Klio #7 (103) 2015


Politov V.V. (Moscow). Current issues of the Battle of Kulikovo in Russian historiography ………. 3

The article deals with the development of some important problems of the Kulikov battle, mainly by the example of the Soviet historiography and the modern period: localization of the Don battle, the quantitative and qualitative composition of the participants on both sides, the paucity of archaeological discoveries on the Kulikov field, the so-called «betrayal» of all-Russian affairs by Oleg of Ryazan, dating sites Kulikov cycle and others. A brief description of the evolution of sources and historiography of Kulikov Battle is presented over six centuries, beginning with the «Letopisnaya povest», «Zadonschina», «The Tale of the Rout of Mamai» and ending monographs of contemporary researchers. Classification and review of sources and historiography of the pre-revolutionary and Soviet period made on the basis of an article by A.D. Gorsky, published in 1980, (the number 4 «Vestnik MGU») and coincided with the 600th anniversary of the battle of the Don. Given the point of view of historians on topical issues ranging from traditional approaches in the face of Soviet historiography A.N. Nasonova, I.B. Grekov, M.N. Tikhomirov, L.V. Tcherepnin, V.V. Kargalov and ending with the innovative ideas of our time in the face of V.A. Kuchkina, S.N. Azbelev, A.P. Grigoriev, A.A. Gorsky, Y. Seleznev, A.K. Zaitsev and others. In addition, the study was subjected to newspapers and magazines articles, as well as thematic collections, including those published the results of scientific and practical conferences, organized by the state and military-historical museum-reserve «Kulikov Field». In addition to historical research some monographs are presented, using in their work related scientific methods such as geophysical analysis of soils, aerial battle area, reconstruction and relief in landscaping, the study of toponymy, paleogeographic studies and others.

Keywords: Golden Horde, The Kulikov Battle, Dmitry Donskoy, Sergius of Radonezh, Mamai, Zadonshchina, Skazanie.

Kindinov M.A. (s. Manzherok, Altai rep.). Russian-French relations of the middle of XVIII century in the coverage of domestic researchers (1990–2012) ………. 12

The study is based on analysis of a survey of modern Russian literature, published from 1990 to 2012, on the history of Russian- French relations in the mid-eighteenth century. Also works of foreign authors translated into Russian language are analyzed in this survey. Emphasis is placed on research related diplomatic relations between Russia and France in the middle of the XVIII century, during the reign of Empress Elizabeth (1741–1761). In particular are analyzed the works of leading modern historians dealing with this problem: P. Cherkasova, V. A. Priemysel, M. Y. Anisimov, F.-D. Lichtenhan. The historical literature devoted to the reign and personality of the Empress Elizabeth are identified and analyzed. Having reviewed the relevant literature, the author concluded that in the research of bilateral diplomatic relations between Russia and France in the mid eighteenth century (1741–1761) are white spots in the modern Russian historiography. This article is also showed, poorly rearched and contradictory in its content, directions in Russian-French relations specified period, requiring further study.

Keywords: historiography, national history, Elizabeth Petrovna, Louis XV, Russian-French relations.

Izmozik V.S. (Saint-Petersburg). Soviet intelligence in the UK during World War II: a historiographical review of the Russian-language literature ………. 17

The article is devoted to the historiographical review of the Russian-language literature about activities of Soviet intelligence department in Great Britain during the Second World War. It reviews over 30 works, including memories, collections of documents, monographs, articles and dissertations’ abstracts. The most of analyzed publications was written by Soviet and Russian authors, but also are considered translations of foreign publications. Among the authors are former members of the Soviet foreign and military intelligence department, journalists and scholars. Article researched the dynamics of publications, main activities of the Soviet intelligence department and its success. Particular attention is paid to documentary sources and analysis of them during the war years, relations between the Centre and its secret service in the UK, the rivalry between foreign and military intelligence departments, the cooperation of the Soviet residents in the UK with the intelligence agencies of Britain and émigré governments.

Keywords: Soviet intelligence department, UK, Ursula Kuczynski, Kim Philby, «Cambridge Five», political and military information, scientific and technical intelligence department, nuclear project.

