Klio #6 (78) 2013

Diaries, memoirs

Chetverikov B.D. (Saint-Petersburg). «Stezhky-dorozhky» (The pathways) (continuation)………. 3

The autobiographical novel by B.D. Chetverikov tells us about the writer’s life that can be called «the outline» of the history of our country in the 20th century.


Source study

Vagabova E.R. (Baku, Azerbaijan). From the history of progressive Azerbaijan print of Baku in the early
XX century………. 13

Based on the factual material the author examines the emergence in the early twentieth century in Baku Newspapers and magazines in the Azerbaijan language. The main idea is to show in which political conditions they were published, what socio-political, economic, legal and cultural demands were put forward, as well as active participation and the role of prominent public figures, representatives of the national bourgeoisie and intelligentsia in the development of Azerbaijan press.

Sabennikova I.V., Gentshke V.L., Lovcov А.S. (Moscow). Ariadne’s Thread: a brief overview of the foreign catalogues, guide-books, reference books on foreign archival Rossika………. 16

Provides an overview and characteristics of foreign reference and information editions of archivel
Rossika in the largest archives of the US
А, UK and Australia. Explains the difference in the
theoretical and methodological approaches to the accounting system and descriptions of
documents in Russia and English-speaking countries. As illustrations there are examples
of the descriptions of archival funds from different travel guides. The question of foreign archival Rossika
in the countries – former Soviet republics is put. Electronic guides available on the Internet are



Poltorak S.N. (Saint-Petersburg), Timchenko А.V. (Moscow). The Eastern front of the Second world war in the German memoirs and historiography………. 23

The article analyzes the German historiography devoted to the history of events on the Eastern front during the Second World War. It is emphasized that the characteristic feature of the German historiography on this issue was the use of the authors own memoirs about military events of the time.

Sokolov P.A. (Novomoskovsk, Tula region). Aleksin plant № 100 in 1930s-1950s (historiographic sketch)………. 34

The article is devoted to the analysis of publications on the history of development of Alexinsky plant № 100 in 1930–1950s. They noted the reasons for its construction, the factors negatively affected on the construction, achievements, the development of training, social sphere, called first builders, leaders, directors. In the publications described the work of the mill during the great Patriotic war, in the first postwar years. Is Emphasised on complexity of work in the first months of the war, evacuation, recovery and development. In the researched literature presents the evolution of the enterprise in the 1950-s. The attention is focused on the development of production, social sphere, training of personnel, expansion of assortment.



Mikheeva G.V. (Saint-Petersburg). From the history of military bibliography (1917–1921)………. 37

Military bibliography in 1917–1921 biennium continued long-rich pre-revolutionary traditions (was published monthly journal «Bibliographical Bulletin of the partnership “V.А. Berezovsky”»). New directions in the publication, promotion and distribution of military books have emerged after the October revolution simultaneously with the creation of the red army. Military bibliography of this period was considered as an important and integral part of political and educational work in the armed forces, so a particular development was indicative bibliography for the red army. The special role in development of the military recommended bibliography belongs PUR military revolutionary Council of Republic, the Military Department of the Central Executive Committee. The most significant achievements of the fifth anniversary – Is publication by Litizdat PUR in 1920 «Military-bibliographic collection». In that period began publication of military-scientific journal «Military thought». From 1921 in connection with the creation on the basis of X Congress of the RCP(b) Litrevsor and then converting it to the Supreme military editorial Board in October 1921, the country is full centralization of the military book publishing and military bibliography.


General history

Pronyakin D.I. (Saint-Petersburg). The Empire and the Church: Eastern variant………. 45

The article analyzes the objective demand of Christianity, an assessment of his role in the revival of
the Roman Empire is given. It examines the real correlation of theory and Church-state policy of «Symphony of the authorities», the value of this policy for more than the existence of Byzantium. The article reveals the essence and contents of the great schism and the Florentine Union, their world-historical significance.

