Klio #5 (77) 2013

Diaries, memoirs

Chetverikov B.D. (Saint-Petersburg). «Stezhky-dorozhky» (The pathways)………. 3

The autobiographical novel by B.D. Chetverikov tells us about the writer’s life that can be called «the outline» of the history of our country in the 20th century.


Theoretical issues

Mahova A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The phenomenon of regionalism as a local response to globalization challenges………. 11

The article is devoted to the phenomenon of regionalism. The author explains the interdependence between concepts such as regionalism, regionalization and globalization, reveals the similarity of regionalism and nationalism, as well as offers to use the term «regional nationalism». In the article an attempt is made to the classification of types of regionalism and gives a description of their features.


Source study

Solodkin R.Ya. (Nizhnevartovsk). The first notes of the British diplomats about Moscow state in the estimates of Yu.V. Tolstoy………. 14

In the articles of Yu.V. Tolstoy, who was the first to apply to the study notes of the British diplomats and travelers about Russia in the second half of the XVI – beginning of the XVII century, reveals the origin of essays of J. Gorsey, determines the degree of accuracy of the messages of this author, as well as R. Chensler and J. Fletcher about “Moskovia” of the times of Ivan the terrible and Fedor Ivanovich. Clarified the sources and the purpose of the data pertaining to the largest monuments of England «Rossica» of that era.



Dzhagaeva О.А. (Elista). Cultural changes in Kalmykia during the first five years (historiography of 1920–1930)………. 18

The problem of cultural transformations in Kalmykia during the first five years is up to date and poorly studied. The article analyzes the formation and development of national historiography of cultural development of Kalmykia of 1920–1930­. Considers the degree of knowledge of the problems of national cultural construction in the Republic of Kalmykia, the issues of development of school education, training, common problems of the spiritual culture of Kalmykia.

Tihiy К.Т. (Ussuriysk). Political processes of 1934–1936 and «Stalin» Constitution in the estimates of Americans………. 20

Explores the attitude of the American public to political processes of 1934–1936 in the USSR. The article analyzes the impact of formed in that period public attitudes of different segments of the American society on further development of views on the Soviet political system.

Pilishvili G.D. (Kursk). The problems of organization and activity of the parts of the people’s militia during the great Patriotic war in Russian historiography………. 23

The article analyzes the state of study of the problems of formation, organization and combat application of parts of the people’s militia during the great Patriotic war by Soviet historians from 50-s to the 90-s of  XX century.

Gerasimova S.А. (Tver). Completion date of the battle for Moscow in Russian historiography: results and prospects of scientific research………. 27

The article analyzes the conclusions of the national historiography of 1940–2000 on the question of the end date of the battle for Moscow. The modern points of view are presented, the contradictions in connection with the generally accepted date – April 20, 1942 are marked, the ways of resolving contradictions are proposed.


General history

Guskov Е.А. (Saratov). Sit divus, dum non sit vivus: the lack of deification of Geta………. 32

The article discusses the possible dedication of Septimy Sever’s younger son – Geta (189–211/212).

Kamari D.М. (Volgograd). To the question about the Assyrian pressure on Phoenician colonization on the Iberian Peninsula………. 34

The article is devoted to the study of modern historiography of foreign political and socio-economic causes of the outbreak of Phoenician colonization on the Iberian Peninsula. Until now, scientists have not agreed on the importance of the Assyrian influence and role of the priesthood in the process of expanding the Phoenicians. Special attention is given to the work of leading Spanish specialist in the history of Phoenician colonization on the Iberian Peninsula Kh.M. Blaskes Martinez.


National history

Molochnikov А.М. (Saint-Petersburg). Kuzma Minin and cash salary to the noblemen without estates………. 38

The article considers the fate of the nobility of the Western districts of Russia in the Vague time. After the conquest of the Polish-Lithuanian army of Smolensk, Dorogobuzh, Vyazma, the nobles of these counties formed the core of the militia of Minin and Pozharsky in 1612. The article considers the problem of material support of the local troops and leaders of territorial irregulars and the first of the Romanovs.

Kondakov Yu.Е. (Saint-Petersburg). Architecture of symbolic degrees in the «Swedish» and «Rosicrucian» charters (on the materials of the Russian Freemasons of XVIII–XIX)………. 41

The article deals with the peculiarities of the Masonic learning in symbolic degrees (the first three degrees) in the «Swedish» and « Rosicrucian » charters, widely spreaded among the Russian Freemasons in XVIII–XIX. On the basis of first introduced into scientific circulation documents of Masonic archives is concluded that in these systems, symbolic degree played the role of the preliminaries.


