Klio #7 (91) 2014

Problems of theory

Minnikova T.N. (St. Petersburg). Reflection as a Factor in the Historical Process………. 3

This article examines a wide range of issues related to cognitive evolution of mankind. In this context the author tries to define the civilization resource of Russia during its modernization.

Keywords: cognitive mindset, traditional society, the Renaissance, the collective consciousness, reflection on values and «soft power».

Kislitsina I.L. (St. Petersburg). The Ideology of Human Dignity: M.A. Bakunin Anarchism (on the 200th Anniversary of the Founder of the Theory of Revolutionary Anarchism)………. 7

This article covers the basic content and genesis of public and political views of revolutionary anarchism theorist, M.A. Bakunin; it substantiates the integrity and consistency of Bakuninism, unity and regularity of the process of its evolution.

Keywords: M.А. Bakunin, Bakuninism, the theory of revolution anarchism, public movement of the XIX century.

Solomakha E.N. (Nizhny Novgorod). Statement of Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Historiographical Research of 50’s–90’s of XX Century………. 12

The development history of historical science in the period of 50’s – 90’s of XX century did not suffer from the «period of stagnation»: – the inner work and the growth of science itself, redefining certain theoretical positions were continuous. In discussions of that time, the historical science history on its own approached the formulation of problems of alternativity of the historical process, new interpretation of the provisions of Marxist methodology. The article covers the discussions on the theoretical problems of historiography in this period, and analyzes their results.

Keywords: principle of party spirit, the principle of historicism, the theoretical problems of historiography, methodology, periodization, classification of historiographical studies, historiographical fact, historiographical source, alternativity of history.



Kargapoltseva I.V. (St. Petersburg). From Tauris to Lapland, Courland and East Prussia: Memories of the Soviet Navy Officer’s Wife about the Everyday Life of the Rear of the Cold War………. 18

Memories of I.V. Kargapoltseva, the Soviet Navy officer’s wife – about the difficult but exciting times of the Cold War and life in the garrisons of naval bases in the Black Sea, Northern and Baltic fleets. The narrative also covers the situation in post-Soviet Russia.

Keywords: Soviet Navy, the Cold War, Sevastopol, Severodvinsk, Gadzhiyevo, Olenya Guba, Liepaja, Kaliningrad, Leningrad – St. Petersburg, 1961-2006.


Source studies

Maul V.Y. (Nizhnevartovsk). Unnoticed Source on the History of Pugachev’s Rebellion («Anecdotes about Rebel and Imposter, Emelka Pugachev»)………. 25

The article discusses the cognitive capabilities of «Anecdotes about Rebel and Imposter, Emelka Pugachev» as unexplored source for the history of the Pugachev’s rebellion. It is shown that reference to this book will allow for better understanding of the features of preservation in public memory of the largest events of the popular uprising in pre-revolutionary Russia.

Keywords: anecdotes, historical source, Pugachev, Russian riot, public memory, “False Peter III”.

Golovin V.V. (St. Petersburg). «Combining Useful and Pleasant» – First Experience of Publishing Magazine for Children and Youth in Russia………. 30

The article covers the first experience in publishing a periodical for children in Russia, the «Combining Useful and Pleasant» magazine of 1769 by I.A. Teyls and I.F. Rumyantsev circulated 15 years before the publication of the well-known magazine of N.I. Novikov «Children’s Reading for the Heart and Mind».

Keywords: children’s literature, a magazine for children, «Combining Useful and Pleasant», «Children’s Reading for the Heart and Mind», I.A Teyls, I.F. Rumyantsev, N.I. Novikov, A.T. Bolotov, Leprince de Beaumont, preachy story, reasoner.

Stanulevich N.A. (St. Petersburg). S.M. Prokudin-Gorsky and His Contribution to the Development of Colored Photograph: Review of Sources………. 33

The article presents the analysis and characterization of sources on the history of application and development of color photography in the early twentieth century. The main attention is paid to the sources reflecting the scientific and practical activities of S.M. Prokudin-Gorsky.

Keywords: Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorsky, color photography, history of photography.

Gentshke V.L., Sabennikova I.V. (Moscow). Documentary Sources of Foreign Archived Rossica: Area of Distribution………. 36

Based on the analysis of extensive factual material it is considered the geography, steps in the dissemination of documentary sources of foreign archival Rossica, highlighted is a gradual process and the duration of the formation of this group of sources showing factors which have influenced him. The topic describes a number of archival collections with documentary sources of the Russian emigration in the XX century. It is indicates that the current process of transfer of foreign archival Rossica documentary sources (originals and copies) to our country affects the area of distribution of modern Russian sources abroad.

Keywords: Russian abroad, foreign archival Rossica, documentary sources.



