Klio #6 (102) 2015


Mikhailova I.B. (Saint-Petersburg) ‘Gubnaya’ reform in Russian Historiography ………. 3

The article analyzes Russian Historiography, related to the problem of judicial (‘gubnaya’) reform in the Moscow state of 16 th century. Historians 19 th-early 21 th century comprehensively covered the issue of this problem, but did not reach an unambiguous conclusion. They debated about research method, provisional borders, causes and meaning of ‘gubnaya’reform, revival of ancient society institutes or the creation of new institutions, right or duty of all residents of ‘gubu’ to participate in «Princes deal» to flight crime. Investigating those questions, scientists indentifiedthe consist and status of elected officials of local management, characterized their functions, demonstratived the process of trial’s evolution. The article deals with opinions about the issues of N.V. Kalachov, K.A. Nevolin, B.N. Chicherin, A.D. Gradovsky, M.M. Mikhailov, V.I. Sergeyevitch, I.D. Belyaev, N.I. Lange, I.I. Dityatin, M.F. Vladimirski-Budanov, N.P. Retwich, V.I. Kurdinovskiy, S.A. Shumakov, A.A. Kiesewetter, N.N. Debol’skiy,V.O. Kluchevskiy and others scientists 19 th-early 20 th century. They defined meaning the terms «namestnik», «ruzboy», «gubnoy starosta», «gubnoy celovalnik», «gubnoy d’iak», characterized system of justice in the Moscow state 15th-16th centyres, researched the problem of rights and dutes of the native inbabitantes and the questions of the status and jurisdiction of them election local management. Historians 20th century N.E. Nosov, S.M. Kushtanov, A.A. Zimin wrote about class character of «gubnaya» reform. They debated about method of investigation such sources as «gubnaya gramota» and «gubnoy nakaz», defined aims stages of reform differently. In Russian Historiography of boundary 20th-21th centures this reform is examined as component of the strengthening of State authority.

Keywords: historiography, the Moscow state of 16 th century, reform, crime, trial, self-government, local authorities, election, law, Ivan IV Terrible

Grishaev O.V. (Voronezh ). Criticism of German Historical conception in 1930 – x years by Soviet historians ………. 14

The article analyses a soviet historian’s criticism of  pseudoscientific researches of Nazi historians, who proved racial theory of fascism due to representing such a terms as a “folk’s psychology”, “inherited racial soul”, “racial instinct”.  Characteristics of the German historical concepts of the period of national socialism. Soviet historians A. E. Erusalimsky, N. P. Graciansky, E. A. Kosminsky, A. I. Naushin, D. C. Skazkin

Key words: historiography, Nazism, racial theory, soviet historians.


General History

Znamenski A.A. (Memphis, USA). President Roosevelt Policies and Myth of American War Prosperity ……….  19

President Roosevelt Policies and Myth of American War Prosperity

This review article explores the influence of two world wars (with a special emphasis on the Second World War) on the social, economic, and political development of the United States. First, the paper analyses revisionist writings (Robert Higgs, Lawrence Reed, Amity Shlaes, Burt Folsom, Jim Powell, and Robert Murphy) that, since the 1980s, have been increasingly questioning apologetic attitudes to President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal, stressing how his policies prolonged the Great Depression. Second, it is shown that this scholarship eventually moved toward the revision of the established myth about American prosperity during World War II. It is noted that war mobilization and regulation schemes of the New Deal directly and indirectly have contributed to the growth of federal bureaucracy and eventually to the erosion of individual liberties.

Key words: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, United States, New Deal, Second World War, Bureaucracy, Great Depression, “Regime Uncertainty”.


History of Russia

Azamatova G.B. (Ufa). «Welcome to capitalism or zemsky charges in the post reform and late imperial Russia» ………. 32

The article examines the role of the local governments in reforming the state tax system in the 1860–1914 years. It was important to consider the taxes of local government in the context of the replacement of per capita taxation oncapitalist, taxation based on the value and profitability of projects. Local government taxes played a decisive role in replacing capitation taxes capitalist serf period, based on the value and profitability of objects. The tax reform destroyed serf economic structure, accelerated the development of capitalism. The participation of different social and economic groups, the local owners in the process of establishing zemsky taxes is shown with a wide range of sources. A detailed study of the process of formation zemsky charges allowed the author to put the problem of the development of cadastre in the post-reform Russia and conclude that the zemstvo boards have played a major role in its drafting. Developments of zemstvoes in real estate assessments were used as a basis for further development of the state fiscal system.

Keywords: zemstvo, financial system of local government, zemstvo taxes, land registry, urban taxes, taxes policy, local government budget, tax reform.