Sayko М.N. (Chernivtsi, Ukraine). The bankers of the city of Rome in the ancient period (placement of the exchange offices and business centers in the City)………. 51

The article considers the activities of bankers of the city of Rome in the ancient period. Defines the main places of residence of the Roman bankers in the City. Among them exchange offices, located in shacks on the territory of the oldest of the forum of Rome, the Basilica on the same forum, exchange offices in other forums and markets of the City. Localize the seat of the oldest business exchange – near the temple of castor in the Eastern part of the forum.


National history

Chura V.I. (Lvov, Ukraine). The transformation of Communist organizations in Western Ukraine in the late 80s – early 90s of the XX century………. 59

The article analyzes the causes and dynamics of transformation of Communist organizations in Western Ukraine in the late 80s – early 90s of the XX century as a consequence of political and socio-economic reforms.

Somov V.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). «Increased worker-peasant audience requires…»: cinema and Soviet people of 1930s………. 63

The article analyzes the impact of cinema of the 1930s on the formation of the moral image of a Soviet man, constructive features of which are clearly manifested in the years of the Great Patriotic war.



Akopyan V.Z. (Pyatigorsk). History of creation of national sections at the North-Caucasian regional Committee of the VKP(b)………. 69

The article is devoted to the activities of Ukrainian national sections created in the 1920-s to work among the Ukrainian population of the North Caucasus. The author analyzed the reasons of their creation and the elimination of circumstances in the process of strengthening the Stalinist dictatorship.

Baranov A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Public opinion and political activity of the Cossacks in the South of Russia in the conditions of clotting of the NEP (1926–1929)………. 72

The article identifies the main types of orientations of public opinion and political activity of the Cossacks in the South of Russia in the conditions of clotting of the NEP (1926–1929). Compares the political orientation of the main social groups of Cossacks of the Don, Kuban and Terek.

Speshilova Е.V. (Vladivostok). Development of Amateur art in Primorye in 1930s………. 78

The author investigates the peculiarities of the development of Amateur art in Primorye in 1930s. Although for the RSFSR in General, it was a final stage of the cultural revolution, in Primorye relevant processes began to develop only in the second half of the 1920s In the 1930s in the region was the formation of the system of cultural institutions, which evolved Amateur, began the establishment of educational institutions on preparation of heads of Amateur performances.

Baryshnikova S.B. (Saint-Petersburg). Formation of school education on associated territories in 1940–1941 (on the example of Vyborg and Vyborg district)………. 81

The article considers the main actions for formation and development of school education on the former Finnish lands after the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939–1940. The study is based on the materials of the Leningrad regional state archive in Vyborg.

Zotova А.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Economic aspects of the functioning of communal services of Leningrad during the Great Patriotic war………. 83

For the first time introduced into scientific circulation numerous archive documents, allowing to
draw new conclusions about the specifics of the organization of communal services not only in the
period of the siege of Leningrad, but in the first months of the war, and after the complete lifting of the blockade.

Gazieva L.L. (Saint-Petersburg). Labor reserves in the blocked Leningrad: heroism and sacrifice………. 89

The article considers the legal aspects of the activity of the system of «Labor reserves» in the
besieged Leningrad. On the basis of archival documents defined statistical indicators force levels in 1941–1944.


Military history

Rudnik S.N. (Saint-Petersburg). Russian society and the project conscription of all social classes: the first reactions and suggestions………. 94

In 1870, Alexander II and the War Ministry, headed by D.A. Milyutin for the first time published a plan of introduction in Russia of General conscription. This news caused a wide public resonance and the most contradictory opinions. Range of moods stretched from the demonstration of feelings of loyalty to the complete rejection of reform on the part of the merchant class.

Kostin N.V. (Samara). The influence of the military reform of the 1920s on the level of discipline in the territorial army: some aspects of the problem………. 98

The article describes the processes, showing the effects of military reforms of the mid 1920s, at the level of discipline in the territorial police troops in the red army. Based on research of collected archival data, and other sources, the author describes both the negative and positive factors influencing the level of discipline in military parts.