Sahin K. (Istanbul, Turkey). Globalization issues development in contemporary theoretical literature ………. 24

Recently the term «globalization» has been widely use dinscientific, political, diplomatic and other spheres of life. In theoretical literature there is no single interpretation of the concept. For example, globalization is often considered synonymous to the concepts of liberalization, Westernization, Europeanization, multilateralco-operation, modernization, etc. Mainly Western scientists and researchers consider the phenomenon of globalization, its influence on the global situation, its dependence on political and economic processes. This article examines the development of the concept of globalization reflected in modern theoretical literature. The author considers globalization as a multifaceted phenomenon, having an ambiguous interpretation in modern science.

Keywords: globalization, internationalization, postmodernism, modernism, neoliberalism, capitalism


General History 

Migal A.S. (Rostov-on-Don). Western European Intellectuals of the Enlightenment on Muhammad ………. 30

During the last ten years prophet Muhammad personality has started to attract the attention of Western European society. Discussions about the prophet in ХХI century, as in previous periods, show that not only the images of him and opinions about him can be different but also they demonstrate that the aims of discourse participants of discourses can be different. The article is dedicated to the prophet Muhammad figure in the understanding of Western European intellectuals during the Enlightenment. Depending on the religiousness level and aims of the intellectuals, and also sources that they used, author defines three discourses about Muhammad and characterizes the peculiarities and targets of each of them. According to the studied sources, author emphasizes the main factors that had influenced on creating of Muhammad image and its evolution.

Keywords: Islam, Muslims, Muslim East, the Enlightenment, stereotypes, Islamic studies.


History of Russia 

Usachev A.A. (Morozovsk, Rostov reg.).Vandals and Ancient Russia ………. 35

The article concerns the problem of the ethnic origin of the ancient Russes in general and the Azov Russes in particular. There is historical relationship between the Vandals and the eastern Slavs. The author suggests that the name «Russ» is connected to the Swedish word «ryssja» and that the historical homeland of «Russes» was in the lands around the Kattegat Straits. The author produces the tribal name «Ross / Russ» from the Old High German word «Ros» («Rider»); based on this, he hypothesizes that this nickname originally belonged to the Vandals – by virtue of their military specialization (warrior-riders). A fundamentally new is the assumption that the history of the Vandal-Alan Union did not end with the defeat of the Vandal Kingdom and that the most battleworthy part of the Vandals and Alans could make the transition to the North Caucasus and then to the Azov steppes. According to the author’s hypothesis, the Vandal-Alan Union could be continued in Azov Russia.

Keywords: Ancient Russia, ethno genesis of the ancient Russes, genesis of the ancient Russian state, Germanic and Slavic tribes of the 1st millennium AD, the Vandals, Rurik.

Sulaberidze Y.S. (Tbilisi, Georgia). The first March of Russian troops headed by General Totleben in Georgia. «Russian officers conspired» ………. 42

The article focuses on the studying some features of the campaign of Russian troops headed by General Totleben in Georgia (1769–1770), finding out some details of this campaign, reasons of its failure, reasons of the conflict between the Russian General G. Totleben with the king of Georgia Irakli II. This research based on new archival materials and published works of experts studying the Georgian-Russian relations in the second half of XVIII century. In particular, the so-called «Russian officers conspired» in the Russian army against General G. Totleben. The originality of this problem is that the article examines several versions of «officers’ conspiracy» that can detect the «pitfalls» of Georgian-Russian relations of 60–70 years of XVIII century.

Keywords: first campaign of Russian troops in Georgia, Ekaterina II, Irakli II, general Totleben, « Russian officers’ conspiracy», «Georgian sabotage».