Dianova E.V. (Petrozavodsk). «Take care of the pence, the pounds will take care of themselves, and the ruble guards the head»: monetary mentality of the population and credit cooperation of Russia ………. 36

In this article an attempt in historical refraction to consider features of monetary mentality of residents of Russia is made, on the basis of folklore material to find out features of their financial consciousness and behavior, including such important component of the relation to money as thrift. For creation of idea of monetary mentality and the traditional relation to accumulation and saving the analysis of “monetary” proverbs and sayings is carried out. It is known that for determination of level of financial literacy of the population small genres of folklore were used by the Russian economists and figures of credit cooperation, trying to sort out features the peasantry relations to loan and supplementary operations. And they drew a conclusion that owing to specifics of historical development of Russia the financial consciousness of its inhabitants remained at a low level, instead of saving prodigality and squandering were widespread that had an adverse effect on national well-being and development of economy At the same time in article it is shown that thanks to efforts of cooperative figures at the beginning of the XX century certain success in development of credit cooperation was achieved, gradually formed savings behavior yielded the results. However the followed events of revolution of 1917 and policy of military communism depreciated all accumulation that has an adverse effect on financial consciousness of the population.

Key words: folklore, money, monetary mentality, financial consciousness, thrift, credit cooperation, loans, deposits.

Morozov S.D. (Penza). The USSR on the eve of the outbreak of the Second world war ………. 50

The article discusses the development of international relations and teaching-part in them on the eve of the Soviet Union and the beginning of World War II. The failure of negotiations with Britain and France led the Soviet Union to the search path agreement with Germany. Stalin signed a contract (Pact) of nonaggression with A. Hitler on August 23, 1939 Just shows the on-Annex countries on military and political arena. Questions about identify deficiencies and training troops, a serious miscalculation command of the Red Army in the war and immediate measures to improve the fighting capacity and mobilization readiness of the army and navy were stated, serious shortcomings in the management of troops, their operational and tactical coordination, providing personnel with winter clothing and food, providing medical care were revealed. As a result of all this – unexpected delays in the hostilities, mass casualties were.

Key words: USSR, Germany, UK, France, USA, military units, contracts, confrontation.


History of Russian Regions

Rykov A.V. (Breitovo Yaroslavl region). The campaign of seize church property in the territory of modern Rybinsk diocese. 1922 – 1923 ………. 55

This article describes historical events known as the campaign for the confiscation of Church valuables, held in present boundaries of the Rybinsk diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. The development of the events presented in chronological order. There were analyzed the stages of the campaign, methods and organizational approaches, used by the Soviet authorities in the framework of the confiscation of Church valuables. Within the framework of the article original position of the Russian orthodox Church towards the launched campaign was shown, the framework was defined in which the clergy and laity had provided effective assistance to the hungry. There was shown how under increased pressure and the use of repressive effects by the authorities, had been broken the resistance to the campaign, which resulted in the trial of clergy and laity. Both monetary and political results of the campaign were analyzed. Separately in the article was identified the role of the revisionist movement in the described events. Additionally there were described plans and results of the additional confiscation of valuables, executed in 1923.

Key words: Rybisnk diocese, campaign for the confiscation of Church valuables, Russian Orthodox Church, Hungry 1921-1922, Soviet authorities

Baranov A.V., Vasilyev I.Y. (Krasnodar). The reasons of the failure of ukrainization at Kuban region in the times of Civil war and new economic policy ………. 61

The article is concerned with identification of the reasons of Ukrainization’ failure at the Kuban in the times of the Civil War and the New Economic Policy (1918–1929). The main interpretations of the Kuban population’ identity in a contemporary Russian and Ukrainian historiography are defined. The social conditions of prevalence of the Russian identity in pre-revolutionary Kuban are revealed. The artificial nature of Ukrainization, its rejection in public opinion and discrepancy to an imperative of sociocultural integration of the Soviet society is reasoned on the basis of a constructivism paradigm. The Kuban Cossacks in 1918–1929 had a complicated ethnic-estate identity which is poorly revealed by methods of the analysis of that time. Gradually a voluntary assimilation of Ukrainians by Russians, contrary to a focus of the authorities in 1923–1932 on  “Ukrainization” gained ground. Isolation of the Cossacks from “non-residents” and Russian urban population was maintained in a greater degree on a stratificational, class basis, as well as in virtue of a historical memory of pre-revolutionary privileged position.

Keywords: Ukrainization, Failure, Reasons, the Civil War, the New Economic Policy, Kuban.

