Klio #5 (89) 2014

Topical theme

Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). The Ukrainian Historians and CLIO Journal of Scholarly Publishing………. 3

The article reviews publications by Ukrainian and Russian historians in CLIO journal of scholarly publishing. It is mentioned that for the time of the periodical, 40 articles by authors representing 14 regions of Ukraine have been published.

Keywords: Ukrainian historians, CLIO journal of scholarly publishing, History of Ukraine, cooperation, Russian and Ukrainian scientists.


Theoretical issues

Solomakha E.N. (Nizhny Novgorod). Solution of Theoretical Issues of Historiography in 1940s………. 5

The Article runs about solution of and approaches to theoretical problems of historiography as a science in 1940s. N.L. Rubinstein, one of the most outstanding Soviet historiographers, proposed this solution and his own position on a matter at his time.

Keywords: history of the historical science in the USSR, school, direction, trend, historiographical fact, historiographical source, historiographical study technique, periodization.



Topolev A.Y. (Moscow). Military Conflict between Russia and Georgia in August, 2008, and Consequences Thereof as Assessed by American and British Research Workers………. 15

This paper reviews the Russia-Georgia military conflict in August of 2008 as interpreted by the American and British researchers. Their standpoints on which party is responsible for unleashing the conflict are being presented. Views of the scientists from the USA and Great Britain are being analyzed as on the targets set by Moscow, the achieved results, and consequences of the armed standoff for the parties.

Keywords: Georgia-Russian military conflict, policy of Russia on the post-Soviet area, Georgia, South Ossetia, Abkhazia, foreign investigators.


General history

Chininov I.V. (Moscow). The “Yap Empire”: Reality or Hypothesis………. 20

The greatest system of exchange-tribute relations (sabean) connecting the Yap district Gagil with Central Caroline atolls (Micronesia) was conditionally named the “Yap Empire”. However, that system was an integral part of the more complex set of economic, political, social, and ideological interrelations between the inhabitants of those island groups, which was a special form of a proto-state entity. The report considers the strict hierarchy structure of the “Empire”, a variety of mechanisms of its functioning, as well as an important economic and social part it played in the life of the natives of that region.

Keywords:Micronesia, YapIslands, Central Caroline atolls, social relations, exchange-tribute system, proto-state entity, lineage.

Boldyreva I.I. (Voronezh). Woman as a Heritrix and Testatrix in Anglo-Saxon Law in the 9–11th Centuries………. 24

This Article reveals some specific features of proprietary and legal status of women in the early Middle Ages, based on the review of Anglo-Saxon testamentary practice. The investigation is being carried out as exemplified by Anglo-Saxon letters, with some legislative memorials and chartulary chronicles engaged. In early Middle-Ages England, a woman could be a heritrix and testator of estate and movable property, which testifies to her legal activity and participation in wealth distribution. Besides, Anglo-Saxon noblewomen’s testator strategies were characterized by their legal and cultural specificity.

Keywords: Anglo-Saxon England, woman in early feudal society, Middle-Ages law, Anglo-Saxon letters.

Rakhmanova T.D. (Saint Petersburg). The American Wild West Film Evolution: Popular Cinema Genre from Birth to Myth………. 29

The Article deals with evolution of the Western genre of the American cinema. Though started as an attraction, the Western film then transformed into the instructive dram about the fight of good and evil. By 1960s, the Wild West film consisted of polar oppositions had become a parody of itself. Spaghetti-Westerns that appeared turned out to be nearly the mainstream ushering the finish of the genre. In 2000s, the Western film, heroics, and the pantheon turned into a myth.

Keywords: Western, genre, American cinema, spaghetti-western, revisionist western, acid western, the USA, Wild West, Coen brothers, Clint Eastwood, Sergio Leone, John Ford, John Wayne, cowboys, Fred Zinnemann, Sam Peckinpah, “Unforgiven”, “Dollars Trilogy”, “True Grit”, “No Country for Old Men”, “Stage Coach”, “High Noon”, “The Wild Bunch”


National history

Ponomareva S.D. (Saint Petersburg). History of the Crimean Statehood………. 33

The Article is devoted to the history of the Crimean statehood from ancient times until present days. 

Key words: statehood, reforms, sovereignty, referendum, government, the Crimea, the Constitution.

Grebenyuk A.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). Lives of Saint Princes and Princely Negotiated Letters in the 14th – Early 16th Century: Secular Authority Images (Comparative and Source Studies Analysis Pattern)………. 37

The Article attempts to discover and substantiate the similarities and differences displayed by two types of sources of the same object – institution of princely authority during the epoch of state formation in the 14th-erly 16th centuries, based on the comparative and source studies analysis of princely hagiographies and negotiated letters of the Russian princes in the 14th-early 16th centuries.

