Klio #01 (169) 2021


Grinёv A.V. (St. Petersburg). The modern concept of the Great Russian Revolution as another pseudoscientific myth ...................................................................................13

Doctor in Historical Sciences and
Professor of the Humanities Institute
at the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University.
195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29.
E-mail: agrinev1960@mail.ru

The article is devoted to a critical analysis of the newfangled concept of the “Great Russian Revolution of 1917”, which has recently been intensively implanted in school and university textbooks, as well as promoted in the pages of scientific periodicals in Russia. Considering this paradigm, the author comes to the conclusion that we are faced with another attempt at an opportunistic treatment of the past of the country, which has nothing to do with a scientific explanation of real history. For his part, the author proposes to characterize the February revolution in Russia as a bourgeois-democratic one, and the events of October 1917 as a politarian counter-revolution.
Keywords: Russian history, Great Russian Revolution, 1917, socialism, ideological myth.


Tarelko V.M., Ushakov V.A. (St. Petersburg). Perception of the Declaration of “Armed Neutrality” in the American press...............................................................................26

4rd year student of Baccalaureate,
Department of Modern and Contemporary History,
Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University;
199178, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, 8th line of Vasilievsky island, 77А.
E-mail: ztarelko141gmail.com

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Department of Modern and Contemporary History,
Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University
199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskay line, 5.
E-mail: v.ushakov@spb.ru

In the article has been attempted to trace reflection of Russia in the American press during the American revolution. Based on the digitized Pennsylvania newspapers (www.newspapers.com) the authors of this article have examined in detail what an American reader could get information about the distant overseas country and how the image of Russia and Catherina II was transformed during three periods of the revolution. The important role in changing perceptions and increasing interest about Russia on the newspaper pages was played by the adoption of the Declaration on “Armed Neutrality”, which influenced not only the success of the struggle of Americans for their independence, but also their attitude towards the Russian Empire.
Keywords: Armed Neutrality, Catherina II, Russian-American relations, the American press, the American War of Independence.


Ivickaya A.N. (St. Petersburg). Sources on the history of regimental churches in St. Petersburg museums .................................................................................................33

Junior researcher, Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineer and Signal Corps.
graduate student, Institute of history, St. Petersburg state University, Department of source studies of Russian history.
Russia, St. Petersburg, Alexander Park d. 7;
E-mail: anna.ivitskaya@mail.ru

Being a center of public life, the military temple gradually acquired a memorial function: a kind of national military museum, which kept precious historical and church relics. Today, most of the regimental and temple relics that were kept in military churches, are represented in the storages and expositions of museums in St. Petersburg. The once unified complex of utensils and relics is now divided between different collections in accordance with the structure of the collection of the Museum: paintings, fabrics, objects of decorative and applied arts, etc. The article studies a complex of historical sources which are stored in museums of St. Petersburg. These sources allowing to reconstruct the history of lost military temples of St. Petersburg and to supplement the conception of their decoration and functions.
Keywords: Russian army, regimental churches, historical sources, museums, St. Petersburg, regimental relics.


Milenko А.А. (Moscow). History of the project....................................................................39

Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov,
graduate student 3 years of study,
Faculty of History, Department of Source Studies.
Russia, 119991, Moscow, GSP-1, Lomonosovskiy prospekt, 27, building 4.
E-mail: a_milenko@mail.ru

The article discusses features of the creation of the “Chronicle of the labor movement in Russia. 1985 – February 1917”. Considerable attention is paid to the fact that the creation of a complete chronicle of the labor movement was the dream of several generations of historians. The paper-based on personal fund archive data of Valery Ivanovich Bovykin. Our aim with this paper was to investigate Bovykin’s role in organizing a project to study the labor movement in Russia (1895 – 1917). The article draws attention to the inclusion of research results into the Databank of the labor movement in the industrialized countries of Europe and the USA in the late XIX – 1920. The article examines the importance of disclosing a scientist’s laboratory, its archive for the search for new scientific historical knowledge. Besides, this article presents examples of an example of how the professor’s personal archive allows tracing the process of creating a project infrastructure. The author concludes that the main components of the scientific method of Valery Ivanovich were the empirical base, as well as the study of the process in comparison with other countries (bringing the topic to the international level).
Keywords: chronicle, labor movement, archive of the historian, personal fund.