Kortunov A.I. (Ufa). Dynamics of the Cossack population of Tabynsk Fortress (of Tabynsk suburb) in 1736–1798 ………. 51

The article shows the main results of the research of Tabynsk Cossacks population dynamics in 1736–1798. According to the sources the Tabynsk Cossacks appeared in the fortress immediately after its creation in the summer of 1736. The analyzed statistical data made it clear that in the period from 1736 to 1798, the Tabynsk Cossacks population dynamics were multidirectional and reached to one hundred and twenty six people in different years. Changes in the amount of the Tabynsk Cossacks were primarily connected with the irregular salary payment, almost year-around employment (Cossacks were often involved in the suppression of the Bashkir rebellions), inadaptability of Tabynsk Cossacks to agriculture, which ultimately led to their getaway. One of the reasons for the reduction of Tabynsk Cossacks population was Pugachev uprising.

Keywords: Cossacks, Orenburg Cossack Army, Tabynsk Cossack community, Tabynsk Cossacks, Tabynsk Fortress, Tabynsk suburb, amount of Cossacks.

Kulikov Y.S. (Saint-Petersburg). Personnel of the Black Sea Fleet in the mid-1870s ………. 58

The article contains a comprehensive characterization of the human potential of the Black Sea Fleet at the beginning of recovery phase, which was possible after the cancellation in 1871 the neutralization mode of the Black Sea, one of the toughest consequences of Russia’s defeat in the Crimean War. Interest in naval manpower is due to the fact that under pressure of limited time till next Russian-Turkish war of 1877–1878, and relatively underdeveloped local shipbuilding real fighting capacity and fighting efficiency of the fleet primarily depended on the professional level of the seamen themselves. That is why the life and service of naval personnel are presented in details beginning from various aspects of life and finishing the features of combat training. Particular attention is paid to the development of naval education in Southern Russia.

Keywords: Black Sea Fleet, Ships, Sea crew, Military Quarters, Officers, Onshore Training, Training Cruise.

Ruzhentsev S.E. (Voronezh). Moral discourse of Soviet policy ………. 62

The article considers the problem of the relationships between morality and politics in Soviet history. The equality of all workers was proclaimed by the Supreme moral law, responding to the mood of society. Individualism and selfishness were perceived as disruptive elements. Community ideals, which were common to the whole society, had to promote developing new ideology and new morality. However, the boundaries of acceptable and unacceptable were blurred in Soviet society. The following of the moral image of the Soviet man and honest work had become the key in determining the balance between morality and politics at all levels of society. There was a Soviet mass man whose moral regulators were humbled. He had to act for the best for the team that deprived him of personal initiative and the sense of responsibility. Ideological identity allowed politics to manipulate people, forcing them to behave themselves like it would be better for the authorities. False consensus was formed, achieved by manipulating without regarding the moral assessment connected with the responsibility of authorities. There was a hypocrisy, which created a risk of moral skepticism towards to the government and its policies. The principle of practical expediency prevailed over morality. Society couldn’t assume the limiter functions of moral power that created almost absolute gap between real politics and moral norms. Political decisions of the leaders received the support only from the society, organized by the top of the government, and it wasn’t a result of its spiritual and moral search. All these things emasculated moral norms, weakening the influence of the private morality on citizens. The article notices that any moral disagreement with the government was driven into the private life as it wasn’t corresponding to proclaimed political goals and ideals that undermined a mutually acceptable understanding of the necessary political actions and their effective results.

Keywords: morality, politics, ideal, ideologized morality, justice, moral principles.


History of Russian Regions

Nenilin V.A. (Tula). The issue of national education in Tula province at the turn of XIX – XX centuries ………. 67

The article represents a review of a number of Tula pre-revolutionary sources at the turn of XIX–XX centuries devoted to the development of national education in Tula province. The following sources have been used: 1) the essay written by Rudnev M. «The second decade of the church schools of Tula eparchy»; 2) two reports of the Tula teacher and public figure Seropolko S.O. – «A brief review of the activity of the Tula province’s district council in the field of national education» of 1902 and «The situation with the students in Tula province» of 23 May 1904; 3) the report by duke Golitsyn M.V. «From experience of the Tula province and district council of establishing of pedagogical courses for the students»; 4) the essay of the unknown author: «Two trips to specialized schools in Tula province, Novosilskiy and Tula county». The situation with the public education in Tula province in 1890-1900s, and measures undertaken by Tula district council for its improvement have been considered in the article. The considered materials show that the national education was on the low level, which was connected with such problems as a small number of schools, bad condition of the school facilities, low salary of the teachers and low level of education, insufficient funding of public education, undeveloped state of the out-of-school education. One of such measures for solving the educational problem, in particular, was establishment of teacher-training courses; public figures of the district council offered such measures as salary rise as well as establishment of libraries for the teachers.