Key words: princely hagiography, clerical and negotiated letters of the Russian princes, image of an ideal monarch, princely authority institution, Prologue, record form, diplomatic analysis, semantic text unit.

Yudin M.O. (Moscow). Participation of the Russian Jewelry Firms in Coronations in 1883………. 43

This Article deals with the activity of the native gold and silver enterprises for the arrangement and holding coronation ceremonies in 1883 in Moscow. Here, a variety of the examples is given; from immediate participation of the jewelry company representatives in holiday events to “renewal” of “historical” objects use in coronation; making numerous loyal tribute and imperial souvenirs.

Keywords: coronation, Alexander III, Maria Fyodorovna, tributes, the Russian jewelry companies.

Zuyev A. (Saint Petersburg). Abandonment of the Sea-Going Merchantmen in the Russian Empire (the Second Half of the 19th – Early 20th Centuries)………. 46

The Article is concerned with a problem of abandonment of the sea-going merchantmen in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th – early 20th century. It is mentioned that sailors’ desertion in Russia was a true bane for national shipping. The author emphasizes that enforced deportation of the deserters to Russia sometimes would run into insurmountable obstacles. Numerous reasons are discussed that were conducive to disorder in internal code of conduct aboard, including abandonment of a post.

Keywords: abandonment, sailor, merchant fleet, vessel crew, captain, consul

Volkovsky N.L., Melnik M.G. (Saint Petersburg). Establishment and Development of Human Rights Press in Russia………. 48

The paper presents sources of the national human rights press, its establishment and development during post-Soviet period, reviews specific features of online human rights media, investigates present-day interaction of human rights institutions and mass media.

Keywords: samizdat, human rights activists, human rights press, newspaper, magazine, bulletin, radio, television, the Internet, online media, informational agency.


The past of the Russian regions

Khodanovich V.I. (Saint Petersburg). Enigma of the Molvinskaya Column………. 58

The Article is dedicated to the history of appearance of the monument in Catherinehof Park to be named “Molvinskaya column”. The issue of authorship of the design is discussed. Circumstances of appearance of the column highlighted a number of famous and little-known persons of that epoch from the other – “non-canonic” point of view.

Keywords: social history, history of culture, architectural monuments.

Aristova K.G. (Penza). The First Steps on Legalization of Church Authority in Penza Eparchy in 1918: Establishment of the Orthodox Christian Brotherhood………. 62

The paper discloses one of the most important aspects of church-state relationship in post-revolutionary Russia as exemplified by Penza governorate archive data, i.e. establishment of the Orthodox Christian Brotherhood, the eparchy governing board. It is established that the new form of governing Penza eparchy was catalyzed by standoff between the canonic church headed by bishop John (Pommer) and dissenter “people” “Soviet” church of the former archbishop Vladimir Putyata.

Keywords:Penza eparchy, renovationism, the Church, government.

Isayev A.A. (Vladivostok). The USSR Far East Population’s Attitude to the Deportation of the Korean and Chinese in the Later 1930s ………. 64

This Article considers the causes of appearance and peculiarities of implementation in the later 1930s of enforced migration (deportation) of the Korean and Chinese people formerly living in the Far East of the USSR. The Far East dwellers’ attitude to the enforced migration is analyzed; the most typical public opinions on this problem typical are being emphasized.

Keywords: enforced migration, deportation, the USSR Far East, the Korean, the Chinese, public opinion.

Lisitsyna E.N. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Partnership “I. Stakheyev and Co.” and Sakhalin Oil ………. 66

The paper is devoted to some unknown facts of the activity of the partnership ‘I. Stakheyev and Co.’, the largest concern in the country associated with an attempt of exploration of oil deposit on Sakhalin Island.

Keywords: Partnership “I. Stakheyev and Co.’, oil deposits in Sakhalin, concession policy.


Military history

Blandov A.A. (Saint Petersburg). Legal Status of the Clergy in the Russian Nave in the 18th Century………. 70

In the Article primarily based on archive sources, rights and obligations of the clergymen and hieromonks serving in the nave in the 18th century are considered. Special attention is paid to the instructions issued to the naval priests in 1708 and 1710, as well as to the Clauses on naval hieromonks posts in 1719/1721, and to the Navy Regulations – the basic documents regulating legal status of the naval clergy. It is shown that special status of the priests aboard was legitimized, still actually their rights were often derogated.

Keywords: naval clergy, Navy Regulations, chief hieromonk, history of the navy.

Vinichenko M.V. (Moscow). Experience of Governing Social Systems under Extreme Conditions of Underground Space in World Wars of the 20th Century………. 73

The paper considers some problematic issues of governing social systems under extreme conditions, which are of immediate interest at present. Special focus is on the tendency towards using underground space by top and level managers, and on inefficient use thereof under extreme conditions. Activity of military authorities during and between wars in the 20th century is being under review. The Article gives comparative analysis of dynamics of development of uses of underground space, and of the experts’ aspiration to comprehensive management of social system activity within the territory with well-developed underground infrastructure.