Gusakova A.V. (Moscow). The union of ambition and holiness: the cult of St. Beuno in Gwynedd in the IX-XIII centuries.............................................................................42

3rd year postgraduate student of the Department of Church History
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russian Federation, Moscow, st. Leninskie Gory, 1, B, 947.
+79107064967, E-mail: purawallia@mai.ru

This article is devoted to the problem of “attracting” saints to solve political problems on the example of the cult of St. Beuno, originating from the early medieval Welsh kingdom of Powys. A number of churches consecrated in honor of St. Beuno appeared on the territory of the neighboring kingdom of Gwynedd in IX – early X centuries. After analyzing that statistics, we assume that at this time there was a directional support for the cult from the ruling house. This was probably due to the need to integrate the Powys lands into the kingdom. Subsequently, when the unification process was completed, this support also stopped. However, three centuries later, several more churches dedicated to this saint are recorded in Gwynedd. All of them were located outside the royal domain, which may indicate that the ruling dynasts were not the initiators of their appearance. Probably, while the community of St. Beuno was under the tutelage of royal power, her influence increased so much that the loss of the highest patronage did not become critical. Thus, the “alliance” of the king with the saint, which, it seems to us, was of an exclusively utilitarian nature, proved to be beneficial for both sides, allowing Beuno to occupy a leading position among the saints of North Wales.
Keywords: St. Beuno, House of Aberffraw, Powys, Gwynedd, episcopal establishment, hagiography, Wales history, Church history.


Polunina N.D. (Moscow). Preliminary designs of Harlaxton Manor by Anthony Salvin in the context of his early architectural works............................................................48

Graduate student of the Department of General History of Art,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University
119607, Russian Federation, Moscow, Udaltsova st. 46, 170
E-mail: pnd5927@gmail.com

This article examines the preliminary designs for Harlaxton Manor, executed by Anthony Salvin in 1825-1826. These designs were partially implemented, and the article traces the changes that were made while Anthony Salvin was the chief architect of Harlaxton and until the moment when Salvin left this post as a result of a quarrel with Mr. Gregory Gregory. the owner of the estate. The designs are considered in comparison with other early buildings built by Anthony Salvin, in particular with the manor houses of Mamhead House and Moreby Hall. These buildings are the key monuments of the Tudor Revival style, based on 16th century English architecture, and in the analysis of Salvin’s works we also mention the early Tudor buildings that were copied and used as an example. Harlaxton Manor stands out against the general background of Salvin’s early buildings, and the article traces how the style of this manor house has scanged, gradually moving away from Tudor style towards Elizabethan and Jacobean style. Anthony Salvin’s preliminary designs for Harlaxton Manor are considered in the context of other early works by the architect and in the context of the development of the Tudor Revival style in general.
Keywords: Victorian architecture, English manorial architecture, Gothic Revival, Anthony Salvin, Harlaxton Manor, Gregory Gregory, Mamhead House, Moreby Hall.


Dubrovsky V.V. (Moscow). In Search of a Perfect Soldier: Physical Anthropology, Eugenics and The US Armed Forces during WWI.....................................................54

PhD Candidate,
Lomonosov Moscow State University,
Faculty of History, Department of Ethnology.
History and social science teacher at SBEI «Kurchatov School».
123098, Russian Federation, Moscow, Marshala Vasilevskogo st., 9, build. № 1.
Email: vdubrik@rambler.ru

This article discusses the interaction of physical anthropologists and the US Armed Forces through the prism of eugenic ideas that had both popularity and often official legal status in America the beginning of the XXth century. After a brief analysis of the position of eugenics in the United States in the beginning of the XXth century and an examination of a number of studies on the principles of the formation of the armed forces while trying to identify their connection with eugenic ideas, the author comes to the conclusion that eugenics did not significantly affect American military thought. However, this interaction can serve as an example showing the influence that American eugenics had in the scientific community.
Keywords: military anthropology, eugenics, World War I, V. Kellog, F. Hoffman, C. Davenport.


