Klio #5 (65) 2012


Diares, memoirs

Chetverikov B.D. (Saint Petersburg). “Stezhky-dorozhky” (“The pathways”) (continuation)………. 3

The autobiographical novel by B.D. Chetverikov tells us about the writer’s life that can be called «the outline» of the history of our country in the 20th century.

Katukova E.S. (The Moscow Region). Something to remember (continuation)……. 12

These memoirs narrate Yekaterina Sergeevna Katukova’s life course that was inseparably linked with the outstanding military leader Mikhail Yefimovich Katukov. The memoirs cover many decades; events of the Great Patriotic War, however, hold the central position.


Source studies

Grinev A.V. (Saint Petersburg). The image of the Emperor Napoleon in A.-A. De Caulaincourt’s memoirs (to the 200th anniversary of the War of 1812)………. 19

This article analyzes the personal qualities of Emperor Napoleon I during his 1812 campaign in Russia on the basis of the memoirs by his closest associate Armand-Augustin de Caulaincourt.

Kostyuk R.V. (Saint Petersburg). The French Left-wing on the domestic and foreign policy of the USSR. The 1970s………. 30

The article tells about the attitude of leading left-wing parties in France to the domestic and foreign policies of the Soviet Union in the 1970s. The article shows the similarities and differences in the approaches of French communists and socialists in relation to the policy of one of the two superpowers at the time of the Left-wing being in France.


General history

Zaporozhets V.M. (Moscow). The Middle East on the eve of the GreatSeljukState formation………. 35

For the first time the article analyzes the processes of forming the military and political situation in the region of the Middle East at the end of the 10–11 centuries, formation and development of major military and political forces in the region.

Kanevskaya G.I. (Vladivostok). Immigration policy in Australian colonies of Great Britain in the XIX century………. 39

The article is devoted to studying the formation of Australia’s immigration policy, which played a major role in the socio-economic and political development of the country. It is based on Australian materials: published documents and works of Australian authors.

Tolstokulakov I.A. (Vladivostok). The modernization of social consciousness in Korea during
the proclamation of the Korean Empire until the establishment of the Japanese protectorate
(1897–1905)………. 42

The article investigates the history of the modernization of Korean social consciousness at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries; the issue is considered against the backdrop of dramatic historical events, when the question of the sovereign Korean state survival was being solved. Emphasis is placed on studying the relationship of various sectors of society to a “civilizing” mission of the Empire of Japan on the Korean Peninsula and the traditional focus on Confucian China.

Lim S.Ch. (Vladivostok). The establishment of a democratic student movement in Japan (1945–1960)………. 46

The article deals with the student movement in Japan during the postwar period, which was a part of a global democratic student movement in the late 1960s. All-Japan Federation of Student Self-Government – Zengakuren worked closely with the League of Democratic Youth, the youth organization of the Communist Party of Japan.

Kolesnichenko M.A. (Saint Petersburg). The role of the transport sector of the AzerbaijanRepublic in the functioning of the international transport and communication systems……….. 49

The article is devoted to the transport sector of the Azerbaijan Republic, namely road, rail, maritime
and air sectors thereof. Attention is paid to the place occupied by each of the listed means of
transport in the system of international transport and communication corridors (TRACECA and the “North-South”). The evaluation is given the processes of renovation and construction of various transportation routes.


The history of Russia

Shcherba A.N. (Saint Petersburg), Yakovenko V.I. (Temryuk). Further evidence of the location of Russian Tmutarakan………. 54

The article considers little explored issues related to the formation time, location and ethnic composition of the Russian Tmutarakan principality. Another proof of the location of the center of the principality – the city of Tmutarakan – is provided.

Sobolev V.S. (Saint Petersburg). Ship logbooks of Martyn Shpanberg’s detachment as sources on the history of the Second Kamchatka Expedition (in 1739)………. 57

The Russian government set the following task to the Marine Detachment of the Second Kamchatka Expedition to reach the shores of Japan during the voyage. The detachment, which consisted of three sailing ships under the command of Captain M. Shpanberg, as a result of a very difficult and lengthy campaign in 1739, for the first time in the Russian history managed to reach the shores of Japan. Logbooks of these ships that are stored in the Russian navy archive (RGAVMF) are a unique source on the history of exploration and scientific study of the Russian Far East. They provide highly valuable and interesting, the very first reliable information about environmental conditions in Japan, the first contacts with the population, etc. As a result of this expedition, there started mutual knowledge between the two peoples and the two neighboring countries.

