Klio #8 (80) 2013


Document is published for the first time

Chernov V.М. To give earrings to all sisters (the publication is prepared by А.I. Avrus, М.А. Gorbatova, А.P. Novikova (Saratov))……….. 3

Participant of the festive presentation («rayoshnik») submitted to the reader – the work of the prominent Russian political figure V.M. Chernov, written probably in the beginning of 1937. The text of participant of the festive presentation certifies that the author, being in emigration, had an understanding of what was happening at that time in the USSR and in the environment of the first wave of Russian emigration.


Diaries, memoirs

Chetverikov B.D. (Saint-Petersburg). «Stezhky-dorozhky» (The pathways) (continuation)……….. 22

The autobiographical novel by B.D. Chetverikov tells us about the writer’s life that can be called «the outline» of the history of our country in the 20th century.


General history

Vasilenko P.V. (Hannover, Germany), Vasilenko Т.А. (Моscow). Republican party of the United States: «power politics» and «politics of culture»……….. 30

The Republican party represents the military power and the state will of the USA. Currently the Republicans have not lost their political influence. The reasons for the popularity of the Republican party of the USA are trying to explain the authors.

Ponomareva Т.I. (Saint-Petersburg). Libya on the eve and at the beginning of the First world war………… 36

The article describes the difficulties encountered by Italy when developing a new colony, acquired by Lausanne peace treaty on 18th October, 1912. The article also analyzes the situation in Libya at the beginning of the First world war.


National history

Matveev М.Yu. (Saint-Petersburg). To the 200th anniversary of the opening of the Russian national library, 1814–2014……….. 38

On the basis of a wide range of published sources and extensive historiography assessed the activity of Russian national library in over two hundred years of its work. Concludes that the NLR is one of the world’s largest libraries, meets all modern requirements for research libraries.

Horosheva А.V. (Моscow). Physical culture and sport in the USSR and the RSFSR in 1918–1928 and international sports movement……….. 45

The focus of the article is the problem of ideological understanding of the Soviet leadership for the policy in the field of physical culture and sports in 1918–1928 Special emphasis is made to the discussion on the possibility of using foreign experience in physical education of the population of the country in the first decade of Soviet power, on the contrast of the concepts of «Proletarian physical culture» and «bourgeois sport» and on the problem of the necessity of holding major sports events in the USSR and the RSFSR, including on international level.

Barkova О.N. (Моscow). Women of the Russian Diaspora and school education in emigration. 1917–1939………. 52

The article focus is given to the role of Russian women in emigration (1917–1939) – A.V. Zhekulina, M.A. Maklakova, V.N. Bobrinskaya and others in the preservation and development of the traditions of the Russian school system in emigration.


The past of Russian regions

Selivonenko А.N. (Shostka, Sumy region, Ukraine). Socio-political problems on the Left-Bank Ukraine in the period of «Ruins»……….. 55

The article considers socio-political problems on the Left-Bank Ukraine in the period of «Ruins». The main attention stresses on the Russian roll in the policy of Ukraine of that time. Reflected the structure and activities of the Hetman petty bureaucracy and significant changes in the situation of peasants, Cossacks and townspeople after the national liberation war.

Firsanova О.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Educational institutions by the German Evangelical-Lutheran churches of Saint Petersburg (XIX – beginning of XX century)……….. 59

The article is devoted to the history of educational institutions by the German Evangelical-Lutheran churches of Saint-Petersburg since the Great reforms of Alexander II in the 1860s until the revolution of 1917. The author uses materials from collections of the Russian state historical archive and the Central historical archive of Saint-Petersburg, which are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.

Gazieva L.L. (Saint-Petersburg). Organization of evacuation of Leningrad children in 1941 (on the materials of the state archives)……….. 63

In the article on the basis of archival materials revealed the contradictions and problems of the evacuation of children from Leningrad in June-August 1941. A comparative analysis of the statistical data received from different sources is made.

Dolgov A.V. (Stavropol). Activities of notaries and social reality in the Stavropol region in the years of the Great Patriotic war……….. 67

In the article examines the specific functioning of the Stavropol notaries in the Great Patriotic War and in the first year after the war. Analysis of the development of notaries in Russia and in the Stavropol region helps to identify particular patterns, the essence, mechanisms of formation and functioning of the institutions of the Russian Federation notary. For the establishment of the rule of law is important to have an idea about the main trends of development of specific regional and nationwide notary institutions.


Military history

Chernuhin  V.А. (Saint-Petersburg). From the history of the celebration of the 500th anniversary of the Russian artillery……….. 70

The article sheds light on a little-known to a wide circle of readers event in the history of the Russian artillery – celebration at the governmental level of the 500th anniversary of the armed forces.

Dragonenko P.V. (Vinnitsa region, Ukraine). Memorable victories of Lithuanian-Russian troops over the Tatars in the end of XV century……….. 71

Investigating the events of 1489, the author on the basis of a limited range of sources, tried to reconstruct the course of the first victorious battles of the Lithuanian-Russian troops over the Tatars. The author made an assumption about the location of the battlefields, traced the possible ways of moving forward of the Horde.


