Klio #9 (69) 2012


Diaries, memoirs

Chetverikov B.D. (Saint Petersburg). “Stezhky-dorozhky” (“The pathways”) (continuation)……… 3

The autobiographical novel by B.D. Chetverikov tells us about the writer’s life that can be called «the outline» of the history of our country in the 20th century.

Katukova E.S. (The Moscow Region). Something to remember (fin)……… 18

These memoirs narrate Yekaterina Sergeevna Katukova’s life course that was inseparably linked with the outstanding military leader Mikhail Yefimovich Katukov.


Theoretical issues

Filatov T.V. (Samara). Virtual theoretical knowledge in the concept of the history of science of Imre Lakatos……… 28

The article considers the concept of the history of science of the Hungarian philosopher-
postpositivist Imre Lakatos, who introduced the idea of «intrinsic history», which is a rational
reconstruction of the historical process on the basis of certain theoretical assumptions. In most cases,
they are notvirtual and they aren’t recognized by researchers, who reconstruct the historical
process. Changing the assumptions of historical events, in the opinion of the Hungarian scientist,
leads to a change in «intrinsic history», that makes our knowledge about the past uncertain and changeable.



Feoktisova Yu.V. (Nizhnevartovsk). Reflection of problems of establishment of Soviet cooperation in the North of Tobolsk (1924–1929) in the literature of 1920s. ……… 32

The article analyzes the literature, devoted to the problem of formation and activities of cooperation in the North of Western Siberia. The article traces the evolution of theoretical conceptions of the history of development of cooperation movement and the extent of knowledge of history of Soviet cooperation in 1920s in the North of Tobolsk.


Source study

Shmurygina A.M. (Nizhnevartovsk). About main types of prikaz record keeping documents in Siberia (up to the end of XVII century)……… 35

Russian record keeping of XVI–XVII centuries was called prikaz record keeping due to the name of central government departments – prikazes. A large array of local prikaz documentation consisted of correspondence of Tobolsk administration with the central authorities as well as with other Siberian towns and stockaded towns. The article considers structure, form and characteristics of the items of prikaz documentation of XVI–XVII centuries, such as pamyat’ (instructions), otpiska (letters) and chelobitnaya (petition).


General history

Zaporozhets V.M. (Moscow). The state of Khorezm Shakhs, the Seljuk Sultan Alaeddin KeykubadIand the Mongols……… 38

The article analyzes the processes associated with the invasion of Genghis Khan in Central Asiain the beginning of XIII century, conquest of the Empire of the Khorezm Shakhs, preparation of Sultan AlaeddinKeykubadI for possible invasion of Seljuk state. Alaeddin KeykubadI became a vassal of the Mongolian Khan of Ugaday in 1237.

Mironov G.Yu. (Rostov-on-Don).The historical aspect of influence of Russophilia and Ukrainophiliaon self-consciousness of Russyns-Lemkos………42

The article considers the question of national self-consciousness Russyns-Lemkos in Poland.
The author comes to the conclusion that Russyns-Lemkos are the most Western part of
Carpathian Russyns, who are related to the Eastern Slavic ethno-linguistic community. Russophilia and belonging to the «world of Russia» has been significantly influencing national revival of Russyns-Lemkos in Poland.

Tomchuk G.V. (Saratov).The Nunn-Lugar program in the post-Soviet space: Genesis and evolution
(the 1990s)……… 45

The article briefly describes the history of the Nunn-Lugar program during the 1990s. and its first


National history

Simonyan R.Z. (Kursk). The role and importance of the Prosecutor in the legislative process on the example of development and enactment of a bill «On the assumption of certain actions» of May 21, 1911……… 48

The article analyzes position and role of prosecutor supervision in investigatory and judicial activities in Russian Empire The analysis is based on the wide range of archive materials and legal acts. The author makes conclusions and evaluates the role and significance of prosecutor’s law-making activities.


The past of Russian regions

Tarasov O.Yu. (Khabarovsk). Cultural-historical phenomenon of toponymyin the areas of the later settlement: problems and prospects of toponymic studies in the Upper Amur region……… 51

In this article the author analyzes the phenomenon of regional toponymyof the areas of the later settlement and its informational potential. The author presents the most vivid examples from the toponymy of the Upper Amur region, reflecting the value of the toponymic studies at the modern stage of development in historical and cultural sciences. The author mentions the perspective directions of interdisciplinary links as well as the problems of modern toponymy of science in the Far East region.