Key words: social system management, tendencies in using underground space by top and level managers, management efficiency, extreme conditions, comprehensive activities.


History of culture

Gessen V.Y. (Saint Petersburg). Cultural Revolution in Bolshevist Fashion in Petrograd – Leningrad (October 1917–1929) (The Final Part)………. 77

On the basis of archival documents the article studies the events of a decade in Petrograd-Leningrad related to removal and seizure of artistic values (libraries, paintings, furniture) owned by members of the nobility, the rich part of the population, the general intelligence. Traced is the fate of seized values including taking the property out of Russia.

Keywords: the Bolshevik revolution, the cultural revolution, the removal of art treasures, libraries, temporary storage.

Yashny D.V. (Kiev, Ukraine). The Crimean Cultural Heritage as Exemplified by Artistic Pre-Soviet Cards (1895–1917)………. 95

The author reviews methodological basis for using pre-Soviet artistic cards in examination of cultural heritage based on vast range of the Crimean sights. Based the Crimean artistic cards, fundamentals of functioning and co-existence of architectural elements in different town-planning periods in the peninsular in the early 20th century are being restored.

Keywords: cultural heritage, the Crimea, artistic cards, Saint Eugenia Community, artists.


Historical figures

Kinshin V.V., Kinshin S.V. (Saint Petersburg). The Spanish in the Pay of Russia: Augustin Monteverdi and His Descendants………. 99

The Article represents the results of biographic investigation of previously unknown facts describing life and service of Augustin Antonovich Monteverdi, a man of ancient noble Spanish families Monteverdi and Betancourt, the founder of the Russian branch Monteverdi. An outstanding military engineer, A.A. Betancourt’s nephew, he devoted over 38 years to the service in Russia. Great attention is paid to the research into his descendants’ biographies, and their works. This investigation is of special interest since it allows for comprehensive tracing destiny of all representatives of that noble lineage in Russian in connection with the fortunes of the country.

Keywords: Augustin Antonovich Monteverdi, Railway Engineers Corpus, Admiralty, construction, literature, Botanical garden, scientific paper.

Kislitsina I.L. (Saint Petersburg). Revisiting Radicalism of M.A. Bakunin’s Revolutionary Theory and Program………. 102

Bakunin’s theory of revolutionary anarchism and the program of the revolutionary middle-class activity in Russia in comparison of the concepts “bakunism” and “political radicalism” as currently interpreted from the scientific standpoint are under investigation. The conclusion is made on material inconsistency of Bakunin’s ideology and practice in Russia with scientifically interpreted radicalism.

Keywords: bakunism, anarchism, radicalism, revolution theory, revolutionary movement in Russia.

Smirnov V.G. (Saint Petersburg). Baron F.F. Wrangel and His Ethnopsychological Essay “Why Do They Fight?” (1914)………. 108

The first part of the Article is devoted to the brief description of life and activity of Baron Ferdinand Ferdinandovich Wrangel (1844–1919), F.P. Wrangel’s son, the navy officer, the explorer of the Mediterranean and Black sea, the inventor of marine artillery range finders, educator and director of the Imperial Alexander lyceum, the first biographer of the vice-admiral S.O. Makarov, a publicist and thinker. In the second part, F.F. Wrangel’s ethnopsychological essay “Why Do They Fight?” (1914) considering the causes of the World War I is published for the first time.

Key words: F.F. Wrangel, S.O. Makarov, World War I, Wilhelm the II, Nicolas the III

Zhukov V.Y. (Saint Petersburg). “A Person Must Be More Open-Minded than the Particular Specialty of His” (A Meeting with A.E. Pomazansky, a Graduate from Leningrad Engineering and Construction Institute of 1965)………. 124

At Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, pursuant to bringing-up civil consciousness and public spirit, pride for one’s country and its culture, there took place a meeting with a graduate from Leningrad Engineering and Construction Institute of 1955, the front veteran of the Great Patriotic War, construction engineer A.E. Pomazansky. Descendant of the Russian composers and conductors represented his book “Lyadovy and Pomazanskye – a musical family…”, which was published in the Year of Culture and in tribute to the 100th anniversary of death of A.K Lyadov. The author has been working on it since 1992.

Keywords: Leningrad Engineering and Construction Institute – Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, the Great Patriotic War, Victory Day, the Russian Opera Theater, history of the Russian music, music studies, Lyadovy – Pomazanskye, cultural heritage and historical memory conservation, cultural monument restoration, brining-up civil consciousness and public spirit.