Nechaev M.G.(Perm). Evacuation of Leningrad enterprises, institutions and population in Molotov (Perm) their accommodation and activities during the Great Patriotic war ………. 68

Moving companies, institutions and people in the great Patriotic war from West to East in its scale and significance of the unprecedented event that determined the victory of the USSR. In article on the basis of new sources analyzed evacuation of Leningrad enterprises, institutions and population in Molotov (Perm) region played a significant role not only in preserving the lives of hundreds of thousands of people and continue with the work of the Leningrad enterprises and institutions, but also gave impetus to the development of economic, scientific and cultural potential of the current Perm region.

Key words: evacuation, home baby, baby orphanage, the siege of Leningrad, avcount, military field telephones, Goznak, infantry school, theatre, military mechanical Institute of physics and agronomy Institute, pedagogical Institute, literature Foundation, Kirov theatre of Opera and ballet, ballet school, Russian Museum.

Alekseeva L.V. (Nizhnevartovsk). About some results of studying of history of fishery of the Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets national districts in the years of World War II ………. 74

The short review of achievements of a modern domestic historiography on studying of history of fishery of national districts of the North of Western Siberia in the years of World War II is presented in the article. The author, for many years studying history of fishery of the specified territory, generalizes the new data obtained during researches. Having proved the need of studying of a subject on the basis of an integrated approach, the author as a result of work with archival sources, submitted new data on volumes of production of fish, production of canned food, number of a manpower, management of branch, etc. Along with achievements which are obvious to development of fishery, the author notes also serious problems which were characteristic for it. Among them there are a problem of development of distant grounds, bad material security of branch, shortage of a manpower, non-performance of production plans on a catch of fish, fish fauna exhaustion.

Key words: district, fishing, canning production, human resources, plan, job, stage, result

Shabalin G.S. (Petrozavodsk). Soviet era youth residential complex movement as it was presented in the Murmansk region and the modern youth housing issues ………. 78

The article is devoted to the analysis of Youth Residential Complex construction experience in the USSR – in the Murmansk region particularly – especially in the Perestroika era. There is shown social and moral essence of Youth Residential Complex, which was first developed in the Moscow region town Kaliningrad. The article accentuates the acuteness of the housing problem for the USSR and the Murmansk region. It is pointed out that the government attempted to employ Youth Residential Complex movement to realize the housing construction plan and make up for the labor shortage. The article also addresses various national and regional housing programs, which include construction of the reasonably priced houses for the youth aside from mortgage loans and commercial construction. Among other specialists, the former Youth Residential Complex movement leaders took part in the developing of these programs. The use of the Soviet era Youth Residential Complex construction experience is also noted.

Key words: youth, housing problem, Youth Residential Complex, Murmansk region, housing programs, Youth Residential Complex revival.


History of International RelationsI

Nazipov I.I. (Perm). Evaluation review of russian-horde relations in historical sources and historiography, negative in form and historical consequences ………. 85

In historical science, the Russian-Horde relations and consequences of the Horde impact on Russia are represented by group of standpoints. Among them, the judgment is presented in this article. This negative view of the Horde impact on Russian lands is reviewed in the article. Within this viewpoint three evaluation systems which differ from each other in criterion are being reviewed. The first evaluation system considers opinion of invasion and dependence on the Horde as intrigues of the Devil whose servants were the Tatars. Part of old Russian authors of chronicles and literary works adhered to this opinion. The other part of authors considered that the Tatar invasion and submission to them was Divine retribution for sins of the Russians. The authors analyzing in this article gave the following features possessed by the Devil and his demons in Holy Writ to the Tatars: craftiness, flattery, unnatural strength, indefatigability in battle. Also according to this logic, the Tatars had to hate Christian church, and in literary works, they destroy church buildings, murder priests. The second system is evaluation based on comparative study of Russia before submission to the Horde and after its release.  The authors make this comparison in favor of the look of Russia before the Mongols both in terms of material and spiritual culture. The authors think that cruelty of laws, authoritarianism rule, people’s submissive character are the consequences of the Tatars’ impact. The third system is a negative evaluation of the “yoke” based on historical materialism. It was presented by historians in the USSR. The Tatars’ impact inhibited development of productive forces, the basis of Russia, and consequently, culture. It forms the basis of evaluation. Negative utterances of K. Marx about the Horde and the Mongol-Tatars also had influence on evaluation of the Soviet historiography.

Key words: the Horde, Russian lands, Russian-Horde relations, the Devil’s intrigues, historical materialism, criteria of evaluation.