Chikhichin Yu. S. (Saratov). Transformation of American-Ukrainian relationships during the second presidential term of B. Clinton .....................................................58

Three years graduate
of the international relationships and Russian foreign policy chair
Saratov National Research University named by N.G. Chernishevsky
410065, Russia, Saratov, Sapernaya street, 4/74
E-mail: urchih@mail.ru

The article analyzes the dynamics and aspects of US-Ukrainian relations in the period 1996-2000. The reasons for the revision of approaches to politics in the post-Soviet space among the American elites are studied. The research analyzes the changes in the composition of the new Clinton administration and their influence on the US foreign policy during the period under review. The article considers such aspects of bilateral relations as the problem of nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, cooperation with pariah states, American foreign assistance programs, the process of Ukraine’s integration into Euro-Atlantic structures, etc. Based on this study, the author concludes that there have been significant changes in the approaches of the American elites to politics in the post-Soviet space, which, in turn, were due to a reassessment of values in approaches to Russia. This entailed changes in the structure of the new government cabinet and the growth of expansionism in US policy. Pressure on Ukraine increased in matters of non-proliferation regime compliance and integration into Euro-Atlantic structures. Against the background of attempts by the Ukrainian leadership to pursue a multi-vector policy, this led to a deterioration in US-Ukrainian relations, which by the beginning of the 21st century found themselves in a crisis phase.
Keywords: US-Ukraine relations, nuclear non-proliferation regime, pariah states, NATO enlargement, external assistance.


Zotova A.V. (St. Petersburg), Talianova Eren M. (Ankara, Turkey). Parliamentary international connections of St. Petersburg and Turkey in the late XX – early XXI century ........................................................................................................................64

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Docent, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations in the Post-Soviet Area, Saint-Petersburg State University. 199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
E-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

Doctor of Philology (Ph.D.), Ankara State University
Emniyet, Dögol Cd. 6A, 06560 Yenimahalle/Ankara, Turkey
E-mail: erenmariia@gmail.com

The article is devoted to the study of international relations between the Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg and the parliamentary bodies of the Turkish Republic at various levels. The publication is based on a wide range of Turkish and Russian sources. The article defines the prospects for cooperation between St. Petersburg and Turkey, in which representatives of the parliamentary structures of St. Petersburg, Ankara, and Istanbul play an important role. According to the authors, in the second half of the 1990s, a new page began in bilateral relations between the Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg and figures of the Turkish Republic – diplomats, parliamentarians, representatives of business, science, culture, and art. Numerous examples of cooperation between St. Petersburg parliamentarians and representatives of various Turkish companies are cited, including Turkish Airlines, FIBA holding, Renaissance Construction, Enka, Betatek, Ramenka, and others. It is noted that the automobile plants General Motors, Nissan, the Philip Moris Izhora plant, and many other large objects were built in St. Petersburg with the participation of the Turkish capital and Turkish specialists. It is concluded that relations between St. Petersburg and Turkey are on the rise. At present, efforts are being made to strengthen the ties of the St. Petersburg parliament with the legislative bodies of Turkey in the regions of the country.
Keywords. Republic of Turkey, St. Petersburg, parliamentarism, twinning relations, Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg.


Pu Jiang (St. Petersburg). The role of Soviet-Chinese relations in the 1950s in industrialization and the transformation of China into a superindustrial power........75

Post-graduate student of the Department
of the Newest History of Russia
Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University.
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5.
E-mail: pujiang2012@yandex.ru