Degtyarev A.P. (Moscow). The State Council of Russia in 1810–1917 and its organizational and legal principles………. 59

The article devoted to the anniversary date in the history of Russia and Saint Petersburg (now passed, but for some reason, in fact, remained in the background) – the 200th anniversary of M.M. Speransky brainchild – the State Council of Russia, examines the stages of the evolutionary path of the highest authority, its organizational and legal principles, structure (departments, offices, commissions, and their managers) in the XIX–early XX centuries. The mechanism of the State Council, the role of public figures in the history of its functioning are stated as well.

Kuptsova I.V. (Moscow). The image of Germany in the minds of the Russian artistic intelligentsia during World War I………. 68

The article is dedicated to transforming the image of Germany in the minds of the Russian artistic intelligentsia during World War I. Traditionally close cultural ties between Russia and Germany at the turn of the
XIX–XX centuries shaped the image of Germany as a “cultural teacher”. In war, it was necessary to change this idea on the image of enemy against growth of patriotic sentiment. Artistic intelligentsia failed to do so.


The history of Russian regions

Vashchuk A.S. (Vladivostok). Migrant workers from the DPRK in the Russian Far East during the second half of the ХХ–early XXI centuries………. 72

The article deals with more than half a century history of the presence of North Korean migrants in the Russian Far East. On the basis of new revealed sources the author introduces substantial refinement in the periodization of this historical phenomenon that was previously proposed by predecessors. The article provides an analysis of the number and proportion of North Korean migrants in the total foreign labor force in Russia.

Moiseeva L.A. (Vladivostok). Historical aspects of the implementation of state strategy to create favorable investment climate in the Far East in the late 1990s–2000s……….. 76

The article considers the problem of implementing the state policy to increase investment attractiveness of Russia’s Far East.



Krivitskiy V.V. (Saint Petersburg). A bronze finial with a sculptured deer head………. 81

On the basis of archaeological findings the article examines a sample of late bronze and early iron – a bronze finial with a sculptured deer head.


Military history

Poznakhirev V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Captured Turkish sailors in the Russian-Swedish War of
1788–1790………. 83

The article is devoted to the voluntary participation of captured Turkish sailors in the Russian-Swedish
War of 1788–1790. Based on the study of archival sources and published materials, terms and
conditions of forming the group in question are disclosed, the motivation of its members is analyzed; key problems of the financial and other types of support are outlined, an estimation of Turkish contribution in the victory over Sweden is given, issues of their naturalization in Russia and repatriation features are highlighted.

Gladkikh S.A  (Kotlas).The Russian-Japanese War of 1904–1905. The problem of periodization………. 85

The article analyzes the periodization of military history events as an example of the Russian-Japanese War of 1904–1905. A new periodization of the RussianJapanese War is proposed.

Lobanov V.B. (Saint Petersburg). The Caspian Flotilla in the armed forces in Southern Russia
(1919–1920)………. 91

The article describes the history of the White Guard Caspian Flotilla in 1919–1920. The issues of interaction with the British command and the fight against red fleet and Islamic rebels on the coast of Dagestan are considered here.


Cultural history

Makhlina S.T. (Saint Petersburg). The table is one of key elements in the residential interior design………. 98

The table is one of key elements in the residential interior design, a meal, so important for human life, takes place at the table. Tables appeared in ancient times. The article demonstrates the tables adjusted for different needs in the history of culture. Attention is paid to their aesthetic function.


Special historical disciplines

Burkov V.G. (Saint Petersburg). The Order of “Virtuti Militari.” On the history of Russian-Polish relations………. 101

Based on an analysis of published documents, domestic and foreign historiography, the author traces the history of the Order of “Virtuti Militari.”


Historical characters

Malinnikov M.V. (Saint Petersburg). Public opinion on Count Ye.F. Komarovsky’s state activities in the first half of the XIX century………. 106

The article discusses changes in public opinion on Count Ye.F. Komarovsky, his activities as the commander of a separate Corps of the Russian Empire domestic guard.