Keywords: public education, district council, students, teachers, specialized schools, church schools, pedagogy, courses, libraries.

Rostovtsev E.A., Andreeva V.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Distorting Mirror: University life in September and October 1905 ………. 71

The article considers events in September-October of 1905 at the Saint-PetersburgUniversity which were under the supervision of the media. The key point of university life that period of time was realizing of long-held and discussed in the society idea of university autonomy. Media had different opinions about this term but all organizations understood that autonomy is a way to save universities for science and society. However neither liberal, nor right newspapers, which supported autonomy, because of different reasons hadn’t noticed for a long time (didn’t want to notice) the leading role of socialist parties in the meeting life of the University. The distorting mirror of media, that supported the idea of University «autonomy», which forced the government delay to close the Saint-PetersburgUniversity. The same time it was obvious that autonomy was a cover of revolution center at the University.

Keywords: Saint-Petersburg University, academism, media, journalism, history of higher school, First Russian revolution of 1905–1907, student movement.

Hisamutdinova R.R., Sultanov R.A. (Orenburg). The state maternal and child protection policy implementation in the Southern Urals during World War I (1914–1917) ………. 89

The article reveals social and legal protection of the maternal-child health as a line of the social policy in Russian Empire during World War I and its implementation based on materials of the Southern Urals. There were shown the activities related to improve obstetrics, develop the day care and orphanages, social assistance for war orphans and conscripted families. The solution of these problems was entrusted to the local and city and government, which had the difficulties in monetary and human resources and couldn’t provide on their territories with required well-functioning institutions.

Based on documents of central and local authorities and committees, the research describes the mostly imperfect, including a part of population, system of state and public institutions existed in Orenburg and Ufa provinces at that time. Despite the shortcomings, it was a worthy stage of the evolution of comprehensive state maternal and child support.

Keywords: Southern Urals, World War I, maternal and child protection, social policy, local government, obstetrics, day care, orphanage, disabled children.

Vanichev S.V. (Petrozavodsk). The Karelian Radio Committee in the 1930-s: the specificityof activity in the conditions of the localization policy ………. 94

For the first time the impact of the national policy of the Soviet Government on the Committee of radiofixation and radio broadcasting in the Karelian ASSR was revealed basing on materials of the National archives of the RK. In accordance with the issues of the national policy the staff of workers was established in the Radio Committee: editors, broadcasters, technicians as well as literati, musicians, singers, composers. This staff, including the authorities, consisted of the two thirds immigrants from Finland, the USA and Canada. In consequence of their activity the organisation, founded in the first half of the 1930s, became the centre of developing of the national music art and Finnish radio broadcasting in the Republic. In the course of repressions against Finnish authorities in Karelia the peculiarities of the Radio Committee, which distinguished it from other government bodies, gave cause for liquidation of Finnish broadcasting and arrests of the Finnish workers.

Keywords: localization policy, radio broadcasting, Radio Committee, repressions, Russian broadcasting, finnization, Finnish broadcasting, Finnish immigrants.


History of International Relations 

Kustov V.A. (Saratov). Foreign policy powers of the State Duma and parliamentary institutions of other countries at the beginning of the 20-th century. Comparative analysis ………. 99

The article considers foreign policy powers and presents a comparative analysis of foreign policy powers of the Russian parliament and representative institutions of other countries in the early 20th century. The author examines in detail the main models of parliamentarians’ participation in development and realization of state foreign policy, existence of direct and indirect instruments of controlling over foreign policy which is carried out by executive authorities and their formation is defined by a form of a state system (parliamentary or dualistic) and depended on relationship between the government and parliament. The great attention in article is focused to features of foreign policy powers legal registration of the Russian representative institution passed from 17 October, 1905 to 3 June, 1907. Also it analyzes the reasons that made the monarchy involve the State Duma in forming Russia’s foreign policy.