Kuznetsov V.D. (Saint-Petersburg). On the influence of the missionary activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in Asia and the Americas in the second half of XIX – early XX centuries to strengthen the political and cultural position of Russia on the world stage ………. 89

The article deals with the activities of the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) for conversion to Orthodoxy small peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East Empire in the second half of the XIX century and the beginning of XX. It is emphasized that in this period the work of Orthodox missionaries goes beyond the Russian Empire and distributed on the territory of the countries of Asia and the Americas. attention is paid mainly with the foreign missions. In the pre-revolutionary period of Orthodoxy has spread far beyond the borders of the Russian Empire, which, to some extent, helped to strengthen the political and cultural position of Russia on the world stage. Missionary activity of the ROC within the empire contributed to the expansion and strengthening of the position of Orthodoxy as the official state religion and, to a certain extent, cultural communication between the peoples inhabiting the Russian Empire. It should be noted that the word “mission” were named as the Clergy in some overseas churches, which consisted exclusively of persons who took monastic vows, under the Archimandrite, and missionary societies. They are engaged in spreading their religion (in this case – Orthodoxy) by creating educational institutions, opening of hospitals, providing material assistance to local monasteries, churches and clergy. In this article attention is paid mainly with the foreign missions. With this in pre-revolutionary period Orthodoxy has spread far beyond the borders of the Russian Empire, which, to some extent, helped to strengthen the political and cultural position of Russia on the world stage. Missionary activity of the ROC within the empire contributed to the expansion and strengthening of the position of Orthodoxy as the official state religion and, to a certain extent, cultural communication between the peoples inhabiting the Russian Empire.

Key words: Russian Orthodox Church, missionary work, the story, the second half of the XIX century.

Ablizin V.A. (Saratov). The day before. The USSR and Germany in anticipation of the Great Patriotic war ………. 96

For the last decades the extensive literature about the Great Patriotic War is collected. Nevertheless in historical science brisk discussions on various aspects of its military-political background still don’t cease. It is connected by that the considerable amount of new archival materials which allow to specify and reconsider already settled treatments of far events is annually introduced into scientific circulation. First of all, historians are interested in the questions connected with the tragic beginning of war for our country. The history of the last months of the Soviet-German relations which preceded Hitler attack on the Soviet Union represents for researchers a great interest because of considerable number of “white spots” in events which occurred in recent months of bilateral cooperation. The Soviet intelligence service, as we know, repeatedly warned the government about the approaching attack but why the Kremlin offices were suspicious of the incoming information, why there with surprising persistence sought to maintain friendship with the German government and on what the Soviet leaders in that case hoped? In the presented article the attempt is made to answer these questions.

Key words: intelligence service, blitzkrieg, Soviet-German contacts; the eve of the Great Patriotic War.

Niyazova G.Y. (Saint-Petersburg). The status of foreign languages in Azerbaijan after the collapse of the USSR ………. 101

The article touches upon the diffusion of foreign languages in Azerbaijan, caused by the active external language policy of European states.

The French language is in-demand among Azerbaijani young people. In terms of the situations when the Russian language is obligatory and the English language is “a working language”, the French language turns to be the first “foreign” language.

One more European state, conducting well-reasoned foreign language policy, is Germany. The German language was widely-spread in Azerbaijan in prewar years when fascist Germany was viewed by the USSR as the main strategic rival.

Knowledge of English for Azerbaijan implies, on the one hand, access to the information in the sphere of politics, economy, science and high technology. On the other hand, the English language, along with economic factors, leads the state to fundamentally new level of global politics and allows Azerbaijan to gain the definite high status on the international arena.

Officially, the Russian language is considered to be one more foreign language in Azerbaijan, although the status of the Russian language as a foreign one is of a formal nature.“Derussification” process didn’t influence this post-Soviet Republic much. Nowadays Azerbaijan actively encourages not only the activity of European states aiming at the diffusion of their languages on the territory of AzerbaijaniRepublic, but also furthers preservation and spread on the Russian language in Azerbaijan.

It’s clear that Azerbaijan tolerates language diffusion of the leading states on its territory, being sure that it is necessary to construct a modern state, ready to cooperate with the contemporary superpowers.

Key words: international relations, language policy, soft power,Azerbaijan, Great Britain, Germany, Russia, France, British Petroleum



Mitriakov A.E. (Izhevsk). Grekhnevskoye site of early Ananyino time in the basin of Upper Vyatka ………. 106

Article is dedicated to comparison of ceramic assemblages with social facts of early iron age in Priuralye. Ceramic assemblage of Grekhnevskoye site in Upper Vyatka, formed in short time, contains, besides series of pots of the same type, decorated with complex compositions of cord and comb imprints, a considerable amount of deviations in shape, that aren’t fall within definition of “archaeological culture”. It seems that described situation is result of specific life mode of aborigens, based on particular sedentary of taiga people in early iron age caused by low spread of productive economy. Based on described materials, article outlines some variants of elaboration of  social and historical interpretation of ceramic assemblages in forext zone of Priuralye in early iron age. Also article puts the question of ceramic tradition variability in present chronogeographical locus.