The past of Russian regions

Zemlyansky I.А. (Vladivostok). Folk libraries in the far East in the second half of XIX – beginning of XX century………. 45

The article considers the appearance of the unique type libraries in the second half of the XIX century created at the expense of public funds, called folk. Despite the constraints imposed by instructions and rules of the state authorities, the activities of the national libraries did not stop, and their number was constantly growing.

Evdokimov А.P. (Saransk). Transformation of the way of life of the peasants of Mordovia in the 1920s – early 1930s.: traditions and innovations………. 50

The article is devoted to the study of radical changes in the traditional way of life of the Russian peasantry in the 1920s – early 1930s  (on the materials of Mordovia).

Nadkin Т.D. (Saransk). Organization of special settlements within regions for dispossessed peasants on the territory of Mordovia in the first half of the 1930s………. 53

The main purpose of creation of the special settlements in Mordovia in summer-autumn of 1933 was to accelerate the process of collectivization, because there was not economic efficiency from their work. Out of collective farms during the 1932 peasant families and even the remaining people on concrete examples was shown what they can expect in case of disagreement with the village policy.

Popravko Е.А. (Saint-Petersburg). «Communist conviction» and financial plan (market elements into the work of museums of the Primorskiy Kray in 1970 – the first half of the 1980s.)………. 57

The article examines the ideological motives and financial indicators as factors of assessment of the activity of the museums of the Primorskiy Kray in the 1970s – the first half of the 1980s. It is noted that during that period the financial indicators (profit) began to replace such indicators as ideological. In the result the elements of market relations had brought to the museums’ activity in the region.

Hudyakova N.D. (Saint-Petersburg). Transportation to the besieged Leningrad and front (1941–1943)………. 60

The author of the article publishes it on the eve of her 100 birthday anniversary. It is devoted to the study of the problems of the national help to the besieged Leningrad. The article is based as on the big actual material, as on the personal memoirs of the author, who survived the siege of Leningrad.


History of science and technology

Smirnov V.G. (Saint-Petersburg). Magnetic survey of Russia in the early twentieth century. Study of terrestrial magnetism in Russia in the XIX century………. 68

The article is devoted to organization and execution of magnetic survey of Russia in 1910-1917, which was led by the Chairman of the Magnetic Commission at the Academy of Sciences academician М.А. Rykachev.

Zvonkova G.L. (Kiev, Ukraine). Engineering centers of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (1980s)………. 77

In the article is analyzed the work of the various engineering centers of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR as a form of accelerating the introduction into production of results of scientific researches.


Military history

Grebenshikova G.А. (Saint-Petersburg). The fate of Russian sailors in the military conflicts of the early XIX century………. 80

In the article on extensive archival material is traced the fate of Russian seafarers participated in hostilities beginning of the nineteenth century. Assesses the activities of those who performed feats, and those who showed faint-heartedness and cowardice.

Alexandrov P.G. (Vladivostok). Parts of the Czechoslovak corps at the initial stage of the Civil war in Primorye (April-September of 1918)………. 86

The author investigates the peculiarities of the formation and participation in hostilities at the initial stage of the Civil war in Primorye of parts of the Czechoslovak corps. Analyzed the reasons of the anti-Bolshevik sentiments among the command and Legionnaires housing, especially the interaction with other anti-Bolshevik forces. The author comes to the conclusion that the actions of parts of the Czechoslovak corps had characteristics of occupation.

Ivanov I.L. (the village Chermoshnoe, Kursk region). Classification, the name and the chronology of the military actions of the red army on the territory of Kursk region in january-march 1943………. 89

In the article with the involvement of the largest layer of the archival documents of the front and army level of the author presents the classification of combat actions carried out by the Soviet troops in January-March 1943 on the territory of Kursk region. Attraction of Wehrmacht’s documents allowed to establish the timing and nature of military confrontation more precisely.


History of international relations

Bugashev S.I. (Saint-Petersburg). «Baku oil and British gold». To the question about the British investments in the South Caucasus in the late XIX – early XX………. 94

The article is devoted to the history of the penetration of British capital in the South Caucasus in the late XIX – early XX century. The most important sphere of application of British investment in that period was the Baku oil. The author analyzes the causes of English economic expansion in the region. He concludes that a foreign, primarily the British capital contributed to the industrialization of the country and undoubtedly played a progressive role. But they had to pay the high interest for the granted loans and mercilessly exploit the labor of the workers.


History of culture

Kupcova I.V. (Моscow). The image of Belgium in the minds of Russian artistic intelligentsia during the First world war………. 97

The article is devoted to the response of the Russian artistic intelligentsia at the tragedy of Belgium at the beginning of the First world war. The merit of the artistic intelligentsia was to build and promote the image of Belgium through mass media, contributing to the shaping of public opinion and the consolidation of Russian society.


