bulging battle part of the war but shows participation in the fight against the aggressor of the whole society, all state institutions. All volumes are illustrated by photos, other illustrative material and provided with an electronic version of the published materials.

Key words: Great Patriotic War of 1941­1945., Native history, the Red Army, home front workers, strategy, tactics.



Burkov V.G. (Saint Petersburg). Our laureate………. 236