Klio #9 (105) 2015

The document is published for the first time

Mitrofanov V.V. (Nizhnevartovsk). “Again and again, many thanks for your work …”: I.I. Vasilyov’s letters to S.F. Platonov ………. 9

Prominent historian S.F. Platonov’s productive contacts with dozens of provincial antiquity fanciers, archaeologists, archivists, workers of public education are objects of focusing attention of modern researchers.

An example of such interaction is correspondence between I.I. Vasilyov and the authoritative historian. Publication of the whole complex of I.I. Vasilyov’s letters addressed to the outstanding scientist has important historical significance. Being introduced into scientific use in a limited way, they being an important historical source continue to draw the attention of local and professional historians. The letters allow us to judge the ways of cooperation of the Pskov regional specialist and the representative of educational community, the level of S.F. Platonov’s involvement in the publication of the Pskov regional ethnographer’s works, organization of lectures, excursions and period of time of his arrival in the ancient city, solving the problems of Pskov Archaeological Society activity, searching the archaeological findings.

Keywords: I.I. Vasilyov, S.F. Platonov, Pskov Archaeological Society, Archaeological index, correspondence, archaeological finds, lecture, excursion.


Source studies

Orlova A.P. (Zelenogorsk Leningrad reg.). Materials on land surveying history in the XVIII in Tsarskoe Selo County of Saint-Petersburg Province ………. 28

Problems of landowning are very important and debatable themes of Russian history. Today sources of land surveying history in TsarskoeSeloCounty are in Saint Petersburg and Moscow libraries and archives. Materials reflect the specific features of landowning and county economic development. Land surveying records, connected with laws and decrees, contain highly informative and accurate data. That’s the reason to research them as a certain object, as well as the important resources in studying the history of population. TsarskoeSeloCounty was located in the center of Saint Petersburg province. Tsarskoe Selo, Gatchina and Pavlovsk, as the residences of the Emperors, were special central places for migrating people in the XVIII–beginning of the XX centuries. But before population increasing and economical success there was difficult period of county settlement in the XVIII century. Swedish surveying materials of the end of the XVII century reflect grange system of settlement of Finnish and Russian peasants, who rented houses in villages and yards, belonged to Swedish landowners. When Ingermanland was returned to Russia in the beginning of the XVIII century, new owners could have got lands if the territory had been settled by peasants. Among famous landowners were Emperors and Empresses of Russia, statesmen and well-known historical persons of Russia (pr. Golitsin, c. Apraksin, с. A.Brus, A.Razymovskiy, c. Sheremetiev, c. Orlov, pr. Kurakin, Bestujev-Riumin et al.). Land surveying of Ingermanland in 1744–1749 was controlled by W.Fermor. Its results were shown in the General plan of 1749. Plan was based on data comparison of landowners in 1710–1740. New topographic data uses this comparison and unites the land surveying materials of the first half of the XVIII century and precedes the Generalland surveying. Description of SophiaCounty consists of brave economical notes to maps of the Generalland surveying. It reflects the development of landowning system when almost all peasants began to pay quitrent in TsarskoeSeloCounty.

Keywords: sources, maps and plans, population, land surveying, landowning, TsarskoeSeloCounty.

Kibalna M.N. (Moscow reg.). Reviews on the pages of the «University News»: to the history of the practices of scientific certification in Russian universities ………. 36

This article is dedicated to studying the mechanisms of scientific certification in the pre-revolutionary Russian universities, in particular the procedure of evaluation of the dissertations, which were submitted for obtaining the academic degrees in the Imperial University of St. Vladimir in Kiev. Based on the texts of reviews in the «University News», the evaluation criteria of this process are traced, as well as the history of the conventions on the requirements related on results of the dissertation researches. Among these criteria the most important things were choice of research theme, methods of work, methods of collecting of empirical data and findings, outlined in the conclusion.

These criteria varied depending on the disciplinary affiliation of the applicant and the evaluation results often depended on the preferences of the reviewer and could be challenged by the writing and publication of alternative reviews, opinions and responses of the applicant.

Keywords: university history, Imperial University of St. Vladimir in Kiev, scientific certification, reviews, University News, evaluation of dissertations.