Keywords: ananyino culture, early iron age, ceramics, economy, Priuralye, Vyatka

Mitrofanov V.V. (Nizhnevartovsk). The archaeological excavation in Valuyki in 1909 ………. 113

This paper is devoted to the little-known fact of the archaeological excavation of S.F. Platonov in  Valuyki,  Voronezh province in August 1909. It specifies the number of contentious issues of the scientist’s staying in that provincial town.

This well-known fact in S. F. Platonov’s life has attracted researchers’ attention quite recently. The absence of documentary evidence has brought only to guesswork and assumptions on quite a number of questions. Voronezh researchers’ concern in the issue is natural; however, scarce data resources did not allow them to answer a number of controversial points. When and where did S. F. Platonov come from to this provincial town? Where did the Platonovs stay? What was the purpose of his visit? How were archeological excavations conducted?

The identified in the archive written sources, first of all, epistolary ones, the inventory of relics of antiquity, photos, etc. to the full extent enable us to answer these and other questions.

Also it deals with the work of the reputable archeologist A.A. Spitsyn, which is based on the materials collected by S.F. Platonov. This work is not taken into account in the list of works of A.A. Spitsyn, and is not mentioned in the historiography.

Key-words: Valuyki, S.F. Platonov, A.A. Spitsyn, archaeology, archaeological excavation, report, article


Military history

Ageev N.V. (Moscow). Periodization of Russian military history: the origin and development of the domestic military-historical science ………. 122

At present the scientists of the Russian Federation there is no unity of views on the reciprocal relationship of military science and military history of science and their structure. These differences directly affect the approaches to the periodization and military history. One of the problems of modern military history is a holistic understanding of periodization military history in General and the periodization of its component parts. The article presents the author’s version of the periodization of Russian military history as a science, the periods of its origin, formation and development are allocated. The author expands on the pre-scientific stage of development of the national military history. Revealing the content of frames of the origin and formation of the military-historical science in a centralized Muscovy and the Russian Empire, the author identifies and analyzes the main factors which determined the development of military-historical branches of scientific knowledge in our country in a historical retrospective. The text of the article is saturated with references to the historiography, military science and military history sources, the author reveals the names of compatriots whose work formed the basis of the national military history as a science. Logic of presentation of this article implies the continuation of the monitoring subject material on the development of Russian military science after its formation from 1860-ies of the XIX century to the present.

Key words: history, military history, military science, periodization, trends, factors.

Kovalevskiy D.O. (Saint Petersburg). Emergence and development of naval rifled cast steel artillery ordnance in Russia. Obuhovsky steel plant ………. 128

The article is focused on emergence and development of naval rifled cast steel artillery ordnance in Russia. The reasons to initiate making Russian rifled cast steel weapon. Foundation of Obuhovsky steel plant and its development till the beginning of the First World War. Introduction of crucible way of steel smelting according to the method of P.M. Obuhov and its influence on domestic manufacture. Invention of barrels with internal pipes and their importance for increasing of ordnance reliability. Development trends of Russian and foreign naval artillery in 19 century. Emergence of long-range cannons. Significance of N.K. Crabbe in foundation of Russian armored Navy.

Key words: the Obuhovsky steel plant, crucible steel of Obuhov, naval rifled cast artillery, Russian armored Navy, admiral Crabbe.

Paraskevov V.S. (Moscow). Material supply improvement of the Russian artillery during the military reforms 1905-1912 ………. 132

The article deals with the problem of improving the status and material part of artillery during the war years 1905–1912 reforms. It was determined the activities of military administration to improve old and new, modern pieces of artillery weapons. Questions of the artillery supply solved Major Artillery Department (GAU) and the Artillery Committee (GAC) without the Main Department of the General stuff (GUGSH). All their efforts were aimed at the development of prototypes for field artillery, heavy, rock, horse, siege and fortress artillery. The author shows that, given the experience of the Russian-Japanese War, adopted Russian artillery were adopted light field 122 mm howitzer arr. In 1909, exceeding the ballistic qualities field light howitzer Germany and Austrian-Hungary. However, it imposed on the Russian army in a very small number. In the field artillery were taken into service and several other artillery systems. Together, the author stresses that the reforms had not been finished and mortars had not been adapted to the Army. The article deals with objective and subjective reasons for which are not able to fully achieve its objectives.