Belousova O.V. (Moscow). Towards the history of foundation of Moscow nobility institute for noble maidens named after Emperor Alexander III in memory of the Empress Catherine II……… 53

The article considers the history of foundation of Moscow Institute for noble maidens, which was opened by a public figure and a close person to the Imperial family S.D. Sheremetev. The author analyzes the statutes of the Institute,defines the supposed role of the institution among the existing institutions for nobilyty of that kind.

Shevelkov A.I. (Kolomna, Moscow region).Agriculture of non-black soil zone of the RSFSR in the conditions of agrarian state policy formation on its development in 1950–1970-ies……… 58

Based on unclassified archive documents of the CPSU Central Committee the author restores the history of the state agricultural policy in the development of the RSFSR non-black soilzone in the second half of the XX century.


Military history

Grebenshchikova G.A. (Saint-Petersburg). The Bosporus expeditions of the Black Sea fleet in the first half of the XIX century in the plansof the Russian leadership……… 62

Since the reign of Catherine II, when Russia obtained the naval forces in the Black Sea, the government was commotted to using the fleet. Breaking through the Bosporus, transportation of landing parties by ships and sea transports as well as supporting the land forces with the shipborn artillery fire were the tasks of the fleet. This strategy has received conventional name of «Bosporus expeditions».

Semykin V.A. (Samara). Political bodies – the organizers of the agitation and mass work in the field (1918–1920): some aspects of the problem……… 79

Political bodies, set up in the Red army during the Civil war as governing structures, of the Bolshevik party being at that time at power in the Soviet Russia, proved to be the most important structural element of the system of party political work in the Red army. The role and place of political bodies in organization of agitation and mass work with the personnel is briefly observed in the article, based mainly on the materials of the Soviet Southern front.

Zhabrovets I.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Management of daily activities of a military unit……… 81

The article is devoted to the history of management of everyday activities of subdivisions, military units and headquarters in times of peace and war.


History of science and technology

Stanulevich N.A. (Saint-Petersburg). Russian historiography of photography……… 85

The article analyzes the historiography, connected with the study of the history of photography in Russia. Scientific literature of the end of XIX – beginning of XXI centuries is analysed. The authoremphasizes the fact that there is almost no information about the history of colourphotography in literature. The author believes that «the history of photography requires more profound analysisin terms of complicated technical process…».



Krivitskiy V.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Ornamentation of metal products, monuments of applied art of ancient Northern Caucasus (figurative-and-stylistic analysis)……… 88

On the basis of analysis of national historiography, the author makes a conclusion that metal products, manufactured by the ancient masters of Northern Caucasus, are indicative of high professional level of artisans, their artistic taste and clear ideas of harmony in creating works of art.

Sorokin P.E. (Saint-Petersburg). About the origin and early history of Izhora……… 90

The article is devoted to the study of the origin and history of the Finnish people Izhora from the
epoch of the middle Ages to the Modern era. The article examines the concepts and theories of
historians, archaeologists and linguists on the origin of Izhora, its settlement and interaction
with other peoples of the North-West, also provides historical, archeological and linguistic
data on this issue. The result of the research is the estimation of modern condition of the
sources and allocation of the basic directions for the further study of ethnogenesis and settlement of Izhora.


History of culture

Shafazhinskaya N.E. (Moscow).Christian mission in personal spiritual and moral search and in the improvement of the society (on the historical example of Orthodox monasticism)……… 97

The article focuses on the ideals of self-sacrifying devotion and on the necessity of actualization of Christian principles in connection with their high moral and ethical content, which is able to have a positive psychological and pedagogical impact on the choice of life goals and the formation of humanistic outlook with a significant part of Russiancitizens.

DavletKildeeva N.G. (Saint-Petersburg). The origins of the development of Saint-Petersburg as the cultural capital (on the history of the first Russian museums)……… 101

The article is devoted to the history of the Russian museum network. The author justifies the role of St. Petersburg as the cultural capital. The article presents historical facts connected with creation of the first unique collections which lay down the foundation of collections of such world-famous museums as the Hermitage, the Chamber of Curiosities etc.