Fedina N.G. (Novosibirsk). the history of the foreign campaign of the Russian army in 1813-1814 seeing by the modern Russian historiography  ………. 45

At the modern stage of development of Russian historiography researchers pay little attention to the problems of foreign campaigns of the Russian army in 1813–1814. This issue hasn’t been debatable for a long time. The main direction of researching in the Soviet period was the studying the hostilities of 1812 apart from the world historical events of the Napoleonic Wars period. Only in the last decade scientists began to study the campaign of 1813–1814 as multifaceted historical phenomenon but not as appendage of the War of 1812. In the last decade of the XX century the influence of ideology on the domestic historiography of the era of 1812 was minimized making the opportunities for scientific understanding of this topic. By the end of the 90s of the XX century in the Russian historiography had been identified several directions of researching the history of foreign campaign of the Russian army in 1813–1814, which use various methodological approaches.

Keywords: foreign campaigns of the Russian army in 1813–1814, Patriotic War of 1812, Napoleonic Wars, historiography of the War of 1812, era of 1812.


General history

Aleksandrova O.I. (Saint-Petersburg). Thucydides wrote about the Athenian colonies: the problem of typology ………. 49

This article is devoted to one of the main problems connected with the studying the Athenian colonization policy – finding the accuracy of Thucydides «colonization» terminology. It’s possible to conclude that in case if Thucydides had known the exact status of the settlements, the historian called them «apoikias», « cleruchy» or «epoikias». This conclusion based on the «History» text and some epigraphic evidence. In another situation the historian could use neutral words and terms which didn’t contain information about the specific settlement’s status. The term «Apoikia» hadn’t had a common meaning, which was acquired later, and it exactly meant a colony of certain type. Thus, we can suppose that the real differences between Athenian colonies appropriately reflected in Thucydides «colonization» terminology.

Keywords: Thucydides, colonies, Athenian colonization policy, cleruchy, apoikia, epoykiya.

Zagorskiy G.I. (Moscow). By the 70th anniversary of the Nuremberg trials. Tough verdict of history ………. 52

The article considers the questions connected with preparing and conducting the trial of the major Nazi war criminals in Nuremberg held 70 years ago. It emphasizes the impact of this historical event even at the present time. The article shows the activity of the major prosecutors: R.A. Rudenko, R. Jackson, H. Shawcross, F. de Mentok, Sh. Dyubyust and Sh. de Rit. There has been paid attention to activity of the Soviet representatives having participated in Tribunal proceedings and secretariat working process – I.O. Nikitchenko, A.F. Volchkov, A.I. Poltorak, V.Ya. Kolomackiyj, A.N. Trayjnin.

Also it was noticed that Tribunal adjudicated such criminals as H. Göring, J. Ribbentrop, W. Keitel, E. Kaltenbrunner, A. Rosenberg, G. Frank, W. Frick, Jul. Streicher, F. Sauckel, A. Jodl, A. Seyß-Inquart and etc.

Keywords: military Tribunal, crime against the peace and humankind, criminal responsibility, indictment, trial, evidence, verdict, Nuremberg trials.


History of Russia

Ivanova N.M. (Saint-Petersburg). Institute of Sisters of Mercy in Russia during the years of the first World War ………. 56

This article analyzes the development process and functioning of the Institute of Sisters of Mercy in Russia during the years of the First World War, and the procedure of recruiting, training and maintaining the Sisters of Mercy, as well as their deeds and sacrifices. Special role in the compassionate Red Cross Movement was played by the distinguishing exemplary activity of the August Sisters of Mercy: Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, Grand Princesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia, Grand Duchesses Olga and Maria Pavlovna the Junior. However, the society’s attitude to their work had changed dramatically during the War years. These changes were mainly reasoned both by the hardships of war and improper organization of the nursing work to help the wounded: absence of the one training and guiding system, lack of professionalism and discipline among the Sisters of Mercy, and the uncertain legal status of this institution.

Keywords: First World War, Russian Red Cross Society, Sisters of Mercy, society.

Gessen V.Y., Ignatova O.A. (Saint-Petersburg). History of stealing the cultural treasures from military institutions in Petrograd made by Bolsheviks in 1918–1924 ………. 61

Following article studies the theme that we have discussed in three previous publications in «Klio»: «Cultural revolution made by Bolsheviks in Petrograd-Leningrad (October 1917–1929)». Based on archival data, it examines issues connected with removing historical and artistic treasures from military institutions, organizations and units in Petrograd and its surroundings. Great attention is given to their museums, especially of guard regiments, and their churches. Among them the fate of historical treasures from Suvorov museum of General Staff Academy is most deliberately examined. The article considers great loss of treasures during the revolution in 1917, when a lot of objects were stolen, and after it situation wasn’t better because then there was improper security, inappropriate conditions of transportation and further their maintenance.