The article considers Soviet-Chinese relations in the 1950s, which was a further prerequisite for the development of China into a super-democratic power. The assistance of the Soviet Union to China allowed the country to make a sharp economic leap. This assistance was timely and largely irreplaceable. Most of the reviews of Chinese specialists in the USSR and China were extremely positive. The industrialization of China is associated with the development of the country, with the improvement of its well-being, strengthening of economic strength and further liberation from the status of a colony. China could begin this task only after the People’s Democratic Revolution and the formation of the People’s Republic of China on October 1, 1949. Cooperation between the USSR and China in the fifties is called the “golden decade.” This fact is confirmed by many archival documents. A great contribution to the writing of the work was the data obtained from the National Archive of the PRC, Beijing. More than 100 sources were analysed. Documents from the archive helped to get a wider view of the problem under consideration in this study and confirm the cooperation of the two countries in all areas: economy, industry, military-industrial complex, culture, etc. The cooperation of the USSR and China after World War II was unprecedented and represented a completely different type of relations between states, relations based on faith in socialism and friendship of peoples
Keywords: industrialization of the PRC, assistance to the USSR, a five-year development plan for the country, an industrial power, national income, economic and trade cooperation between the USSR and China.


Milbach V.S., Nazarenko I.S. (St. Petersburg). Contribution of the Soviet Union to the national liberation struggle of the Chinese people against militaristic Japan in 1937–1945 ..................................................................................................................81

Dr. Sci. (History), Professor, Professor of the Department of Humanities and socio-economic disciplines,
Mikhailovskaya military artillery Academy of the Ministry of defence of the Russian Federation,
22, Komsomol street, St. Petersburg 195009, Russia,
E-mail: v.milbach@yandex.ru

Senior Lecturer of the Department of combat use of artillery intelligence units,
Mikhailovskaya military artillery Academy of the Ministry of defence of the Russian Federation,
22, Komsomol street, St. Petersburg 195009, Russia,
E-mail: gocha.nazar@yandex.ru

Based on a wide range of sources, most of which are previously unpublished archival documents, the article reveals the role of the Soviet Union in the rather complex and ambiguous period of the national liberation struggle of the Chinese people against the Japanese invaders (1937-1945). The authors attempt to assess the contribution of the USSR to the stabilization of the internal political situation in the country, to the creation of a united front-the Communist Party of China-Kuomintang (CPC-GMD) in the fight against the aggressor. The article analyzes the diplomatic efforts of the Soviet Union in the international arena in support of China during the period of unleashing Japanese aggression. The article reveals the content of financial, economic and military-technical assistance, which, despite the tense international situation, were carried out in full and within the agreed time frame. According to the agreements concluded with China, the leadership of the Soviet Union in the period 1937-1941 carried out deliveries of samples of military equipment, weapons, as well as various military-technical equipment. The authors reveal a number of little-known events of the period of severe trials that fell to Soviet civilian and military specialists who provided military-technical assistance to China. In the conditions of the partial and then complete blockade of China by Japan, the Soviet leadership took extraordinary measures to organize land, sea, and air supply channels to provide the most necessary things in the organization of an armed repulse to the aggressor: weapons, ammunition, petroleum products, and medicines. Diplomatic, moral, political, financial, economic, and military-technical support from the Soviet Union helped China build up its large armed forces and survive in a tense struggle with an experienced, technically more equipped enemy.
Keywords: contribution of the Soviet Union, military assistance to China, military-technical cooperation, credit agreements, supply channels, operational information, supply of weapons and equipment, the Sino-Japanese war.


Martysevich A.P. (Petrozavodsk). 204th Airborne Brigade in the Soviet-Finnish War of 1939-1940...................................................................................................................89

Applicant for the Department of Russian History Institute of History, Political and Social Sciences Petrozavodsk State University
185910, Russia, Republic of Karelia, Petrozavodsk, Lenin Ave, 33
E-mail: qmap55@mail.ru

The participation of the 204th airborne brigade (VDBr) (a relatively young branch of the Workers ‘and Peasants’ Red Army) in the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940, one of the tragic pages in the history of our country, is a significant event, but little studied. This article draws attention to this problem for the first time. The fact that it is poorly covered in the specialized literature makes the study of this issue especially urgent. In modern historiography, both domestic and foreign, this aspect is mentioned sporadically. Basically, the authors consider the participation of the airborne troops in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, which does not give a complete, deeper understanding of the significance of this issue. The purpose of this article is to analyze the course of hostilities of the 204 VDBr in Ladoga Karelia, a region with specific physical and geographical conditionsThe author concludes that when developing the plans for the conduct of hostilities, the entire set of external factors was not taken into account, which ultimately led both the Red Army and 204 VDBR to catastrophic consequences.
Keywords: Soviet-Finnish war; The Workers ‘and Peasants’ Red Army; 204th Airborne Brigade; fighting.