Samartseva E.I. (Tula). Actual Issues Related to Study of the First World War in the Research Problematic of the TulaStateUniversity……….46

The topic reviews the historiographical information about studying the First World War by Tula State University scientists and their counterparts (co-authors) in 2013–2014.

Keywords: history, Russia, the First World War, Tula, research, memory, science, and culture.

Kharina F.N. (Izhevsk). Some Problems of Forming the Nomenclature and the Regional Management in 1920s – Earlier 1930s in Modern Historiography………. 47

The topic is an attempt to analyze the current state of knowledge problems of formation of the Soviet nomenclature and the regional management staff in the 1920s – early 1930s. Various methodological approaches in the interpretation of these socio-political phenomena used in social and humanitarian sciences are covered.

Keywords: nomenclature, the Soviet bureaucracy, regional management staff, modern historiography.


National history

Voronov I.I. (Yaroslavl). Ministry of Agriculture during the First World War………. 56

The topic is devoted to the activities of the Ministry of Agriculture during the First World War. Discussed is the process of transformation of the central apparatus of the Food Special Meeting, one of four specially created bodies of crisis management.

Keywords: Ministry of Agriculture, Food Special Meeting, the First World War.


History of the regions of Russia

Vasilyev I.M. (Ufa). Petitions of the Population of OrenburgProvince to Paul I………. 60

The article provides an overview of petitions and complaints received in the name of Paul I from representatives of various groups of South Ural region (Orenburg province) population during 1796-1800. On an example of conflict situations reflected in these petitions, there are shown features of social life in the region and relations of the local population with administrative structures.

Keywords: petitions, the internal policy of Paul I, South-Ural region (Bashkiria), administration corrupt practices.

Orlova A.P. (St. Petersburg). Experience of Studying Birth and Infant Mortality Rate in the TsarskoyeSeloCounty during 1860–1910 as per Publications of the Ministry of Internal Affairs………. 65

Systematic analysis of the current ecclesiastical and administrative registration of population by the personnel of the Central and provincial statistical committees from 1860s on pages of Statistics Bulletin and Commemorative books of province allows us to analyze changes in the demographic development by growth of birth rate and decrease in infant mortality in Tsarskoye Selo County of St. Petersburg Province in 1860-1910 and to show their relationship with socioeconomic factors in the development of Russia .

Keywords: birth rate, infant mortality, the demographic transition, the population of the county of Tsarskoye Selo of St. Petersburg Province , calculation of demographic indicators, the publications of the Central and provincial statistical committees of the MIA.

Borodina S.V. (Kursk). The Establishment of CountyHealthcare and Education in KurskProvince in XIX – Earlier ХХ Century. (On Example of Girls and Women of Peasantry Class)………. 73

The topic discusses the features of the development of province education and healthcare on example of Kursk province in the late XIX century. Given are the parallels in the development of province schools and hospitals. Analyzed is the availability of literacy and health care for women and girls of the peasantry class.

Keywords: rural province schools, mixed schools, education, training, hospital, teacher, doctor.

Baybakov V.Y. (Kursk). Kursk Organization of Cadet’s Party: Origin and Activity in 1905–1907………. 79

The topic discusses the work of Party committees agitation & propaganda activities during election campaigns in the First and Second State Duma. Attention is drawn to the fact that the majority of the province population approved the perceived democratic transformation.

Keywords: Constitutional Democratic Party, people representation, public associations, the State Duma, Kursk province.

Korovin V.V., Romanov A.V. (Kursk). The Condition of Healthcare in KurskProvince during the First World War………. 81

On the basis of archival documents and published sources the topic examines the state of healthcare as one of the most important indicators of the population living in the province of Kursk during the First World War.

Keywords: First World War, Kursk province, healthcare

Alekseyeva L.V., Bukreneva K.G. (Nizhnevartovsk). Placement of Leningrad Orphanages in a Period of Evacuation at the Territory of Khanty-Mansi National District………. 85

Based on archival documents the history of placement of orphans from Leningrad at the territory of Khanty-Mansi National District is explored. The basis of the work was the study of population, age structure and material base of evacuated orphanages.

Keywords: evacuation of orphans, orphanages, Khanty-Mansi National District, children of war, Khanty-Mansi District Executive Committee.

Pyankevich I.V. (St. Petersburg). Relationships of Camps’ Administration with the Prisoners of War at the Territory of Leningrad and Leningrad Region (1944–1949)………. 88

Article examines the interrelations of foreign prisoners of war and administration of their detention camps on the territory of Leningrad and Leningrad region. Investigated is the political work undertaken among the prisoners, the organization of their work and leisure. Analyzed are the relationships of prisoners and the staff of GUPVI system.

Keywords: captivity, forced labor, international law, Leningrad, USSR post-war reconstruction, prisoners of war, camp for prisoners.