Key words: Major Artillery Department, Artillery Committee, field artillery, heavy artillery, siege artillery, fortress artillery.

Kapas’ I.A. (Kiev, Ukraine). Legitimization of the results of the underground organizations and partisan formations in the KP(b)U, 1941–1953 ………. 137

Research is devoted to the work of the KP(b)U, regional, district and city Party committees to determine the affiliation of citizens to the Soviet resistance movement. Attention is drawn to procedure compiling the final reports about the activities and personnel lists of organizations and groups, and their subsequent verification and approval in the Party. Approval of the results work of underground and partisan formations occurred not only in party organs. This also occurred in Ukrainian Partisan Movement Headquarters and NKVD. It was one of the stages on the way to the final official recognition of Soviet authorities of underground organizations, partisan units, or groups. However the role of the CP(b)U in the general procedure was special. It is known that at the beginning of the war chiefly on the party organization was entrusted the task of creating a mass resistance against the Nazi occupiers. This is due to the fact that the party took the leading place in the life of the then Ukrainian society. Chronological framework is wartime and postwar years – the reign of Stalin.

Key words: report, lists of personnel, partisans, underground fighters, District Committee, Municipal Committee, Regional Committee, KP(b)U), the Soviet resistance movement, legitimization.

Grinev A.V. (Saint Petersburg). The Reasons of Defeats of Red Army in 1941 on the Pages of ModernUniversity Textbooks ………. 149

The article is devoted to critical analysis of the reasons for the defeat of the Red Army at the beginning of WWII on the pages of university textbooks. It is one of the most complicated and painful problems in Russian historiography. This problem presently gives rise to endless discussions in the historical literature and on the internet. During the study of this theme materials from 20 modern textbooks were used by the method of content-analysis. The statistical results are represented in two tables, including 16 reasons for the defeat of the Red Army in summer 1941. At the same time we must emphasize that there are no textbooks that give a full list of reasons. Most of the textbooks continue to repeat the myths of old Soviet historiography about Stalin’s mistakes and his repression against the command staff of the Red Army in 1937–1939 and the sudden attack of the Wehrmaht in June 1941 as the main reasons for the military catastrophe that came down on the USSR in the first months of the Great War. In addition, the textbooks have contradictory data on Soviet and German military forces and weaponry, the numbers of losses, and the economic and human potential on opposite sides. All this casts doubt on the reliability of the data of modern textbooks.

Keywords: World War II, Red Army, Wehrmacht, high education, university textbooks.

Makarevich M.L. (Saint Petersburg). 286th Infantry Division in battles on the Karelian Isthmus (according to memories of commissioner A.M. Lushnikov) ……….  160

M.L. Makarevich having based on previously published books, manuscript of A.M. Lushnikov “[«Fighting way» of the 286th Infantry Division of the Leningrad Red Banner” and archive materials of Lushnikov family talks about the participation of 286 Infantry Division in the battles on the Karelian Isthmus. The author analyzes the value of the manuscript of A.M. Lushnikov as a source of the history of the Great Patriotic War, emphasizing the merits of A.M. Lushnikov playback of mass heroism of Soviet soldiers in combat to defend the Fatherland. The article gives a detailed description of the heroic deeds of individual soldiers 286 Infantry Division, made an invaluable contribution to the defeat of the Finns on the Karelian Isthmus.

Key words: 286 Infantry Division, Leningrad, blockade, Karelian isthmus, the Finns, the fortified line, defenses, offensive, combat operations.


History of culture

Avkhodeeva E.A. (Volgograd). National-cultural identity under the conditions of globalization anв open cultural space ………. 168

The open cultural space and the absence of the barriers in intercultural communications make cultures unprotected from alien influences, which can lead to disintegration of their axiological nucleus and erosion of national-cultural identity. At the same time idea of the disappearance of the ethnic phenomenon is not confirmed by contemporary historical process. Optimistic illusion of world cultural integrity was scattered, and the real consequences of globalization, especially in the sphere of culture, proved to be more complex and more contradictory.

Under the situation of globalization and open interaction of cultures the “rise of ethnic phenomenon” is seen in global scale, the thesis about the determining importance of cultural identity under the conditions of global competition is formed more definitely. The author emphasizes that the preservation of the cultural code is possible only with the condition of retaining the culture regulative mechanism and reproduction of special type of personality – “cultural conscientious person”, which becomes main actor in the contemporary cultural space.

Key words: globalization, westernization, national-cultural identity, ethnic phenomenon, cultural code, traditional values, cultural conscientious person.