Keywords: military institutions, guard regiments, regimental museums, regimental churches, Bolsheviks, Art and Historical Commission, Department of Narcompros, Narcompros.

Klimovich L.V. (Ulyanovsk). Union of Mladorossi and the House of Romanov: common ground in emigration in 1920–1930 ………. 76

The article reviews the issue of relations between representatives of the House of Romanov and the Union of Mladorossi in emigration in 1920–1930. The article shows how was intertwisted the history of the Union of Mladorossi and Dukes Kirill Vladimirovich, Vladimir Kirillovich and Dmitry Pavlovitch. There was made attempt to determine the interaction of political views of Kirill Vladimirovich and leader of the Union of Mladorossi Kazem-Beck. Analysis of the documents showed that Kirill Vladimirovich supported the slogan «Tsar and the Soviets! » of Mladorossi, although at the same time he had a negative attitude to their idea not to restore the property rights of the pre-revolutionary owners. The author concludes that the relations were mutually beneficial, representatives of the House of Romanov funded the movement for getting support from the younger generation. This support was necessary for Kirill Vladimirovich because his claims to the Russian throne were perceived ambiguously by emigre community. Relationships between Mladorossi and the Imperial House were kept largely due to personal sympathy between Kazem-Bek and Kirill Vladimirovich. Kirill Vladimirovich death led to cooling relations, which later disappeared. The research is based on archival materials, memories, periodicals of the researching period, which allows creating a whole picture of what was happening.

Keywords: emigration, Union of Mladorossi, Russian abroad, History of Russia, House of Romanov, Duke Kirill Vladimirovich, Duke Vladimir Kirillovich.

Bogdanov E.G. (Samara). High-speed construction methods as a factor of implementation of military building plans (on materials of Volga District Military Construction Administration (1941–1945)) ………. 83

This article examines the experience of construction process by high-speed methods on the construction area of Volga District Military Construction Administration during the hardest period of the Great Patriotic War. Challenges of wartime required to build the major objects of defense and rearward in the shortest terms. Implementation of sharply increased volumes of construction work in new conditions required the widespread using the high-speed methods of building. Volga District Military Construction Administration carried out activities in this field according to directions and at the strong control by leaders. Absence of general practice of using new methods required to carry out the actions for employee training and professional skill improving. Necessary conditions of high-speed methods efficiency were salary increasing at the high-speed construction objects and implementing a socialistic principle of distribution according to work. The organization leaders took measures for strengthening mechanization of constructing. Using construction mechanisms and mechanization means of auxiliary operations was carried out first of all at the major objects. Maximum mechanization of the most labour-consuming construction processes allowed implementing working plans in the shortest terms according to fixed plans of high-speed works. During the war organization carried out the revision design and engineering specifications. Simplification of construction objects was necessary conditions of working process come to life by high-speed methods and delivering to customers in the fixed dates. With changes in the documents deficiency of some major building materials was considered. Actions for economy of materials and replacement those with local analogues were carried out.

Keywords: constructing, mechanization, employees, the plan, high-speed methods, design process, materials, employee training.

Pavlov M.Y. (Armavir). Stalin’s attempt to connect «Leningrad affair» with «Affair of the doctors» using the spy trail ………. 87

The article reveals the preparation of regular demonstrative political process, which was made by I.V. Stalin. This process was needed to the leader not only for the covering most of repressive post-war activities, but also for implanting into the mass consciousness the idea of a new internal enemy. The key point of preparing campaign was supposed to unite into one resonant «affair» several lines of investigation: «Leningrad affair», «Affair of the doctors» and «Affair of terrorists» in the Ministry of State Security. All unmasked «enemies of the people» were incriminated the work on Western intelligence agencies. Such universal formulation allowed Stalin to avenge on his opponents and then implemented the proceedings against the «traitors».

Keywords: «Leningrad affair»; «Affair of the doctors» I.V. Stalin; A.A. Kuznetsov; spy trail; foreign agents; preparations for a new repression campaign.