History of international relations

Antonova A.A. (Saint Petersburg). Ethnohistorical, Foreign-Law, and External Factors of Declaration of Independency of the Republic of Kosovo and TurkishRepublic of Northern Cyprus: General and Specific Factors………. 126

The so called Republic of Kosovo and Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus are the results of interethnic conflicts in Serbia and Cyprus, correspondingly. To this end, to draw parallels between the key aspects of declaration of independency of the world policy factors under consideration means to compare the conflicts themselves. Discovery of the features typical of both situations is necessary in order to formulate the Russian foreign policy positions towards unrecognized states and settlement of ethnic conflicts as a whole.

Keywords: Ethnic conflict, comparative analysis, Kosovo conflict, Cyprus conflict, unrecognized state, de-facto state.

Meshcheryakov K.E. (Saint Petersburg). Russia-Kazakhstan Relations in 1998–2009: Close Allied Interaction………. 133

The paper deals with major trends and problems of development of Russia-Kazakhstan interstate relations in 1998–2009. Legal and regulatory framework for bilateral cooperation is under analysis. Contribution of the presidents of two countries to the extension of the dialogue between Russia and Kazakhstan is studied. The conclusion is made that Kazakhstan was an unfailing alliance partner for Russia not only within the post-Soviet area, but also all over the world.

Keywords:Russia, Kazakhstan, Central Asia, post-Soviet area, foreign policy, Russian-Kazakhstan relations, allied interaction, strategic partnership, B.N. Yeltsin, V.V. Putin, D.A. Medvedev, N.A. Nazarbayev.


History of science and technique

Zotova A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Role of Communication Institutions in the Activity of Leningrad Industry (1941–1945)………. 140

Based on the archives, the activity of communication facilities as an important factor of development of Leningrad during the Great Patriotic War is being analyzed. It is stated that experience of Leningrad communication operators played a positive role in resumption of work of the Leningrad television center in 1946.

Key words: the Great Patriotic War, Siege of Leningrad, communication, industry, post, telegraph, telephone, radio, press.


Scientific publication reviews

Kan A. (Sweden, Stockholm). Review on Jens Petters Nilsen’s Monograph “Death is a Key to Everything: New Sense of Stalin’s Terror”………. 144

The review’s author emphasizes that disputes over Stalin’s personality keep running both in Russia, and abroad. In the author’s opinion, this testifies to the fact that books similar to this under review should be translated into Russian to be the reason for discussion.

Keywords: Stalin, terror, Jens Petter Nilsen, Stalinism, Norway historians.

Chernobayev A.A. (Moscow). Succession vs Innovation of the Russian Historiographical Tradition in the 20th– Early 21st Century………. 145

This review states that ideological pressure upon historians in the period of O.M. Medushevskaya’s creative work determined a scientist’s professional growth. Olga Mikhailovna was deeply probing into the current problems of source study based on the documents of ancient and middle-aged history. As a result, she wrote deep works on history methodology, while the author has become a symbolic figure that united “three key periods of the Russian historiography of the 20th century”.

Keywords: O.M. Medushevskaya, man, humanism, historiography


Scientific life

Reviews of official opponents

Kitayev V.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). An Official Opponent’s Opinion of K.I. Schneider’s Thesis “Between Freedom and Monarchy: History of the Early Russian Liberalism”………. 149

The official opponent highly appreciates the thesis. While pointing at some insignificant drawbacks, V.A. Kitayev emphasizes that “though having some deficiencies and points at issue, the thesis takes study of the largest problem of intellectual history of Russia to new heights”.

Keywords: K.I. Schneider, V.A. Kitayev, official opponent, thesis, Russian liberalism, freedom, monarchy.



Levchenko V., Gatilova L. (Saint Petersburg). Chronicler of Kursk Region………. 151

In the publication, A.Y. Drugovskaya’s, the hero of the anniversary, scientific way is being traced. It is emphasized that Alexandra Yuriyevna has greatly contributed to the historical science development, in particular, to the research into Kursk region history.

Keywords: A.Y. Drugovskaya, anniversary, Kursk historians, KurskStateUniversity.


In memory of a colleague

Ippolitov G.M., Voronov V.N., Efremov V.Y. (Samara). A Real Man, Scientist, and Citizen (in Loving Memory of Professor Vyacheslav Viktorovich Rybnikov)………. 155

The memorial Article briefly highlights major milestones of biography and scientific and pedagogical activity of lately deceased Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Vyacheslav Viktorovich Rybnikov, a military historian and historiographer, who, while alive, created a scientific school and wrote a number of significant scientific papers, as well as innovative (for his times) teaching aids. The authors consider V.V. Rybnikov to be one of their teachers who did a lot for their scientific rise.

Keywords: Vyacheslav Viktorovich Rybnikov; V.I. Lenin Military and Political Academy; historiography, Historical science methodology; Department of History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; post graduate military course, students, retired colonel.