History of science and technology

Koltachikhina E.Yu. (Kiev, Ukraine). The problem of selecting the «single» media: Russian and Ukrainian contribution to the solution of the problem (70-ies. Twentieth century.)……….. 74

The article analyzes the contribution of the Russian scientists V.V. Petrov (Ukraine) and N.V. Gorshkov (Russia) in the selection of a single information storage device. In 1977 at the World electrotechnical Congress in Moscow, they demonstrated the benefits of optical disc as a universal, single information storage device and considered the main requirements to it.


History of culture

Kubanova Т.А. (Saint-Petersburg). Family tree of the genus of Samar and mythological message for humanity……….. 77

The publication describes the structure of the family tree of the Nanai kind of Samar at the women’s wedding gown, some of its elements are sorted out, highlights the important semantic load, which put the carriers of culture in interpretation, which allows to consider it as a worldwide. In the article are used details of famous archaeologists, ethnographers, linguists and materials of field researches of the author (PМА, 1983–2006).


History of international relations

Ehtiari Charoymagi М.А. (Iran). Russian-British political and economic confrontation on the eve of Russian-Japanese war……….. 81

The article considers the question of the Russo-British political and economic contradictions on the eve of the Russo-Japanese war.  This problem emerged in the late XIX and early XX century, when Russia had intensified its policy in the Far East. The leadership role belonged to the Minister of Finance of Russia S.Y. Witte, who considered, that in the expansion of Russia in the Far East a large role had to play railway construction and financial penetration in economically weak China.

Pronyakina Е.D. (Saint-Petersburg). Between democracy and Empire: from the history of American diplomacy……….. 85

The article considers the problem of correlation of democratic ideals and pragmatic foreign policy of the USA. The author tries to answer the question whether democracy is the ultimate goal of the United States at the international level, or only as a means to implement their foreign policy interests.

Nalivkin L.А., Kuzik К.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The collapse of the Warsaw Pact in the Russian press (July 1991)………..91

The Warsaw Pact, established on 14th may, 1955, collapsed in July 1991. This fact was overlooked in the national periodicals.

Kasovich Yu.О. (Saratov). The nuclear potential of Ukraine as the main factor in its relations with the USA (1990s)……….. 94

The article considers the problems of interrelations between the USA and Ukraine in the 90s of the XX century. On their development influenced nuclear weapons on the territory of new independent state. It is shown that in the result of negotiations and the adoption of appropriate agreements the «nuclear problem» was solved and between the USA and Ukraine were established mutually beneficial relations.

Shenin А.S. (Saratov). American policy towards Turkey in the period of the George Bush senior administration (1991–1992)……….. 96

The article analyses the American policy towards Turkey in the first years after the end of the cold war. Special attention is paid to the confrontation of ideas of Democratic and Republican parties on the issue of bilateral relations between Washington and Ankara. The administration of George Bush senior, not Congress, determined the choice of priorities for the American-Turkish cooperation.

Mesheryakov К.Е. (Saint-Petersburg). Russian-Tajik relations in 2005-2012: the deepening of contradictions and attempts to overcome them……….. 99

The article deals with the main trends and problems in the development of the Russian-Tajikistani relations in 2005–2012. It analyzes the legal framework of the bilateral cooperation and reveals the links between the issues of domestic and foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan in the above-mentioned period.


Historical characters

Semenov-Тyan-Shansky А.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The roll of P.P. Semenov-Тyan-Shansky in the  reform of 1861……….. 107

On the basis of memories of P.P. Semenov-Тyan-Shansky and archival documents describes the role in the preparation of the reform of 1861 for the liberation of the peasants from serfdom. Consideres the circumstances leading up Semenov in the range of public figures involved in the preparation of the reform, as well as the participation of the members of the Semenov’s family in the peasant reforms.

Bekozerova О.А. (Saint-Petersburg). Forgotten pages of the life of General A.N. Kuropatkin. From military ballots during the Russian-Japanese war (1904–1905)……….. 111

The article is devoted to the 165-year anniversary of the birth of General Kuropatkin Alexey Nikolaevich (1848–1925). The article provides little-known facts of life and activity of the Minister of war (1898–1904), general of infantry, adjutant general А.N. Kuropatkin. The review of military ballots during the Russian-Japanese war is given (1904–1905), which gives an understanding about public opinion of that period and personality characteristics and activities of A.N. Kuropatkin as a commander of Manchurian army.

Afanasyev V.G. (Saint-Petersburg). Alexander Vasilyevich Alyabiev……….. 114

The article is devoted to the life and work of Alexander Vasilyevich Alyabyev (1746–1822) – a famous statesman of Russia. Being Tobolsk Governor, Governor of the Caucasian province, President of the Berg-Collegium, Director of the Mining school, a head of Mezhevoy office, he in all posts left a noticeable trace.