Shevchenko D.V. (Saint-Petersburg). The Lensovet (Petrosovet) and political crises in the USSR / Russia in 1991 and 1993 ………. 92

The article is dedicated to the influence of political crises in 1991 and 1993 on the activity of Leningrad (St. Petersburg) City Council (the XXI Convocation). The researcher uses the documents from the Central State Archive of St. Petersburg (Fund of the City Council of People’s deputies), part of which has not previously been published. The author analyzes the features of the functioning of the Council and its decisions in the mentioned periods. It’s noticed differences between the political position of deputy corps in 1991 and 1993 affected to the position of the Council and its effectiveness during the crisis.

Keywords: Leningrad, St. Petersburg, Lensovet, Petrosovet, the XXI Convocation of the Leningrad Council of the People’s deputies, St. Petersburg Council of the People’s deputies, Perestroika, August 1991, October 1993, State Committee on the State of Emergency.


History of Russian regions

Chertkov A.S. (Moscow). The Cathedral code of 1649 as a source of law-enforcement practice of reduction of Asian Siberian natives «to shert on their belief» ………. 98

The article reviews various methods of historians for researching the events of the 30–40th years of the XVII century connected with Russian servicemen arrival on the Lensky region territory.

Based on the analysis of XIV Chapter «About a God kissing» the Cathedral code of 1649 article concludes that the «krestotselovaniye» (kiss the rood) and «shertovaniye» (take an oath) of local tribes are examples of customary law.

The author emphasizes a significant role of the state institutes of the Moscow kingdom which had colonial aspirations directed to «mine» (place of extraction of jewels) of new resource territories for replenishment of Government Treasury. Russian servicemen moving to Northeast Asia is considered as a logical continuation of all historical process of Siberian integration.

Keywords: Russian feudal state, the Cathedral code of 1649, «shertny» records, concept of «voluntary integration of Yakutia», joining the Lensky region, form of the institutional interactions, «krestotselovany», Russian servicemen and industrial people, development of hard-to-reach territories.

Kortunov A.I. (Ufa). Formation of the Bashkir population in Saratov province and foundation of the Bashkir division in the Ural Cossack Army (end of the XVIII–the first third of the XIX century) ………. 101

The article presents the main results of research of the history of formation of the Bashkir population in Saratov province and foundation of the Bashkir division in the Ural Cossack Army in the end of the XVIII–the first third of the XIX centuries. As a result it has been found that formation of the Bashkir group in Saratov province started in the end of the XVIII century. In the beginning of the XIX century there was increasing the Bashkir number in Saratov province. They started to settle extensively in several districts that helped to conduct some government measures directed to limit the Bashkirs migration from the neighboring Orenburg province and also identify the boundaries of the Saratov Bashkir group camping grounds. Apartness from the Bashkir canton authorities led to difficulties in the control of the Saratov Bashkirs. As a result, in 1832 the so-called «Bashkir division» was founded, which was administratively subordinated to the Ural Cossack Army, that in our opinion was motivated by the objective conditions connected with necessity of the Bashkir government and land using systematizing in Saratov province. Measures which were carried out for lands demarcation made possible to keep certain areas for dwelling and economic activity by the Saratov Bashkirs and also to exclude the serious land disputes in the future.

Keywords: Bashkirs, Bashkir Division, land tenure, Cossacks, Saratov Bashkirs, delimitation, Ural Cossacks, Ural Cossack troops, strength.


Alimdjanov B.A. (Saint-Petersburg). Customs and Trade Policy of the Russian Empire in Russian Turkestan ………. 106

The article reveals the customs policy of the Russian Empire in Turkestan General Government. The main emphasis is on the causes and consequences of including Turkestan in the Empire’s customs system and its impact on the development of domestic and foreign trade. Also the article tries to analyze the main directions of Russian foreign trade in the East according to foreign policy priorities. Particular attention is paid to the influence of Russian policy on the leading sectors of the local economy – cotton production, trade of agricultural products and manufactures, using the customs policy for strengthening positions of Turkestan in the traditional trade relations with China, Persia and Afghanistan. The main sources are documentary sources, periodicals of those years, the archival materials of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Uzbekistan, most of which is introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.

Keywords: customs policy, Turkestan, British India, foreign trade, protectionism, free trade, monopoly, duty.