Keywords: The State Duma of Russian Empire, foreign policy of Russia, foreign policy powers.

Nurgaliyev A.J. (Kostanai, The Republic of Kazakhstan). Organizational and economic aspects of the cooperative enterprises of Kazakhstan in 1941–1945 ………. 105

By the beginning of the Great Patriotic war the production cooperatives in the USSR and Kazakhstan had considerable economic potential. Their activities were regulated by the Approximate Charter, which based on the principles of self-governance and cost accounting. State had benefits from the producer’s co-operation, setting for them and their members higher tax rates. The military situation led to centralize the management of the producer’s co-operation system and exacerbate staffing problems, that was decided by recruiting and vocational training for housewives, adolescents, persons with disabilities, as well as displaced persons. The movement of innovators and inventors had development. With the help of the authorities and the administration of large factories production base of small non-State-owned enterprises expanded. In addition, a lot of investments provided own means. As a result, the national economy involved additional resources.

Keywords: The Great Patriotic war, Kazakhstan, cooperative enterprises, the exemplary Charter of the producer’s artel, taxation, training of basic personnel, invention and innovation, investment in fixed assets.

Tsyrkul E.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The Cyprus problem in the relations between Turkey and the EU ………. 115

The article discusses the Cyprus conflict within the context of relations of Cyprus and the TRNC with the European Union and Turkey. Smoldering conflict between two communities of a small island involves the important players of the global political scene in serious political disputes.

Keywords: Cyprus dispute, peaceful settlement.

Sahin E. (Istanbul, Turkey). The application of Cyprus to the EU and Turkey’s reaction (1990–1995) ………. 118

The article analyses the evolution of the Cyprus dispute since the moment of its emergence in the beginning of the 1960th, when Cyprus had just obtained its independence from the Great Britain, and to the middle of the 1990th. Firstly, the gradual division of the island into two autonomous political parts – Sothern (Greek) and Northern (Turkish) – was taking place during this period. Secondly, the political positions on the Cyprus dispute of the parties concerned (Turkey, Greece and the two parts of the island) were forming during this period. The author of the article analyses in particular the factor of the EU’s influence on the conflict’s evolution. With the collapse of the communist system the changes of the political situation have been taking place not only within the European continent but also in the neighboring regions. Since the end of the Cold war the Maghrebian countries have been enduring the period of the political instability. These factors incited the EEC’s (and later the EU’s) acute attention to the Mediterranean region. Cyprus has become the strategic point for the European community. The United Europe has regarded Cyprus as the strategic political and economic center and also as a potential military base. The island’s closeness to the oil regions and to the region of the Middle East and also its favorable geopolitical position have been estimated as beneficial factors increasing the EU’s influence. Thus the first stage of the negotiating process on the Cyprus’s joining to the European Union was taking place during the first five years of the 1990th.

Keywords: The Cyprus dispute, Cyprus, Turkey, the European Union, Northern Cyprus, European integration.

Zokoeva Z.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The Portrayal of Eurasian Intellectuals in the International Edition «DA» ………. 123

The journal «DA» (2000–2012) is a periodic public publication that covers various cultural, educational, literary and artistic topics. The “DA” periodical is published by the International Non-governmental Organization “Dialogue Eurasia Platform”. The main goal of this periodical is bringing together progressive intellectuals to discuss issues relating to culture, literature, art, science and education in terms of national identity of the Eurasian people.

Keywords: journal, dialogue, intellectuals, culture.



