Klio #7 (67) 2012


Diaries, memoirs

Chetverikov B.D. (Saint Petersburg). “Stezhky-dorozhky” (“The pathways”) (continuation)………. 3

The autobiographical novel by B.D. Chetverikov tells us about the writer’s life that can be called «the outline» of the history of our country in the 20th century.

Katukova E.S. (The Moscow Region). Something to remember (continuation)………. 22

These memoirs narrate Yekaterina Sergeevna Katukova’s life course that was inseparably linked with the outstanding military leader Mikhail Yefimovich Katukov. The memoirs cover many decades; events of the Great Patriotic War, however, hold the central position.


Source studies

Pronin A.A. (Yekaterinburg). Sources of personal origin as a tool for studying the history of emigration from Russia………. 33

This article examines a corpus of memoirs, diaries, letters, art and biographical literature, oral evidence, personal collections, family heirlooms of Russian emigrants and their descendants used by domestic historians in theses defended during 1980–2005.



Rostovtsev E.A., Barinov D.A., Krivonozhenko A.F., Sidorchuk I.V. (Saint Petersburg). Academic Corporation of Metropolitan University (1884–1917) in the focus of the historiography………. 47

The article examines the history of studying the academic Corporation of Saint Petersburg (Petrograd) University (1884–1917) from the end of the 19th–beginning of the 21st century. Main factors shaping social and academic order to the scientific literature are specified, the key findings and research results reached by the Russian and foreign historians are listed, modern historiographical situation is analyzed and the prospects for further research are outlined here.


General history

Kostyuk R.V. (Saint Petersburg). The attitude of French Socialists and Communists to NATO and the USA in the 1970s………. 63

This article analyzes views of the Socialist Party (France) and the French Communist Party in relation to U.S. foreign policy and the NATO activities in the 1970s. The article specifies similarities and differences in approaches of leading French left-wing parties to the policy of the Western world superpower in the 1970s both in the period of detente, and in the years of deterioration of the international situation. This article is based primarily on French political sources.

Teplyakov A.G. (Novosibirsk). Amnestied Chekists of the 1930s during the Great Patriotic War………. 69

The article is devoted to an obscure subject related to the mass amnesty of the NKVD officers punished during the “Great Terror” and in subsequent years. Most of the convicted Chekists managed in 1941–1942 not only to be released from prison, but to receive state decorations both for participation in front-line hostilities and for the management of subversive groups operating behind enemy lines. The study is based on numerous documents of secret service and contains a wealth of new materials about the personnel of the Soviet state security service.


The history of Russian regions

Matison A.V. (Moscow). The clergy of Rzhev in the 18th century: History and Genealogy………. 77

The article continues research on the history and genealogy of the clergy of Tver diocese in the 18thcentury (before the clergy of Tver and Ostashkov was considered in some studies). Based on the analysis of mass sources from the Russian State Archives of Ancient Documents and the State Archive of the Tver Region (census records, cleric and confessional statements, parish registers, etc.), this article examines the clergymen of another town of Tver diocese – Rzhev, representing in this period a typical district center of the European part of Russia.

Khvostova I.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). On the prospects for the introduction of universal education in Nizhny Novgorod province in the 1870s: Projects and Reality………. 84

The article analyzes the situation prevailing in the field of primary public education of Nizhny Novgorod province during the 60s–70s of the 19th century. Based on the study of record keeping, statistics and unpublished archival material, the author characterizes the position of the Zemstvo and the academic departments on the need and feasibility of the introduction of universal education in the province as early as in the 1870s.

Gurkin Ya.A. (Saint Petersburg). Saint Petersburg criminal investigation police: improving the structure and working methods in the early 20th century………. 87

The article focuses on the formation and development of the Saint Petersburg criminal investigation police in the early 20th century. The author describes in detail the stages of the legal and regulatory framework, on the basis of which the criminal investigation police functioned, stops on the practical performance of the Saint Petersburg Police.

Sinelnikova E.F. (Saint Petersburg). Scientific communities of Petrograd–Leningrad during the NEP………. 92

The article investigates the influence of the NEP on the life of science communities in Petrograd–Leningrad. The changes that occurred during the NEP in the relations of power structures and scientific communities of the city are analyzed here.

Pilipenko A.A. (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky). On the turnover of teachers on the Kamchatka Peninsula during the school reform of 1920–1930s: a psychological factor………. 95

The article analyzes the situation in personnel matters in Kamchatka schools during 1920–1930s, studies psychological factors that affected the turnover of teachers in the analyzed period.

Galiullina D.M. (Kazan). Features of Tatar primers in Latin script of end of the 1920–1930s………. 97

This article analyzes children’s primers in Latin script of late 1920–1930s. Tatar “əлифба” is analyzed as one type of narrative sources on the history of the Tatar people. Changes that occurred in the Tatar national tradition of educational texts are considered on the example of verbal and visual texts.

Andreeva O.V. (Kazan). Food supply of Kazan inhabitants in the middle of 1950s……….. 99

The article highlights the application of mechanisms of power in matters of food supply of a major regional center, their role in solving the food problem in the local context. The author notes the lack of coordination of the party and state bodies of the Tatar ASSR with the central apparatus, and examines its causes.

Kosinov A.I. (Kursk). Kursk region and its parameters of ecological development in the late 1990s–early 21st century: Past and Present………. 102

The article analyzes the position of Kursk region in the Central Federal District in the late1990s–early 21st century with respect to environmental conditions involving statistical data and population surveys, conclusions and evaluation of the situation are made.