History of International relations

Senturk N. (Gebze Kocaeli, Turkey). Role and significance of public associations in cultural diplomacy of Turkey in Russia ………. 111

The author of this article analyses not only the importance of public and cultural diplomacy in the Russian-Turkish relations but some differences as well. XXI century has been marked by a number of the most important processes and changes in Turkey’s foreign and home politics, economics and society. These changes have influenced both foreign policy and diplomacy. Social and public associations’ activities, which laid the foundations of public diplomacy through the cultural activities and mutual, interpersonal communications have greatly impacted on foreign policy. Thanks to the UNESCO the international relations have got a new dimension, in which the concept of «cultural diplomacy» has played the leading role. Much attention is paid to interpersonal contacts. The author reveals the specific features of public organizations engaged in the cultural exchange both in Turkey and Russia. With the end of the Cold War, there were changes in traditional diplomacy: its methods and directions have changed. With the development of communications and technology in a global world diplomacy, which was previously focused on exclusively internal, national interests, changed its vector. Using the «soft power» is considered to be important in the international cultural policy. Language studying, students and representatives of academia exchange programs, media agencies, newspapers and television, sporting events, public associations and cultural centers activities play particularly a special role in cultural diplomacy. The role of cultural centers as a form both of cultural and public diplomacy between Russia and Turkey attracts a special interest.

Keywords: public diplomacy, cultural diplomacy, Russian-Turkish cultural relations, cultural centers


History of science and technology

Kovalevsky D.G. (Saint-Petersburg). The Baltic Shipbuilding factory and its role in establishing Russian Armored Navy ………. 117

This article is dedicated to history of emergence and development of the Baltic Shipbuilding and Mechanical factory, its founders, circumstances which caused emergence of the company. The author examines financial collapse, taking the factory under the state management control and then selling it to the Russian-British company. Also it reviews secondary bankruptcy and the factory activities when it was the property of stock company «Russian Baltic ironworks and mechanical Community». It’s considered factory activities in conditions of the Liquidation Committee functioning. It’s analyzes particularities of the management after passing the Baltic factory into the Navy department’s ownership. This article shows a review of the shipbuilding results at the Baltic Plant in the beginning of the XX century. The article reveals the problems connected with establishing new forms and ways of managing in the factory during the period of developing the capitalist relations in Russia. Special attention is paid to issues connected with factory bankruptcy and passing it into the state ownership.

Keywords: Baltic Shipbuilding and Mechanical factory, Mark Macpherson and Matvey Carra, «Russian Baltic ironworks and mechanical Community», M.I. Kazy, I.F. Bostrem, S.K.Ratnik, P.F.Veshkurtchev.


Military history

Zaporozhec V.M. (Saint-Petersburg). Raids of Seljuk Turks on Byzantine territories in the end of the 1040s–beginning of the 1070s. The Battle of Malazgirt ………. 122

The article analyzes the sources about the raids made by Seljuk Turks on Byzantine territories in Asia Minor and the Battle of Malazgirt (1071). The author shows the main factors that determined the establishing of the independent Seljuk State in Asia Minor: the weakening of Byzantine State system and military structure; systematic raids made by Seljuk Turks in Asia Minor that devastated many provinces; mass migration of Turks to these lands after the Battle of Malazgirt.

Keywords: Byzantine Empire, Asia Minor, Great Seljuks, Seljuk Turks, Battle of Malazgirt (Manzikert), Oguz migration.

Kostin N.V. (Samara). Main reasons of military discipline violations by mid-level command staff of the Red Army in the late 1920s ………. 129

Author of this article focuses on the main reasons of military discipline violations by mid-level command staff of the Red Army in the late 1920s. This problem in Russian historiography has not been sufficiently explored before. The article highlights that, generally, strengthening military discipline was the responsibility of command staff of the RKKA, who replaced the officer corps of the Tsarist Army, as well as of the communist members of the staff, who were being recruited increasingly as one of the key goals of the military reform in the mid-1920s. The article shows the archive data proving quite high level of military discipline violation by the mid-level command staff including its communist members. Based on the published and previously unknown archive materials author has identified and studied particular negative factors influencing on military discipline of mid-level command staff. Special attention was paid to describing economical, social and cultural factors defining military service in staff units and territorial militia units of RKKA. The article depicts a typical social profile of a mid-level command staff member. The main factors influencing on military discipline violations by the officers have been identified in this article as follows: lack of special military education; insufficiency of general education and low level of culture due to lower social descent; lack of career perspectives, and discontent with the service due to tough living and economical conditions, continuous work overload, and lack of time for personal development.