Pakhomova A.N., Shurakova V.P. (Kursk). Crime in Russia during Origination of New Democratic State (on Example of Kursk Region)………. 91

The authors explore the criminological state of Russian society (on example of the Kursk region) during the formation of a new democratic state. Analyzed are more often crimes of the earlier 1990s.

Keywords: democracy, the convicted persons, crime, society, 1990s.


History of science and technology

Zvonkova G.L. (Kyiv, Ukraine). Inter-branch Scientific and Technical Complexes of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (1980–1990)………. 94

The topic highlights the activities of inter-branch scientific and technical complexes of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences as a form of accelerating the implementation of basic research.

Keywords: scientific and technical complex, enterprise, technology, scientific research, the Ukraine SSR Academy of Sciences.

Okhochinsky M.N. (St. Petersburg). Unpublished Works of the Professor N.A. Rynin in the Field of Interplanetary Communications………. 97

The topic covers unpublished manuscripts of the Professor N.A. Rynin included into a cycle of so-called «late works» of the scientist in the field of rocketry and astronautics.

Keywords: rocketry, N.A. Rynin, astronautics, informational and technical database, manuscript, specifications, reliability.


History of international relations

Krotova M.V. (St. Petersburg). Unknown Pages of Sino-Soviet Conflict in 1929 at the CER………. 99

On the basis of previously unpublished archival sources the topic covers repressions of Russian emigrants during the Sino-Soviet conflict in 1929 at the CER. Focus is on events in Three Rivers and sending emigrants from Manchuria to the USSR.

Keywords: Sino-Soviet conflict of 1929, the CER, Russian emigration, Manchuria, repressions.

Ablizin V.A. (Saratov). Soviet Union and Finland. Struggle for Scandinavian Foothold………. 102

Until now, historians have wondered about what interests Stalinist leadership pursued by developing relations with Finland, which it offered to the Government of Finland and why it failed to execute an agreement on mutual assistance during negotiations with his representatives.

Keywords:Moscow, Helsinki, the Soviet-Finnish negotiations, an agreement on mutual assistance, the FinnishGulfIslands.

Khadorich L.V. (St. Petersburg). OAS as a Central Element of Regional Safety System in the Western Hemisphere at the Turn of the Centuries………. 106

With collapse of the bipolar system has arisen a need for new approaches to understanding the security in the Western Hemisphere. The topic is devoted to the institutional and legal changes in the Organization of American States (OAS) as a focal point for regional security system. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of views on traditional and new threats. It also tries to analyze the reasons for reviving inter-American cooperation against the backdrop of changing security architecture of the region.

Keywords: Organization of American States (OAS), OAS, the Inter-American System, regional security, “integrated” security, «multidimensional» security, «democratic security».

Stolyarov A.O. (St. Petersburg). Modern Polish Politicians’ Understanding of the USSR History in the Polish Parliament Debates on NATO Membership (1998–1999)………. 113

On the basis of transcripts of Polish parliamentarians debate about Poland’s accession to NATO discussed are the politicians’ views about the history of the Soviet Union. Special attention is drawn to the difference between the approaches of various political forces in the use of ideas about the history of the USSR.

Keywords: historical memory, Poland’s accession to NATO, the debate in the Sejm and the Senate, the postwar history of the USSR, Poland-Russian relations, parliamentary system in Poland.

Mescheryakov K.E. (St. Petersburg). Russian-Turkmenistan Relations in 2000–2005: on the Edge of Freezing………. 117

This topic studies the basic features of the interaction of the Russian Federation and Turkmenistan in 2000–2005. It discusses Moscow’s initiatives to strengthen dialogue with Ashgabat. Characterized is the legal framework of bilateral cooperation. It is concluded that at this stage Russian-Turkmenistan relations were on the verge of freezing, and the responsibility for it was predominantly borne by Turkmen leadership.

Keywords:Russia, Turkmenistan, Central Asia, Turkmenbashi, Russian-speaking population, the post-Soviet space, energy, ethnocratization.


Military history

Podpryatov N.V. (Perm). Features of the Formation of the PolishState Militia Squads and Their Participation in the Fighting in 1915………. 121

This article discusses the creation of the first period of ethnic Polish military units in the Russian army; especially highlighted are the specifics in management of their acquisition, procurement and training. The differences in approaches to this process by the army leadership and Polish representatives are shown. The combat route of the Polish brigade is traced.

Keywords: Russian Army, the Polish formation, volunteering, squad militia, organizing committee.

Poznakhirev V.V. (St. Petersburg). Particulars of Exchanging Lists of Prisoners of War between Russia and Turkey in the First World War………. 123

The topic is devoted to the problem of exchange of information on prisoners of war between Russia and Turkey which has hitherto been highly controversial covered in domestic and foreign historiography. Analyzed are the Sublime Porte s claims. The author comes to the conclusion that most of them were well-founded. Shown are the reasons for which the Petrograd during 1914–1917 provided the lists of Turkish prisoners represented irregularly and (or) not in full.