Krivitskiy V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Zoomorphic images on pottery of the ancient North Caucasus………. 105

On the basis of archaeological research, the article investigates zoomorphic images made on ceramics by craftsmen of the Northern Caucasus in the analyzed period.


Military history

Poznakhirev V.V. (Saint Petersburg). The reunification of family members in Russian captivity in the 18th–the beginning of the 20th century (on the example of the Turkish prisoners of war)……….. 107

The article is devoted to the assessment of the humanity of the attitude of the authorities showed by one or another state to the enemy prisoners of war. Assuming that the criteria currently used to produce this assessment are limited, the author raises the question of expanding their range and on the example of Turkish prisoners in Russia justifies the need to use this feature as “attitude of authorities and officers of the Detaining State to requests made by POW relatives about their reunion in one point of internment”.

Shtyrbul A.A. (Omsk). From the history of the Civil War in the east of Russia: “satuninshchina” and its elimination (1918–1920s)………. 108

The article is devoted to D.V. Satunin, one of the most odious figures of the Civil War and the White movement in the East of Russia, still remained in the ”shadow” of other, more famous figures of white chieftainship.

Zotova A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Savings banks in the besieged Leningrad……….113

On many archival materials the article examines the role and place of savings banks in the life of the blockaded Leningrad. It shows their great role in supporting residents and businesses of Leningrad during the siege, in mobilizing all forces to fight the enemy.


Cultural history

Makhlina S.T. (Saint Petersburg). A cabinet in a residential interior design………. 119

The main object of filling the residential interior is furniture. A cabinet is a place of storage of various items – clothing, books, documents, etc. In Europe, simple planked cabinets appeared in vestries in the 12th–13th centuries. In France during the Renaissance cabinets were the summit of furniture art. At the end of the 17th century a cabinet acquired a new form in Germany. In the late 17th–early 18th century there appeared oak, walnut, veneered so-called Danzig and Hamburg cabinets, later cabinet-office. Now sliding door wardrobes are popular.


Historical characters

Smirnov V.G. (Saint Petersburg). M.A. Rykachev and the establishment of magnetic-meteorological observatory on the Black Sea………. 121

For the first time the article specifies a note on the need to establish a magnetic-meteorological observatory on the Black Sea, kept in the archives of Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (SPF ARAN). Its author – Assistant Director of the Central Physical Observatory of Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences – Lieutenant M.A. Rykachev (1840/1841–1919) in the early 1870s offered to arrange a central magnetic-meteorological observatory for the region of the Black and Azov Seas in Nikolayev, where at that time the headquarters of the Black Sea Fleet were located. However, in the early 20thcentury only at the suit of Director of the Central Physical Observatory, academician, General M.A. Rykachev, Model Naval Observatory was founded in Sevastopol – the Black Sea Fleet’s main base.



Solodkin Ya.G. (Nizhnevartovsk). “1,000 miles for eighteen months?” (Who started the accession of Siberia to Russia)………. 126

The article in spite of the recently expressed view (though not entirely original) shows that the entry of Siberian lands in the Moscow State did not start from the time of expeditions by I.A. Mansurov, V.B. Sukin and I.N. Myasnoy, then D.D. Chulkov who “laid” first Russian fortified settlements over the Urals, and because of the campaign of the Cossack “brigade” of Yermak that managed to defeat the main military forces of “Kuchumov” khanate, this is why in the 1585–1587 detachments of military men almost never met any resistance.


To becime history tomorrow

Gogun A. (Berlin, Germany). Unreal socialism. Expensive poverty of the Cuban proletariat………. 130

The publication is a sketch-observation of a careful historian, who visited Cuba in these days and is analyzing its historical past and present.


The reviews of scientific publications

Volkov V.S. (Saint Petersburg). A new book on the history of trade in Russia……….. 132

The review praised the work of authors who prepared a monographic study of the internal and external trade in Muscovy of the 16th–17th centuries through extensive sources and historiography.

Ilyin P.V. (Saint Petersburg). A new milestone in the study of the history of social movements in
relation o government policy and the development of public institutions in Russia in the first half of the
19th century………. 134

The review praises the fundamental work prepared by T.V. Andreyeva, Doctor of Historical Sciences, a leading member of Saint Petersburg Institute of the RAS History, emphasizes the general character of work, an introduction of many archival documents to the scientific circulation.

Frolov M.I. (Saint Petersburg). The monument of military history, architecture and culture………. 138

The review praised the monograph, prepared by M.Ya. Tarasov, PhD (History), a retired colonel. It is noted that the work is based on a wide range of sources, most of which are the archival documents. It is noted that “the book is well written and easily read with interest and will be very useful for anyone interested in military history of our country”.

Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). Old postcard as a new historical source……….139

The review analyzes the contents of the first two volumes of a four-volume project “Saint Petersburg–Petrograd–Leningrad in postcards of 1895-1945s”, highlights the uniqueness of the edition, austerity of Professor V.P. Tretyakov, who initiated the work publication.


Scientific life

Scientific conferences took place

Lapina I.Yu. (Saint Petersburg). Russia–China: a transcontinental bridge of ties………. 142

The publication covers emergence and development of the ancient Chinese culture, the establishment of diplomatic relations between Russia and China, the cultural interaction between the two countries, provides an overview of conference proceedings devoted to the cross-year of Russian tourism in China.

Defenses of dissertations took place………. 144



Kan A. (Stockholm, Sweden). Comments of a universal historian on the 90thanniversary of S.O. Schmidt………. 147

The report describes an outstanding modern historian Sigurd Ottovich Schmidt, who celebrated his 90th birthday this April. It is emphasized that S.O. Schmidt is a remarkable phenomenon of modern Russian science and culture.