Keywords: discipline violation, causes of military discipline violation, education level of command staff, social profile of command staff, officer corporate spirit, military discipline, the Red Army, RKKA, command staff of the Red Army.

Mukhamedzhanov I.R. (Moscow). The 9th Guard Air Regiment in the sky of Stalingrad ………. 133

The author analyzes the participation of the 9th Guard Air Regiment in the different phases of the Battle of Stalingrad based on the archive, domestic and foreign military sources. Luftwaffe Air Force confronted with Soviet Air Force in this battle. At the beginning the Red Army fighters had a great failure. However, the pilots of the 9th Guard Air Regiment could successfully express themselves in the summer battles, including the period of Soviet counterblow in Kalach-na-Donu, and prove that they were able to resist. In the autumn of 1942 the best fighter pilots of the 8th Air Army of Stalingrad front were included into the Regiment. After using new military equipment the Regiment achieved a great success in liquidation of the enemy forces which were surrounded under Stalingrad. In difficult conditions soviet pilots had to do counteractions against to the Luftwaffe air-bridge supplying the German-Romanian Forces alliance.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, the Battle of Stalingrad, Soviet Air Regiment, the 8th Air Army, Guard Air Regiment, Soviet counterblow (Stalingrad «cauldron»), Luftwaffe air-bridge.


History of culture

Severyukhin D.Y. (Saint-Petersburg). Peter the Great and development of the state policy in the Fine Arts ………. 141

The article makes the attempts to identify the role of Emperor Peter the Great in the development of Russian state policy in the Fine Arts. It is noticed that, unlike his predecessors, this monarch considered Fine Arts as a government sphere. Being aware that cultural prestige is an important indicator of the political, economic and spiritual potential of the state, he believed that involving Russia into Western culture, was one of the most important parts of his program of society reorganization in Russian. Peter the Great made a fundamental reorganization of the Russian Art life, which is expressed in the leaving from the medieval Byzantine traditions and canons, in the getting by domestic Fine Arts secular features and Europeanized appearance. The article is based on comprehensive analysis of materials, including rare and little-known ones.

Keywords: Peter the Great, Russia, Europe, Fine Arts, society, artist.

Gogoryan K.E. (Bryansk). Russian Embassy church in Vienna before the Revolution ………. 148

The article is devoted to the history of Russian Embassy church in Vienna. It characterizes the activity of its superiors during the pre-revolutionary period since its creation in the end of the XVIII century until the events of the 1917. Evolution of the priest job at Embassy included improving his economic status and increasing the prestige of serving abroad. The criteria of selecting the candidate for the post in the early XIX century were different and more complicated when compared to the criteria of the XVIII century.

Historical facts are analyzed in the context of political relations between Russia and Austria and national issues that had impact on church serving abroad. International relations had influence on the Embassy clergy. Orthodox priest, as a member of the diplomatic corps, was the representative of his country abroad; his duties often extended beyond Church life, and sometimes he acquired diplomatic skills.

Keywords: Embassy clergy, Synod, religion and nationality, Pan-Slavism, the idea of Slavic unity, Austria–Russian relations.

F.F. Wrangell «On the cultural significance of Russia» Publication of Smirnov V.G. (Saint-Petersburg) ………. 153

The article is devoted to historical and publicistic work of retired seaman, former Director of the Imperial Alexander Lyceum, Ferdinand Ferdinandovich Wrangell (1844–1919). Name of it – «On the cultural significance of Russia». In 1916 inZurich he read a lecture named «On the cultural significance of Russia» to students and in the same year it was published in Germany (Die KulturbedeutungRußlands. Vortraggehaltenvor der ZürcherFreistudentenschaft von F. von Wrangell. Zürich: Druck und Verlag: ArtistischesInstitutOrellFüßli, 1916). His work is published in Russian for the first time. The article examines Wrangell’s work. Wrangell revealed the cultural significance of the Russian Empire as one of the main participants in the «Great War» in his work. He concluded that «Russia was an important, especial member with constantly increasing cultural significance» among European countries.