Gayduk V.L. (Moscow). The research of the Meyerhold’s creativity in 1930–1960 th ………. 174

The article addresses the problem of constructing of the Meyerhold’s image in the soviet theater science of 1930-1960th. Different images of Meyerhold that were constructed by theater historians and public figures are underlined in the research. Also the influence of the political situation on the interpretation of the Meyerhold’s image is analyzed. Author pays special attention on the political rehabilitation of Meyerhold. For a long time this corpus of published texts and unpublished archival documents haven’t been involved into the investigations. It has been proved in the article that a great many of the tendencies of the contemporary studies of Meyerhold were laid in the soviet theater science of the 1930-1960th.

Key words: soviet theater science, V. Meyerhold, formalism, political exoneration, Meyerhold State Theater, P. Kerzhencev, K. Rudnickij.


Historical Characters

Kislitsyna I.L. (Saint Petersburg). E.P. Yazykova, and her importance in the formation of Bakunism in the 1840s ………. 178

The main individual features of E.P. Yazykova, a sister of Decembrist V.P. Ivashev, and the importance of her personality in the evolution of Bakunism are ascertained in the article. New approach to study the problem of Bakunism genesis is consists of researching the internal world of M.A. Bakunin in the process of forming his views, with the purpose of revelation the internal logic of this process. The analysis of individual E.P. Yazykova and of the process of Bakunism evolution leads to the conclusion that friendship between this personality and M.A. Bakunin in the 1840s and her influence on the development of his world views were natural determined. Full, free self-disclosure of the individual E.P. Yazykova in her activities in the real world contributed the most comprehensive self-realization M.A. Bakunin personality, his transition from rendering abstract philosophy thinking the highest value to the practice of social struggle. This investigation proves that genesis of Bakunism was conditioned by life needs of social development, awakened and conscious desire of individual to self-realization in the real world, and it was directly connected with Bakunin’s self-examination, introspection. Bakunism was formed as statement and disclosure of the idea of self-realization (self-expression) of personality.

Key words: social development, Russian social thought of the XIX century, the formation of Bakuninism, personality, individual, M.A. Bakunin E.P. Iazykova.

Eldashev A.M. (Kazan). Grigoriy Rasputin: kazan period, unknown page ………. 190

The article examines the pages of life path of wanderer Grigoriy Rasputin outcome of thousands of miles to the holy places of Russia.

The special role of Kazan, the elder Gabriel (Zyryanov), vicar bishop Chrysanthos (a brush-Minkowski) that recommended the capital clerics is noted. The author uses a shaft-to article writing an extensive, though not equivalent content historiography, including recent publications, as well as different sources: archival documents and information gleaned from local pre-revolutionary periodical press, with which researchers virtually signs-we. It is possible to introduce into scientific circulation formation documents, significantly widening the idea of G.Rasputin as a historical character. The author believes that the knowledge of this man isn’t accumulated enough to give a comprehensive assessment of his personality.

Key words: righteous Simeon Verkhotursky, kalika turn, wandering, Kazan, schema-archimandrite Gabriel (Zyryanov), auxiliary Bishop Chrysanthos (Schetkovsky) defrocked monk Heliodorus (Sergey Trufanov).

Lebedeva V.G. (Saint Petersburg). Adam Felixovich Kyblitsky – Piottukh (to the 160th anniversary since birth) ………. 198

In order to assess objectively the scale of the personality of  Mr. A.F. Kyblitsky-Piottukh, his career and the results of his multu-faceted activities during 1880 – 1920-s have been analyzed. As a member of the M.S. Kahanov Special Commission, he participated in developing the drafts of local self-government reforms. Since the mid 1880s, his fate was linked to the «Russian forest». He ran the Petersburg Specific Area. He was one of the authors of the fundamental work «The Specific Area History in a century of their existens. 1797–1897. In 3 Volumes». He became the Head of the Altai Mountainous Area and made an important contribution in incluing the Trans-Siberian Railway into the Siberian economy. His «colonization» Projects of Russian areas and the modernization of forest management are still relevant nowadays. During the years spent in Siberia, he made a great deal of extensive workin executing the Stolypin’s resettlement policy. Also, he helped improve the Forest Law as a Director of the Forest Department and the Senator. The author pays considerable attention to lighting the kinship of A.F. Kublitsky-Piottukh with Beketov, Karelin and A. Blok. The materials of the Archival Fund of St. Petersburg State Foresry Universiry are the article source base. They are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. Also, the results of A.F. Kyblitsky-Piottukh surveys of Russian forest industry condition are used. At the end the overview of scientific researches devoted to A.F. Kublitsky-Piottukh is presented and the limited method of research of this outstanding person is pointed out – on the one hand the researchers of biography of Alexander Blok and from another hand, the Russian Forestry history.