Sorokin P.E. (Saint-Petersburg). Archaeological research in St.Petersburg ………. 126

St. Petersburg has always been considered as a new city. However, it was not founded on a desolate place. The land in the Neva estuary has been inhabited since Neolithic era. In the middle ages, it was home to Ingrian and Russian settlements. Constant military conflicts for this territory both in the Middle Ages and in the newest history have left their trace – the remains of the ruined Swedish fortresses, Landskrona (1300) and Nyenschantz (XVII th century). The interest to historical sites in the outskirts of St.Petersburg began to arise in late XIX–early ХХ century, when Stone Age sites were discovered in the Ladoga Lake area, and were begun systematic excavations in the Old Russian mounds in the North-West Russia and in the medieval cities of Novgorod and Staraya Ladoga. During the 300-year-old history of St. Petersburg, many fortifications, engineering and architectural sites have been lost, and their history and remains are becoming a target for architectural research. Systematic study of archaeological sites in St. Petersburg was initiated in late 1980s–early 1990s by St. Petersburg Archaeology Expedition. The researches were aimed at discovering and studying of various epochs monuments: Neolithic sites, the Neva battlefield, late medieval settlements, Nyena town with the Nyenschanz fortress, mansions and burial grounds, and also lost architectural monuments of the XVIII–XIX centuries.

Keywords: Saint-Petersburg, Neva River, Neolith, Middle Ages, City, Okhta Cape, Fortress, Ingrian, Landskrona, Nyenshantz.


Military History 

Ageev N.V. (Moscow). The development of military history in the Russian Empire (1860s of the XIX century–1917) ………. 134

In the scientific article, which is devoted to the retrospective analysis of the development of the national military history in the Russian Empire, the author reveals the content of the period of development of this scientific direction in the first half of the XIX century and its further development until 1917. The author discloses the material basis of the military-historical science formation in pre-revolutionary Russia – the creation of military history departments, the appointment of military history commis- sions in the structure of the Ministry of defence, shows the increasing role of the military historical disciplines in the system of training at the higher military school. The article also provides a historiographical analysis of the military-historical works with the assessment of the contribution of particular authors to the development of this research area. The author shows the importance of building military historical society in Russia, is conducting a study of the contribution of this scientific community members in the development of military history in our country. Thus, the article clearly proves the completeness of the formation process of military history in the Russian Empire to 1860 years of the XIX century and shows the key directions of its development in the period before 1917.

Keywords: history, military history, military science, structure, periodization, stages, factors, trends. 

Zamulin V.N. (v. Prohorovka, Belgorodskaya region). Was there any mistake in planning the defense process of the Voronezh front during the preparation for the Kursk battle ………. 139

The article discusses the problem of planning defense system of the Central and Voronezh fronts in April and May of 1943 in the region of the Kursk Bulge. This research is based on a lot of archival materials taken from the Central archive of Ministry of Defence of Russian Federation. As we know, Kursk Battle had significant meaning, because of the Battle the Red Army captured the strategic initiative, which evolved to the Battle of Berlin in spring of 1945. By the way, the discussions of the question about the victory in the Kursk Bulge began in historiography since 1960 s. In Soviet time, because of censorship and confidential scientific resources there were many problems with openness and objectivity of information related to military operations and actions of the Soviet command, especially in the Battle of Kursk Nowadays, by the way, there are a lot of scientific researches and articles about this information problem, but most of them can’t stand the criticism. And when new, before confidential materials appeared so they allow to objectively answer the question: what exactly and how strategy and tactics of conducting military operations of destroying enemies in the Battle of Kursk differ from each other. Military leaders and ingenuous participants memories and recollections are very important information for researching. And at the same time these materials allow to stop the controversy between two great commanders – N.F. Vatutin and K.K. Rokossovski – about whose direction was critical and why it was so.

This article made the conclusions about the fact, that «Vatutin’s plan», having taken into consideration difficult land condition and the fact that the Left part of the front had less human resources and technical equipment than Central front (K.K. Rokossovsky). So N.F. Vatutin used the specific conditions of the territory and strategic talent to effectively solve the problems and achieve the victory goals in a Battle of Kursk.

Keywords: Battle of Kursk, planning, line of defense, Nikolay Vatutuin, historical mythology.


History of Culture 

Sapfirova N.N. (Kiev, Ukraine). Modern Antique Market: items of Joseph Marshak’s art and jewelry factory and other jewelry companies in Kiev late XIX–early XX centuries ………. 48

Nowadays complex structure of the antique market, including auctions, shops, fairs, as well as a number of related organizations whose activities are connected with the movement of cultural property, expertise, publishing specialized literature, has developed and allows to restore a complete picture of the some historical periods related on different companies. In fact, it’s a live construction of communication and circulation of antiquities and consumers and on the international area.