Keywords: F.F. Wrangell, Russia, Russian people, church, sects, nobility, agrarian reform, culture.

Zolotarev V.A., Saljkova O.A. (Moscow). Two friends, two brilliant pens of Russia ………. 171

The article shows a comparative analysis of the intellectual environment, creative development and outcomes of literary activity made by two writers of the early ХХ century. I.A. Bunin and A.I. Kuprin, who were friends for many years, depicted in their works the last days of their era.

The article presents the attitudes and assessments made by L.N. Tolstoy, M. Gorky, K. Paustovsky of these outstanding writers who lived in the ХХ century and gave a great contribution into the development of the Russian literary as well the culture.

Authors made an effort to research the oeuvre of I.A. Bunin and A.I. Kuprin based on their love for Human being and the whole surrounding world. The special value of material is in the fact that it contains the information about writers’ relatives and close people.

The article reveals creative parallels had become probably spiritual foundation of closing two outstanding writers.

Keywords: I.A. Bunin, A.I. Kuprin, Silver Age of Russian culture, literature-studying.

Shakhanova A.A. (Saint-Petersburg). Tradition of «World of Art» at the National Theatre in Belgrade in the early 1920s. Theater work of L.M. Brailovsky ………. 177

Leonid Brailovsky was a Russian architect and artist, a prominent cultural actor of the beginning of the ХХ century. His name got to the list of artistic world members and these names were forgotten and not recognized as cultural actors. Art historians have been ignoring his creative activity and his paintings since 1930s until now. At the same time author of this article collected different types of historical materials and documents about L. Brailovsky life and his activity. Analysis of these new materials allows saying that his contribution into the Russian as well as European culture is undoubtedly great. This article focuses on Belgrade period of Brailovsky`s biography and his first years of emigration. The article includes new research materials.

Keywords: national theatre, theater decorations, emigration, «World of Art», L.M. Brailovsky.


Historical characters

Kogan E.I. (New York, USA). Benjamin Franklin^ Through the reading to glory  ………. 184

The article reviews the Franklin’s biography using a lot of sources about his life and activity. He was born on April 17, 1706, and dead on January 17, 1790. It’s almost a century of life, and what this century was, and what this life was! Many people even if they are very well-educated and smart, answer that Franklin was a president of the United States of America. But he wasn’t. However, in spite of this fact his name was included in the list of the most outstanding persons of the world by World Peace Council decision. It’s the main idea of this article: to tell the story about how Franklin became one of the most outstanding per-son in the world history.

Keywords: Benjamin Franklin, United States Declaration of Independence 1776, bifocals, George Washington, scientist, philosopher, Deputy of the USA, political person.

Kinshin V.V., Kinshin S.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Serbs on guard of Russia: Lieutenant General Nikolai Vasilevich Vuich ………. 190

The article shows biographical study of life and service for the good of Russia one of the famous descendants of the Serbian people – Nikolai Vasilevich Vuich. The article based on Serbian sources, archival documents, memories of contemporaries and works of military historians of Russian imperial army explain the reasons of Serbs resettlement into Russia in the second half of the XVIII century and show their subsequent role in the protection of their new homeland. It presents previously unknown pages of N.V. Vuich biography against the background of certain historical events. Particular attention is paid to studying his relatives’ life: parents, family and fate of children. More than a half of the century, during the reign of four Russian monarchs in 1777–1828 N.V. Vuich had the service bravely to Russia. He was courageous and didn’t spare his life when he fought in all the wars which were waged by the Russian Empire at that time against numerous enemies. Military service brought him together with many outstanding Russian military commanders, who appreciated N.V. Vuich and noticed his service to Russia. He left to his children and descendants the Russian nobility, Russian coat of arms of Vuich and eternal memory of the glorious acts of bravery in defending the Fatherland. The article can be very interesting in the researching the military history of Russia.

Keywords: Nikolai Vuich, Serbs in Russia, Russo-Turkish war, assault of Ishmael, uprising in Poland, capturing Warsaw, Russian–Swedish War, Patriotic War of 1812, Battle of Borodino, War Gallery of the Winter Palace.