Key words: Kublitskaya-Piottukh , Karelin , Beketovs , «Curriculum vitae», Specific department , the Forest Department, the “colonization” of the spaces , forest law , forest policy

Rupasov A.I., Skurlov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Agathon Karlovich Faberge a philatelist ………. 204

Agathon Karlovich Faberge (1876–1951) was a distinguished philatelist, the owner of the largest collection of postage stamps of Russian local administrations (Zemstvo) of the last decades of the 19th century, as well as various philatelic materials. He was a founder and member of the first Russian Philatelic Society and provided the collection materials to his second cousin, philatelist and famous architect Karl Schmidt in order to issue an exclusive reference book on zemsky postage stamps. The fate of Agathon Faberge is inseparable from the fate of his collections of postmarks; there are still many mysteries here. Archival and literary sources on the subject “Agathon Karlovich Faberge” are presented in Appendix to the article and many of its are introduced into scientific use for the first time.

Key words: Agathon Faberge, Carl Schmidt. philately, Russian Zemstvo stamps collection .



Zolotarev V.A., Ilievskii N.V. (Moscow). Prehistory and beginning of the Great Patriotic War: experience and lessons ………. 212

In a polemical article the author analyzes the historiography of the problem, the author’s position on a number of key issues related to domestic and foreign policy of the Soviet state is justified. Attention is drawn to the fact that historians often overly schematicly try to present complex political events of 1920-1930, showing no desire for objective coverage of events and wanting only to predict scientific conjuncture what seems impossible. On the basis of the known number of publications and periodical materials pre-war authors conclude that victory and defeat are always in close unity and contradiction, that the foundations of the Soviet victory at Moscow and the war in general were laid during the interwar period, which can not be assessed unambiguously

Keywords: inter-war period, collectivization, industrialization, Stalin, Hitler, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the Great Patriotic War.


Reviews of Scientific Publications

Zlatina M.A. (Saint Petersburg). The review of the collection of scientific articles «Revolution of 1917 inRussia: new approaches and views» ………. 220

The review of the collection of scientific articles “Revolution of 1917 inRussia is presented in the review: new approaches and views”, published in 2013 and devoted to last anniversary – to the 95 anniversary of the Russian revolution of 1917. The materials published in the collection thematically divide into three main groups. The first block includes four articles devoted to a subject extremely popular recently: studying of position of right-wing parties and their leaders during revolution of 1917 inRussia, revolution of 1917 in perception of “right-wing parties”. The second group of articles cover history of Petrograd in 1917. And, at last, in a number of articles of the collection it is investigated perceptions of revolutionary events of 1917 by the population of provinces of the former Russian Empire and representatives of foreign powers.

By means of new approaches, new stories, new sources for the first time of  introduced into scientific circulation, materials of the collection allow to look differently at revolutionary events of 1917, to expand and enrich data on Russia of 1917.

Keywords: revolution, 1917, Russia, Petrograd, province, right-wing parties, charity, temporary courts, theater, outlook.

Bugashev S.I (Saint Petersburg). Scientific review of the collective monograph «Modern Foreign Policy of the Left» (St.Petersburg, prod. JSC Poltorak, 2014) ………. 225

The review is devoted to the collective monograph which appeared in 2012 under scientific edition of R. V. Kostiuk “Modern foreign policy left”. This collaboration is the first in domestic science attempt to analyse foreign policy of the states, in power which there are communist, left-wing or left-centrist parties.

In the monograph scientific, mainly from Moscow and St. Petersburg, analyze modern foreign policy of 18 countries of Europe, Asia and Africa. In each article communication of the pursued foreign policy with professed being in power in those or the countries the political doctrine is shown. The historical information concerning the past of foreign policy of the countries affected in the monograph is given.

Authors show that in most cases the modern foreign policy of the “left” countries is defined by the pragmatic choice of their heads connected with geopolitical realities. At the same time, political and ideological aspects continue to make strong impact on realization of international policy of the certain countries, in particular the states of Latin America or East Asia.

It will be interesting to study the monograph to all who is interested in history and an actual condition of the international left movement, and also foreign policy of foreign countries.

Keywords: Monograph, foreign policy, diplomacy, state, country, left.


To the Memory of Colleague

To the memory of D.E. Levin ………. 229

Obituary dedicated to the memory of the famous historian and bibliophile, he National Library employee, constant author of the journal for scientists “Clio” D.E. Levin. There are noted his achievements in historical science and great human qualities.