Avrus A.I., Novikov A.P. (Saratov). The literary and critical activity of V.M. Chernov………. 108

Little studied aspects of the activity of V.M. Chernov, leader of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, are considered; the author analyzes his literary and critical essays, translations of poetry, and his own poetical works.

Kovaleva D.N.  (Saratov). The right to err (the fate of N.P. Karabchevsky)………. 114

The article deals with a unique case in the history of the pre-Revolutionary Bar. One of the most famous lawyers of the Russian Empire before becoming a lawyer, committed murder in a state of insanity. The goal was to consider the right to err on the example of a particular person.

Popravko E.A. (Vladivostok). Ye.A. Gallikas: “I am deeply convinced that I’ll soon be free and rehabilitated …” (historical and biographical research)………. 117

Historical and biographical research, based on archival material tells about Ye.A. Gallikas, the director of the Seaside Regional Museum in Vladivostok in 1932–1937, condemned in 1937 under Art. 58 (6), but managed to get rehabilitation in 1947.

Solomakha E.N. (Nizhny Novgorod). Campaign againsn the cosmopolitism in scientific historyhistoriograph N.L. Rubinstein………. 121

The article states the beginning of the campaign against cosmopolitanism in historical science on the life story of one of the most prominent Soviet historians, N.L. Rubinstein. The influence of this campaign on the fate of the historian and his work “Russian Historiography” is demonstrated, evaluations in periodicals of that time and the position of N.L. Rubinstein himself during the campaign are analyzed.

Evseev V.I. (Saint Petersburg). Professor L.T. Tuchkov, leader of the school of experimental radar systems, the organizer of military and technical education………. 125

The article investigates the activities of L.T. Tuchkov, Doctor of Engineering, Professor, Lieutenant-General, the founder and long-term leader of scientific school of experimental radar systems, a prominent scholar in the field of radiometry (passive radars), the organizer of military science and engineering education, a participant in the Great Patriotic War.


To become history tomorrow

Goldin V.I. (Arkhangelsk). Geopolitics and international relations in the Arctic region: history Lessons, modern processes and trends………. 129

The article deals with the problems of geopolitics and international relations in the Arctic region in the late XX–early XXI centuries. The factors that contributed to a sharp rise of the region in world politics are analyzed, as well as the activities of individual states and international organizations in the struggle for the redivision of the Arctic region.


The reviews of scientific publications

Kan A. (Stockholm, Sweden). Museum exhibits – the embodiment of the military past………. 134

The review praised the joint work of Finnish, Swedish and Russian scientists. The publication is a
combination of scientific publications by well-known experts of the Finnish War of 1808–1809 with the publication of exhibits’ catalog of museums from different countries telling about the events of that war. The author concludes that the publication of this edition in Russian would be very useful for Russian historians.

Losik A.V. Saint Petersburg). A fresh look at the general panorama of the Great Patriotic War………. 135

The review structurally analyzes contents of the first volume of a 12-volume edition dedicated to the history of the Great Patriotic War. Noting a number of shortcomings, the reviewer gives the overall appreciation of the collective work of the Russian military historians.

Frolov M.I. (Saint Petersburg). From the standpoint of history and scientific credibility………. 139

In his review, Professor M.I. Frolov, a war veteran, critically analyzes the content of the first volume of the current 12-volume edition dedicated to the history of the Great Patriotic War. The high level of collective scientific work as well as its value for further research are noted.


Scientific life

Scientific conferences took place

Lapina I.Yu. (Saint Petersburg). Art of upbringing through education………. 142

The article draws attention to the peculiarities of history teaching in a technical university tells about bringing students to participate in scientific conferences on the history and analyzes proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference “Saint Petersburg in the Russian history and culture.”



To the 80th anniversary of Professor Boris Petrovich Belozerov………. 144

The article is devoted to the life and scientific and educational activities of the famous Saint Petersburg historian Boris Petrovich Belozerov. The story about his family and loved ones, on difficult years of childhood and youth allows a better understanding of the process of becoming a scientist and teacher.


The patriot’s mission is to protect the homeland (the 60th anniversary of V.M. Arutyunyan)………. 149

The article briefly traces a military, teaching and scientific career of V.M. Arutyunyan, Saint Petersburg historian.