The characters of history

Talya A.Yu. (Saint-Petersburg). The Russian diplomat PaulSvinyinand his description of American society at the beginning of the XIX century……… 103

This article describes social and political situation in the early American Republic at the beginning of the XIX century reflected by the well-known Russian diplomat and traveler Paul Svinyin. The article presents Paul Svinyin’s views on considerable achievements as well as on negative features of the so-called «American Democracy».

Komissarov B.N. (Saint-Petersburg). The head of the Russian mission in Rio-de-Janeiro in 1832–1836. A.P. Maltits: background, surroundings, activities, diplomatic files………104

On the basis of numerous archival documents, the author studies the activities of the head of the Russian mission in Rio-de-Janeiro in 1830-ies. A.P. Maltits. The author notes that closeness of the activities of diplomats, makes study of the history of diplomacy and contribution of certain personalities to its development considerably difficult. The scientist emphasizes the fact that? «without investigating their worldviews and their biographies, without reconstruction of images of these people, it is not possible to understand the nature of political and diplomatic relations between the countries, Russia and Brazil being not exceptions».

Medovarov M.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). K.P. Pobedonostsev in A.A. Kireev’s eyes……… 113

The article is devoted to the relations between General A.A. Kireev and Ober-Procuror of the
Holy Synod K.P. Pobedonoscev. The conflict of two conceptions of the development of the
Russian Orthodox Church is analyzed, Kireev’s opinions of Pobedonoscev as a politician and a man are discussed.

Dzevanovsky V.M. (Saint-Petersburg). Characteristic traits of the portrait of Armin E. von Feulkerzam (1861–1917)……… 117

The author introduces the facts, which open a new page in the biography of one of the most
prominent employees of the Imperial Hermitage A.E. Feulkerzam. In the author’s opinion,
it is necessary that the study of his biography be continued, to get more profound knowledge
about the circle of his acquaintances in scientific and high society environment, including
family ties.

Gogun A. (Berlin, Germany). A member of the NKVD – the participant of the Holocaust. The fate of the werewolf in epaulets Haim Sygal……… 122

The article tells about the life of the man, who became obedient instrument of two totalitarian
superpowers – the USSR and the Third Reich. He served in the most notorious structures of its
time, the NKVD and the Imperial Directorate of security (RSHA), performing the most menial
«jobs» – killing of civilians. The author comes to the conclusion thatit was irrepressible
 greed and
desire to survive and adapt to the circumstancesat any cost that influenced Haim Sygal
(“Kirill Sygolenko”, “Kovalski”) and made him commit numerous crimes and work in turns for both
fighting sides.


Theaching methods

Repinetskaya Yu.S., Soldatova O.N. (Samara). Project activity as a means of forming key competences of pupils on the example of the regional project «Archives for school» p.e. of Samara……… 125

Modernization of school education, particularly in the subject of history, demands for continuous search of the most productive ways of formation of key competences with the schoolchildren. Practice proved efficiency of using design technology for this purpose. The article is devoted to the practice of its implementation through the regional research integrating, long-term project «Archives for school».


Referrences of official opponents

Atamanov M.G. (Izhevsk). The reference of Z.R. Habibulina’s dissertation paper «The Muslim clergy of Bashkortostan at the turn of XX–XXI centuries»……… 130

Candidate for a degree Z.R. Habibulina considers that in Bashkir society there are no conditions for establishment of a theocratic state. Showing loyalty to the authorities, the Muslim clergy has no tendency to appropriate political and public functions. At the same time, it is repeatedly mentioned in the dissertation that radical and extremist groups, especially in the youth environment. (the Wahhabis and others)originate more and more frequently in towns and working settlements of Bashkortostan.


Reviews of scientific editions

Levin D.E. (Saint-Petersburg). Review of the first volume of «Russian historical encyclopedia»……… 134

Despite a number of successful articles, in some items the peer-reviewed volume is inferior to «The Soviet historical encyclopedia».The gloss and the models of dictionary entries are not accurately worked out which is a considerable drawback.

Ippolitov G.M. (Samara). How difficult it is to step into the same river twice… the reasoning of the author’s abstract of L.A. Antonova’scandidate dissertation……… 144

The article analyzes the contents of the author’s abstract of L.A. Antonova’s candidate dissertation. The author suggests a number of critical judgments and wishes to the young researcher.


Scientific life

Forthcoming scientific conferences………149