Krivonos О.К., Butorin А.О., Kolotkov V.Е. (Minsk, Belarus). Stages of military construction in Belarus in 1918-2013 (to the 95-th anniversary of the Minsk military district)……….101

The article examines the history of military construction on the territory of Belarus in Soviet and post-Soviet periods on the example of the Armed forces, given its periodization, given a brief characteristics of selected periods of the history of military construction.


History of international relations

Bogolyubova N.М., Nikolaeva Yu.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The USSR and the international Institute of intellectual cooperation. The problem of formation of multilateral cultural cooperation (according to the materials of the Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Federation)………. 108

The article is devoted to the study of the origins of multilateral cultural cooperation of the USSR. It considers the various areas of multilateral cooperation of the USSR on line VOKS with the Institute of intellectual cooperation. On the basis of archival documents, the authors reveal the content of the dialogue, as well as the reasons for the difficult political rhetoric.

Topolev A.Yu. (Moscow). Russia and countries of Eastern Europe (1992–1999): view from the West………. 111

The article analyzes how U.S. and British researchers have interpreted the Russian policy in the post-Soviet space in 1992–1999 and what are the distinctive features of this policy they revealed (the nature of the course, the levers of influence, the context in which was the policy). discussion of their views on Moscow’s efforts on building relations with the former republics of the USSR multilaterally as well as bilaterally on the example of the States of the Eastern Europe region is considered (Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Baltic States).



Nikitashina S.О. (Saint-Petersburg). The geological expeditions of Ivan Vasilyevich Mushketov on Ural………. 119

The first expedition Russian geologist-traveler I. Mushketov began with the Ural mining
district. In Ekaterinburg he found three minerals, which are caught for the first time in that
area and systematized extensive mineralogical collection of the Ural society of natural science lovers.
The time, spent in the Ural mountain district, became for him a good practical geological school.
After a few years he complements previous research materials on Zlatoustovsky district and
included them in a thesis. Later they were used Geological Committee in compiling geological map of Russia.

Gessen V.Yu., Dmitriev A.L. (Saint-Petersburg). All who knew about finances Anthony I. Bukovetsky (completion)………. 122

In the article on the basis of archival and literary data, as well as the memories of the relatives and contemporaries, is described the life, scientific and educational activity of Professor A.I. Bukovetsky. Special attention is paid to the events connected with the repressions against him, the circumstances of his three arrests, staying in a concentration camp.



Utkin B.P. (Моscow). The battle of Moscow: enrichment of truth or constriction front of cognition………. 136

In his polemical article participant of the great Patriotic war, military historian B.P. Utkin responds to the publication of S.A. Gerasimova in the previous issue of «Clio».


Will be history tomorrow

Goldin V.I. (Arkhangelsk). Latin America in an era of change: observations and reflections………. 138

In March of this year the author of these lines has made almost three-week tour to the American continent, starting at its southern tip, in Santiago, and ending in the North American Los Angeles. The purpose of this article is to review current trends in Latin America and in the region as a whole.


Methods of teaching

Nesterov Е.А. (Saint-Petersburg). Modern educational literature on the history of science and technology
in the second half of XX – beginning of XXI century: some results and problems of University
publications………. 146

In the article is made an attempt of generalization of the accumulated technical universities of the country lighting experience the specified period in the academic literature on the history of science and technology. The author analyzes both the achievements and shortcomings of the educational literature, provide concrete suggestions for solutions of existing problems. The main conclusion of the article: needed today in the level of academic publications on the latest period of the history of science and technology could provide a special Federal educational edition, which could be prepared jointly by representatives of the higher school and academic science.


Reviews of scientific editions

Filatov T.V. (Samara). On the way to the modern philosophy of history………. 153

The review covers the strengths of work devoted to understanding the problems of the philosophy of history. The focus is also on the shortcomings, discussion issues.



Poltorak S.N. (Saint-Petersburg). To the 60 anniversary from the birthday of Professor G.M. Ippolitov. ………. 155

In the article devoted to the 60-anniversary from the birthday of Professor G.M. Ippolitov, tells about his scientific achievements. Special attention is focused on study of the historian activities of A.I. Denikin and the study of the history of the Civil war in the South of Russia.