Grinev A.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Transformation of the Russian «Leviathan» during the centuries ………. 207

The article is devoted to the analysis of central figure of the Russian history: the politarian state, which is a real «Leviathan» for the Russian society and for a separate man. In the author’s point of view, the following pattern of Russian history can be revealed: in the face of stern nature, spontaneous natural and social disasters, external pressure, military and economic failures, blunders by the head of state, the Russian society, being a complex self-organizing system, every time chooses a politarian system as the only form of life suitable for survival in extreme conditions. The Russian elite also prefers politarism as the simplest and most effective way to manage and withdraw surplus goods from the people. Therefore, in spite of every external or internal crisis, the politarian system of Russia sooner or later is created again and the state takes all spheres of the society life in its hands, imposing and dictating its will. It is this process that is occurring now, marking the emergence of next incarnation of the Russian «Leviathan».

Keywords: Russian history, politarism, historical transformations, RussianState, development of Russia in modern time.


Reviews of scientific publications

Poltorak S.N. (Saint-Petersburg). Kalmyks and the Russian Empire policy in the XVIII–beginning of the XX (about S.V. Dzhundzhuzov monograph «Kalmyks in the Middle Volga region and the Southern Urals: imperial mechanisms of acculturation and problem of saving the ethnic identity (the middle of 1930s of the XVIII–the first quarter of the XX) ») ………. 214

This article is a review of S.V. Dzhundzhuzov monograph. It highly assessments the work devoted to research of Russian Empire authorities’ attempts to influence on the ethnic groups of christened Kalmyks having lived in the Middle Volga region and the Southern Urals. The aim of this influencing was involving Kalmyks into service in Cossack army. The history of relations between this part of Kalmyks and Russian authorities is followed in 1730–1920. The author of this review notices a great volume of factual materials, a significant part of which is archival documents from 8 central and local archives and also Manuscripts Department of National Library of Russia. Moreover it’s noticed unused sources – documents kept in the Russian State Historical Archive Funds, State Archive of the Russian Federation and some archives of the Republic of Tatarstan. The author concludes that the monograph is a qualitatively new work devoted to Kalmyks people having not only regional but general scientific meaning.

Keywords: christened Kalmyks, Middle Volga region, Southern Urals, military and administrative institutions of Russia, Stavropol (Kalmyk) Cossack army, Orenburg Cossack army.

Sohor t.e., Ushakov V.A. (Saint-Petersburg). Review of the publication «Italian letters and reports of Sylvester Feodosievich Shchedrin». 1818-1830 / Gе. M. Y. Evsevev. M. ………. 218

This review analyzes the content of new edition of letters and reports of famous Russian artist Sylvester Feodosievich Shchedrin during his traveling in Italy in 1818–1830. The book has been prepared with the involvement of different sources, allowing to correct numerous errors and omissions in previous editions. According to the authors’ opinion the reviewed book can provide a lot of information, including unique. Therefore, reviewed work, in authors’ opinion, can have a role of a valuable source. Also this book describes previously unknown facts of biography of famous Russian artist. Moreover, this work introduces into scientific circulation extended view of cultural life of the Russian Empire. Authors concludes that the Russian historical science of the XXI century has passed from the superficial understanding of Shchedrin life to making attempts of deeper and more balanced researching of lifestyle of this famous artist.

Keywords: Sylvester Shchedrin, Italy, Russian Empire, XIX century, cultural life, painting.


Scientific conferences were held

Serebryanskaya G.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference «Preservation of historical memory of the Great Patriotic War: problems and solutions» in Nizhny Novgorod ………. 221

The article shows the information of the All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of Victory in the Great Patriotic War. This conference was held in Nizhny Novgorod.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, historical memory, documentary sources, patriotism, front, back areas, family, history of everyday life, development and preservation of historical science.


To the memory of colleague

To the memory of S.V. Iarov ………. 224

This article is dedicated to the memory of Sergey Viktorovich Iarov, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Russian History of Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Professor of the Historical Faculty of the European University, the leading researcher of the Department of Modern History of the St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, academic supervisor of many young scholars. The article is based on the personal memories of graduate students, tutored by S.V. Iarov. It contains evidence of this scholar’s style of work, his oratorical and research abilities. In the article the authors tried to depict some of Sergey Viktorovich’s traits of character and personal qualities, his style of working with graduate and undergraduate students, delicate manner of communication and an incredible ability to aid all the people around him who needed help.

Keywords: recollections, memory, professor, historian, teacher, researcher, academic, postgraduate students.