Lyaskina N.V. (Khabarovsk). The role of labor educational colonies in the fight against homelessness and juvenile delinquency during the Great Patriotic War (regional aspect)........................................................................................................................95

Associate of the Far Eastern Law Institute of the
Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation
680000, Russia, Khabarovsk, per.15 Kazarmenny street,
E-mail: Lnv2412@list.ru

The article is devoted to the problems of social rehabilitation of juvenile offenders in the conditions of labor educational colonies during the Great Patriotic War. The work is written on the basis of published and archival sources, most of which are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The article highlights the main directions of scientific research considering the activities of labor educational colonies during the war. The general characteristics of the labor educational colony as an institution included in the system of bodies for the prevention of juvenile delinquency are given. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the role of the Yukhta labor educational colony, which was important in the system of crime prevention in the Russian Far East. It is concluded that the activities of correctional labor institutions during the Great Patriotic War, including at the regional level, require further reflection, which will allow us to draw the necessary, sometimes negative lessons from the past for more effective reform of the country’s penal system.
Keywords: scientific research, labor educational colony, police, homelessness, juvenile delinquency, Far East, Great Patriotic war, Russia.


Kapyatets D.P. (Nizhny Novgorod). Wartime armored car: made in the Gorky region .....104

Applicant for the scientific degree of candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of Russian History and Politics, Institute of International Relations and World History, N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod
603005, Nizhny Novgorod, Ulyanov St., 2

The article is devoted to one of the least studied pages of the national and regional history – the production of light armored vehicles BA-64 in the Gorki region during the Great Patriotic War. The story of BA-64 can be considered as a successful example of creation of new armored vehicles in conditions of shortage of material and human resources in wartime. The management of the People’s Commissariat of Medium Machine Building, tank building industry of the USSR and Nizhny Novgorod enterprises managed to localize the production of these combat vehicles in the region on many positions. Gorky Automobile Plant (GAZ) was the main producer of engines and assembly of BA-64 armored vehicles. The armor plate was made by S.M. Kirov Kulebaki Metallurgical Plant, armored bodies were produced by the crushing and milling equipment plant (DRO) in Vyksa, which had experience in producing armored bodies for pre-war armored vehicles BA-10 and BA-20, possessing a qualified staff of engineers and workers. The railway version of the armored car was also created here. This process was not easy, due to objective and subjective factors. Simultaneously at GAZ and at Vyksa plant No 177 there was a mass production of light tanks T-60 and T-70. After Luftwaffe raids on Gorky automobile plant in summer 1943 production of BA-64 had been temporarily suspended. Nevertheless, during 1942-1946 about 9000 armored BA-64 and BA-64B were produced at GAZ in cooperation with the enterprises of Gorki region. They played a certain role in the battles of the Great Patriotic War and were in service of the Red (Soviet) Army until the 1950s.
Keywords: armored car, war, organization, production, technology.


Stepanov M.G.., Kabaeva T.I. (Abakan). Puppet theater art in Khakassia at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries..................................................................................................109

PhD in History, Associate Professor,
Katanov khakass state university, Institute of history and law
Russia, 655010, Republic of Khakassia, Abakan, Torgovaya ul. 1-73
E-mail: StepanowM@yandex.ru

4th year student,
Katanov khakass state university, Institute of history and law
Russia, 655010, Republic of Khakassia, Abakan, K. Perekreschenko ul. 15-74
E-mail: kabaeva_ti@mail.ru

The article examines the development of puppet theatre art in the Republic of Khakassia at the turn of XX-XXI centuries on the example of the puppet theatre «Skazka». As a basic historical source, mainly archival materials of the office-oriented nature of the National archive of the Republic of Khakassia were introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The sources used made it possible to trace the tour activity, the evolution of the repertoire plan, rewards and awards, and the problems of financial security of the theater. The article draws the following conclusions: 1) in the study period puppet theatre «Skazka» has become an Autonomous institution under the Ministry of culture of the Republic of Khakassia; 2) was first officially introduced in the repertoire plan of performances for an adult audience; 3) theater began to actively touring and festival activities; 4) the theatre became a laureate of many international, Russian and regional competitions.
Keywords: Khakassia, Abakan, Khakass puppet theater «Skazka», tours, festivals, theater competitions, theater award “Golden mask”, Ministry of culture of the Republic of Khakassia.