The article provides an analytical overview of the subjects of several well-known Kiev jewelry firms in late XIX – early XX century, whose products are represented on the antique market of the beginning of the XXI century.

Keywords: Joseph Marshak, late XIX–early XX century, jeweler, antiques, auction.


Historical characters 

Zolotarev V.A., Sokolov A.M. (Moscow), Tihminskiyj V.G.(Hannover, Germany). “Iron Knight”a skillful diplomat and cold-blooded strategist (01.04.1815 – 30.07.1898). By the 200th anniversary of the birth of Otto von Bismarck ………. 156

The article gives a brief description of one of the main characters in the German history, which influenced on the events taking place both within the country and outside it – Otto von Bismarck. His intelligence, diplomatic skills and strategist’s talent joined the German territory that helped to achieve the Bismarck main goal – that Germany would become the dominant state in Europe. In addition, the actions of this politician associated with a sharp impetus to the development of Germany. Many researchers also noted his foresight and the ability to anticipate future events, for example, if we talk about his views on Russia. However, the article also mentioned the negative traits of Bismarck, and also the article discusses the question of his role in the formation of the prerequisites of the First and Second World Wars.

Keywords: politician, the unification of Germany, the clever diplomat, manipulation, geopolitics Bismarck, Chancellor.

Spiridonova E.K. (Saint-Petersburg). Isaakiy Petrovich Mordvinov as an editor of Tikhvin local history periodicals ………. 162

This article considers educational activities of Isaakiy Petrovich Mordvinov (1871–1925) showing examples of his participation in organizing and publishing local periodicals connected with Tikhvin region history. I.P. Mordvinov used to be an editor of journals such as «Tikhvinets» and «Nasha Shkola» («Our School»), the newspapers «Nash Kray» («Our Region») and «Tikhvinskiye Vedomosty» («Tikhvin’s Bulletins»), as well as district council’s calendar – reference book. He was one of the pioneers who promoted local history materials of Tikhvin region when actually no one realized the significance meaning of this sphere of knowledge.

Keywords: Study of Regions, Local History, Tikhvin, I. P. Mordvinov, periodicals, «Tikhvinets», district council’s calendar – reference book.

Krylova V.K. (Yakutsk). «Morality of Pani Dulskaya» in the light of philistine tragic farce or comedy with a satirical beginning ………. 167

Article discusses about the imaginary distorted morality that was common in the petty bourgeoisie world. G. Zapolskaya and the theatrical collectives could brilliantly show it. Article considers the influence of the playwright G. Zapolskaya on the repertoire policy formation of the Russian Drama Theatre in Yakutia. Attention is attracted to the play «Morality of Pani Dulskaya» considered it as way of stimulating acting skills and audience interest. It is connected with the universalism of dramatic theatre themes, which was equally in demand at any time. If author interpreted the events as a petty-bourgeois tragicfarce, so later the directors could interpret them as petty-bourgeois tragicomedy, or as a comedy with a satirical beginning. Everything depended on the society moral ideals, people’s attitude, morality and understanding its ideas. Article concludes that the vitality of this morality any time in any epoch and in any society makes the Polish writer play popular and always modern. Russian theaters but not only theater in Yakutia periodically return to this play and it proves that play is still in demand.

Keywords: G. Zapolskaya; petty bourgeoisie; morals; tragic farce; petty-bourgeois tragicomedy; petty bourgeoisie morality; comediograf.

Halin A.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). Historian of the Volga Shipping Ivan A. Shubin ………. 171

Historians of Russian river steamer navigation know very well a book «Volga and Volga’s navigation» written by Ivan Aleksandrovich Shubin. Released almost 90 years ago, it is used by researchers of Russian river steamer navigation problem so far. The article is devoted to the well-known historian of the Volga river navigation I.A. Shubin. For a long time there is almost no information about his life and tragic fate. As a result of work in the archive were found documents about his life and work. For the first time, based on declassified materials, we can see biography of I.A. Shubin, information about his creative work and his tragic fate.