Keywords: prisoners of war, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the exchange of lists, the Ottoman Empire , the First World War, the Turks , the Central Information office for prisoners.

Rakhimkulov R.A. (Samara). Activities of Governmental Structures to Strengthen the Morale of the Armed Forces of the South of Russia (1919 – March 1920)………. 125

The topic presents the main results of the research activities of the authorities of the White Movement to strengthen the morale of the Armed Forces of South Russia. The attention is drawn to the strict observance of the principle of equal responsibility for their crimes regardless of military rank and past accomplishments; exception of army life of protesting and politicking.

Keywords: The Armed Forces of South Russia, A.I. Denikin, the morale of the Armed Forces of South Russia, military discipline, material supplies, moral decay of troops, agitation, propaganda, special meeting, M.V. Alekseyev, L.G. Kornilov, P.N. Wrangel, the political organs of the Labor and Peasant Red Army.

Makedonsky A.V. (Moscow). Features of Cultural and Educational Work in the Red Army in the Conditions of NEP………. 129

The article discusses the features of cultural and education activities of the Red Army during the NEP. Based on new archival sources analyzed is the work undertaken by the army cultural-educational institutions to weaken the «peasant moods» that took place in large parts of the military recruitment in the 1920s.

Keywords: new economic policy, Labor and Peasant Red Army, «peasant mood», cultural-educational work, recruits.


History of law

Pavlushkov A.R. (Vologda). Monastic Exile and Monastic Prison: Historical & Legal and Canonical Distinction between the Concepts………. 132

The topic attempts to make a historical & legal and canonical analysis of two different concepts of «monastic exile» and «monastic prison», shown are their relation and fundamental differences, explained are the reasons for their identification.

Keywords: canonic law, church and state jurisdiction, monastic exile, monastic prison, monastic imprisonment, repentance, crime, sin.

Stepanova (Shenmaiyer) N.G. (Irkutsk). Correctional Educational Aspect in Russian Legislation on Penal Servitude of the Second Half of XIX – Earlier XX Century: Historical and Legal Approach………. 135

On the basis of historical and legal approach the topic considers the correctional educational aspect in Russian legislation on penal servitude of the second half of XIX – earlier XX century. Given are results of studies of the basic laws of servitude. The essence and direction of correctional educational policies in a convict prison in Siberia are evolved. It is formulated that the correctional educational orientation of Russian legislation on servitude formed in accordance with the penal policy of Russia and Europe.

Keywords:Russia, penitentiary system, servitude, legislation, correctional educational policy.


Histrorical charaters

Matveyeva I.G. (St. Petersburg). The Portrait of Catherine II………. 141

The topic is devoted to the fate of the portrait of Catherine II by D.G. Levitsky that decorated the Larinsky Hall of Imperial Public Library.

Keywords: D.G. Levitsky, Portrait of Catherine II, Imperial Public Library, National Library of Russia.

Kuznetsov V.D. (St. Petersburg). K.P. Pobedonostsev about Spiritual and Religious Education of Russian Students………. 143

Based on researches and documentary sources the topic considers the activities of K.P. Pobedonostsev on education of pupils in Russia, his stabilizing role in social and economic life of Russia. The author notes that the ideological basis of views K.P. Pobedonostsev was Orthodoxy, protection and assertion of which has become the work of his life.

Keywords: Russian Orthodox Church, K.P. Pobedonostsev, students, Russian history, education.


Will be history tomorrow

Khabalov A.T. (Moscow). Central Asia: Brief Political and Economic Insight………. 148

The topic makes an attempt to study the economic and political factors underlying interests of the world community in the region of Central Asia.

Keywords: Central Asia, economic policy, foreign policy, integration, Russia, the Islamic world, the Western world.



Lichman B.V. (Ekaterinburg). Tolerance of Ideological Diversity in the RussianState History Textbook………. 154

Modern multinational Russia is a consequence of the complex history of many peoples and nations of the past who occupied the vast area from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. Estimates of this story were not always straightforward. The task of modern authors, according to B.V. Lichman, is in educating tolerance attitude to the long history of modern Russia.

Keywords: tolerance, ideological diversity, multi-conceptuality, history, philosophy, approach, interpretation, explanation, evaluation, theory.

Sulaberidze Y.S. (Tbilisi, Georgia). Thinking of Time. Dialogues………. 156

In the form of a dialogue of conditional characters – «philosopher», «politician», «everyman» – the author presents to the readers his view of the problems of modern Georgia and ways to solve them.

Keywords: post-revolutionary system, the power crisis, «historical trauma», «mental revolution», dialogue.