Historical characters

Sulaberidze  Yu.S.  (Tbilisi, Georgia). The Caucasian war in the perception of V.А. Potto………. 101

The article gives a brief analysis of the military-literary work of a prominent military historian Vasiliy Aleksandrovich Potto (1837–1911). Attention is drawn to the characteristic to the representatives of Georgian military, who together with the Russian soldiers took an active part in the Caucasian war.

Gessen V.Yu., Dmitriev A.L. (Saint-Petersburg). All who knew about finances Anthony I. Bukovetsky ………. 106

In the article on the basis of archival and literary data, as well as the memories of the relatives and contemporaries, is described the life, scientific and educational activity of Professor A.I. Bukovetsky. Special attention is paid to the events connected with the repressions against him, the circumstances of his three arrests, staying in a concentration camp.

Chen Czya Vey (Taiwan). Political style of the Taiwanese President Chen Shuybyan: symbolism and reality (2000–2008)………. 115

In the article is considered the features of the political style of one of the leaders of the Democratic Progressive party in Taiwan Chen Shuybyan, the President of the Republic of China in Taiwan in 2000–2008. The author shows that the success of Chen Shuybyan is due to the fact that his views and especially the activities correspond to the nature of the modern liberal-democratic system with its trend towards commercialization and the need for a clear national identity. Contradictions between the liberal and nationalist values of ideology of Chen Shuybyan became the main cause of an unsuccessful end of his political career.



Sheremeev Е.Е. (Samara). Aberration (error images) in the history: to the discussion about the monument of the Czechoslovak legionaries in Samara………. 120

In the framework of the intergovernmental Russian-Czech “Agreement” from the 15 April 1999 in 15 cities of  Russian Federation (from the planned 50) memorial monuments to the Czechoslovak Legionnaires of 1918 has already installed. Not only in Russia but also in the Czech Republic this practice has an ambiguous assessment. In the article on the example of Samara, where in 1918 the Czechoslovak corps contributed to the affirmation and domination authorities of Kochum, is given the assessment of historical significance of the activities of Czechoslovak legionaries.


Will be history tomorrow

Belozerov B.P. (Saint-Petersburg). Legal state and corrupt government: Russian reality………. 127

The article considers the political, socio-economic and legal position of the Russian state after the adoption of the Constitution in 1993. Particular attention is drawn to a sharp change in the economic and moral-legal status of Russian citizens after the proclamation of the Russian law-based state. Attitude toward law and its values had changed dramatically. It did not become obligatory. A significant part of the population was considered, that the main law is the law on money.


Reviews of scientific editions

Gribovsky V.Yu, Mazhara P.Yu. (Saint-Petersburg). Review on the monograph of К.B. Nazarenko “The naval Ministry of Russia. 1906–1914”………. 134

The review gave a positive assessment of the monograph, on the activities of the naval Ministry of Russia in the early twentieth century. The authors believe that the monograph of K.B. Nazarenko “makes cast new light on many controversial moments in the history of Naval fleet”.

Shkarovsky М.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Review on the monograph of A.N. Kashevarov “The Soviet power and the fate of the relics of the Orthodox saints”………. 135

In the review thoroughly analyzes the monograph of the famous St. Petersburg researcher Professor A.N. Kashevarov, devoted to the activities of state authorities in the fight against the Orthodox Church. The reviewer believes that “the output of the monograph “the Soviet power and the fate of the relics of the Orthodox saints” is quite timely and meets the needs of interested in the objective historical material reader”.

Kostyuk Р.В. (Saint-Petersburg). The Comintern and Latin America………. 137

The review praised the content of the two volume monograph of V.L. and L.S. Heyfec. According to the reviewer, “the book is primarily of interest to specialists studying political history of Latin America and the history of the international left movement”.

Gogun А. (Berlin, Germany). Details of the fratricidal war………. 139

In the expanded review of the monograph of Polish specialist Gzhegozh Motyka gives a critical evaluation of his latest monograph on the Ukrainian-Polish conflict of 1940s. Concludes that a work, written at a high scientific level, contains a number of errors and contradictions, the work is less objective than the previous author’s book, since it appeared the neosoviet trend. Recommendations to introduce a number of changes and subsequent translation of the book into Russian are made.

Kuzhilin S.F. (Sаmarа). Exceptionally timely and useful publication, regarding the article of V.A. Zolotarev………. 143

The author expresses his opinion about the article of V.A. Zolotarev, in which the eminent military historian introduced to the scientific community judgments about the actual problems of reforming the Armed forces of the Russian Federation. The publication has received a high estimation.


Scientific life

Scientific conferences have passed

Alekseev А.N. (Saint-Petersburg). XVII All-Russian numismatic conference………. 145

The author briefly reports on the results of the work of the all-Russian numismatic conference attended by specialists from Armenia, Bulgaria, Belarus, Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, USA, Ukraine and Estonia.