The basis of this essay is three archival cases told about repressions against I.A. Shubin. They contain quite extensive material, not only about the process of investigations. The prisoner’s questionnaire, interrogation protocols and other documents contain information of biography, there are details about his work on the book «Volga and Volga’s navigation». They can show information on the author’s personal library and papers on the history of the Volga steamship navigation.

Keywords: the history of the Volga shipping in the XIX–early XX centuries, historiography, biography I.A. Shubin.

Yakimyuk E.L. (Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine). The scientific view of the world by E. Burkser (pre-soviet period) and influence on it the ideas of Vernadsky ………. 175

In the article, on the basis of archival materials and literature, analyzed and described E. Burkser (since 1925 a member of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences), a young scientist, recently graduated from Imperial Novorossiya University (now Odessa National University), became interested in the ideas of Vernadsky related to geochemical studies of radioactive elements. In 1910, E. Burkser created in Odessa (Russian Empire), the first radiological laboratory, organized its activities largely in accordance with the advices of V. Vernadsky. During the period 1911-1916 under his leadership were conducted numerous scientific expeditions to the Caucasus, Kuban, Odessa’s suburbs, Bessarabia to identify and study radioactive sources, minerals, rocks. Expeditions were organized by Burkser according to advices derived from Vernadsky. The article presents a series of letters from E. Burkser to V. Vernadsky, the contents of which reveal a process of the formation and development of scientific interests of E. Burkser and shows deep scientific ties between scientists.

Keywords: V. Vernadsky, E. Burkser, radiology, history, geochemistry, Odessa, radiological, laboratory, scientific ideas, pre-Soviet period.



Minnikova T.N. (Tosno, Leningrad region). The issue of reconciling former enemies ………. 180

In this article the author examines the problem of mutual understanding between the Russian and German people. He believed that the cause of German prejudices about Russia was and still remains Europeans contempt to Russian as a civilization. The article discusses the questions about the «price of the Victory». The author concludes that a lot of victims of the Soviet people had 2 different reasons: on the one hand –Russia as a civilization in the 20th century was behind other leading European countries; on the other hand, – spiritual-lofty sentiments of its people. This understanding of the problem allowed author to separate the current historical condition of the people from their deep mental roots. As a result there was a possibility for more objective assessment of the motivation of the Red Army soldiers’ heroic behavior in the military operations – ontological basis of such behavior. Only understanding of this fact is able to truly reconcile the nations which were enemies once.

Keywords: mentality, civilizational contempt, superiority, noble rage, sacred feeling, hatred, justice, truth, heroic concept.


Reviews of Scientific Publications 

Grebenshchikova G.A., Lupanova E.M. (Saint-Petersburg) Review on the book «Do you ready to expedition and fight?» ………. 187

There is an objective estimate of information in review, which has been printed in brochure, about negative facts in the history of Russian Fleet. Review’s authors, the specialists on history of Russian Sail Fleet, don’t categorically agree with brochure’s author generalization. He represented the negative facts as normal and widespread phenomena in the Fleet, but in reality, the negative facts were untypical for Russian Fleet.

Keywords: patriotic recovery, glory of Russian Fleet, naval officers, admirals, deviation off norms, negative in the Fleet, reality’s distortion.


Modern Memories 

Brisker A.S. (Florida, USA). Episodes of pre-war Leningrad childhood ………. 193

In the memories of former Soviet citizen, nowadays a resident of the United States, Anatoliyj Samoyjlovich Brisker are described details of the pre-war Leningrad, fragments of the city lifestyle that time, as well as many small details that creates the idea of the city of three revolutions before the Great Patriotic War. Author’s story, like any other memories, is subjective, but it’s obvious that they are valuable because Brisker could save the reliability of children’s views on the dynamic of the Soviet metropolis life.

Keywords: Leningrad, USSR, the Soviet Union, childhood, adolescence, pre-war period, the eve of the Great Patriotic War.