Reviews of scientific editions

Samohina G.S. (Saint-Petersburg). Review of the collection of scientific articles «Philip II and Alexander the Great: a father and son, real life and after death»……….. 119

The review examines the contents of the collection of scientific articles created on the basis of the reports of the international scientific conference devoted to the study of time, activities and personality of Alexander the great and his father Philip II.

Paramonov V.N. (Samara). Review on the monograph E.E. Sheremeev «Samara “Sphinx” under the government of Kolchak: А.К. Klafton (1871–1920) – biography on the background of epoch»……….. 123

In the review is given a high assessment of the monograph about А.К. Klafton. The author believes that the study of Е.Е. Sheremeev – an important step towards an objective assessment of the activities of  А.К. Klafton and to the assessment of  the Civil war.

Kulikov S.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Kopeyka saves ruble……….. 124

The review examines the articles included in this collection, where  analyses such key problems of history of the Russian revolution of 1917, as the continuity between the old and the new power, the views and the fate of prominent conservative figures, the phenomenon of revolutionary everyday life, political culture of revolution and English Rossica of 1917.


Scientific life

Scientific conferences have passed

Materials of II International scientific-technical and scientific-methodical conference «Actual problems of information and telecommunication in science and education» (subsection «Russia in the years of trial and social change»)

Stanulevich N.А. (Saint-Petersburg). Digital technologies and preservation of historical heritage (an example of the collection of S.М. Prokudin-Gorsky)……….. 129

Modern technologies are actively used for preservation and popularization of the historical heritage, for example, color photographs of the beginning of XX century from the collection of S.М. Prokudin-Gorsky, posted on the official website of the library of Congress. But we should not forget that there is still no clear program on the preservation of electronic information.

Kalugina А.S. (Saint-Petersburg). Political rights of Russians and Finns in the Russian Empire in the early twentieth century……….. 131

Finland had always had a special status in the Russian Empire. Great Russians in Grand Duchy of Finland were considered as foreigners, and for the acquisition of political rights they had to receive Finnish citizenship. At the same time, Finns in Russian Empire were not considered as foreigners and had all the rights, that had the rest of the natives of Russia.

Rudnik S.N. (Saint-Petersburg). The year 1917 in the Russian province……….. 132

The revolution of 1917 in the Far East had a number of peculiarities: from the very beginning the new authority was organized on a coalition basis, main events occurred in the cities, the great role played position of the masses of the soldiers.

Bondarev S.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Features of marketing in Petrograd in 1917–1921……….. 136

The article considers the problem of existence of market trade in Petrograd in the first years of Soviet power. Discusses the questions of the nature of the free market, sources of supply on the market, the influence of the market trade on the everyday life of Petrograd. These factors predetermined the features of the market of trade in Petrograd in 1917–1921.

Kvyatkovskaya Ya.О. (Saint-Petersburg). Establishment of diplomatic relations between Soviet Russia and Poland after the signing of peace Treaty of Riga in 1921: trends of studying the problem……….. 139

The peace Treaty of Riga of 1921 was the starting point of the relationship of the RSFSR and Poland. Establishment of normal diplomatic relations has become a top priority, which has faced a number of obstacles, that put under question the implementation of a number of points of the Riga peace Treaty.

Pyankevich V.L. (Saint-Petersburg). Radio and informal communication in the besieged Leningrad……….. 140

The article is devoted to the role of the radio in the life of residents of the besieged Leningrad. Radio informed about norms of food, warned about the danger, morally supported people. Due to the lack of electricity broadcasts were not always accessible to citizens. Radio could not fully satisfy the needs of the citizens of Leningrad in the information, the deficit of which was compensated by informal communications.

Molchanova Т.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The political mood of the Leningrad students in the period of de-Stalinization………… 144

In the article on the basis of historiographical data and published documents, as well as the reminiscences of respondents reconstructs perception of University youth of the atmosphere of the second half of the 1950s.

Pyankevich А.V. (Saint-Petersburg). All-Union Hiking of Komsomol members and youth – the origins of search movement in the USSR……….. 146

The article is devoted to the history of the Komsomol youth campaigns on places of revolutionary, fighting, and labor glory of the Communist party and the Soviet people. This phenomenon became one of the first stages of the formation of the modern search movement.

Cverianashvili I.А. (Saint-Petersburg). The global fair-trade movement and its prospects……….. 147

The article is devoted to a brief history of the fair-trade movement, the basic principles of fair trade and the author’s opinion on the future of the movement in Russia. A worldwide movement for fair trade – these are tens of thousands of supporters of an alternative approach to traditional Commercetrust and long-term relationships between producers in poor countries and consumers, completely excluding intermediaries.



To the 80 anniversary of Professor Yu.D. Pryakhin……….. 149

The article tells about proprietary and scientific activity of the doctor of historical Sciences, Professor Yu.D. Pryakhin – the author of several publications in the journal for scientists «Clio».