Skurlov V.V. (St. Petersburg). The importance of Italian art and culture in the creative work of Carl Faberge................................................................................................117

doctor of art history,
expert of the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation,
scientific secretary of the Memorial Fund Faberge (Saint-Petersburg).
199406, Russia, Saint-Petersburg,
E-mail: valentinskurlov@mail.ru

The article examines for the first time unknown aspects of the interaction of Carl Faberge(1846–1920) with Italian employees and artists, as well as the influence of Italian art and culture on the creative biography of Carl Faberge and the activities of the jewelry company. The names of Italians who worked with Faberge, including relatives (including Prof. Karl Wenig), the Italian jeweler Castelani’s influence on the development of an “archaeological” collection-copies of Faberge’s Scythian jewelry. Aspects of encouraging Italian singers with gifts from His Majesty’s Cabinet are considered, the singer Adeline Patti, Enrico Tamberlik, Matteo Battistini, Gaetano Ciniselli are mentioned. For the first time, the activity of the caster Karl Robecchi, who collaborated with the Faberge company, was noted.
Keywords. Italian art, Faberge, Castelani, Adeline Patti, Tamberlik, Robecchi, Italian employees of the Faberge company.


Sirota N.M., Mokhorov G.A. (St. Petersburg). A “New Normality” in the world and outlines of the world order........................................................................................124

Naum Mihaylovich SIROTA
Doctor of Political Sciences,
Professor of History and Philosophy Department,
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation.
190000, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Bolshaya Morskaya St., 67A.
E-mail: sirotanm@mail.ru

Gennadiy Anatolievich MOKHOROV
Doctor of Historical Sciences,
Professor of Humanitarian and Socio-Economic Disciplines Department,
Military Academy of the Signal Corps named after S.M. Budyonny.
194064, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Tikhoretskiy Ave., 3.
E-mail: g.mohorov@gmail.com

The emerging “New Normality” as a characteristic of the global world system is considered in the context of the problems of transition periods in world politics. Its essential characteristics and factors of transformation into a stable world order have been determined. There is a proposition of author’s vision of potential scenarios for the formation of a new world order, their probability and methods of implementation – evolutionary and revolutionary – are estimated. The authors consider the organization of functioning, ensuring the effectiveness of institutional structures and minimizing possible costs to be the main problems of establishing a polycentric world order. The thesis about the hypothetical nature of the formation of a “New Bipolarity” with China as the second pole is substantiated. Arguments are given in favor of balanced polycentrism as the optimal scenario for the transformation of international relations for Russia and the unacceptability of the status of China’s “Junior partner”. Considerations are expressed about the possible role of the Russian Federation in interaction with other actors, built on a multilateral and multi-level basis with an extensive system of network communications.
Keywords: “New Normality”, triangle “USA-China-Russia”, world system, world order, polycentrism, New bipolarity.


Lobacheva G.V., Kostiaev E.V. (Saratov). Wars and revolutions by Michael Liber ...........133

Ph. D, Professor, Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov, Director of the Socio-economic Institute, Professor, head of the Department of history and cultural studies
77 Politechnicheskaya str., Saratov, Russia, 410054
+7-8452-99-85-02, lgv@sstu.ru

Ph. D, associate Professor, Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov, Professor of the Department of history and cultural studies of the Socio-economic Institute
77 Politechnicheskaya str., Saratov, Russia, 410054
+7-8452-99-85-02, edikost@bk.ru

The article provides a detailed analysis of the theoretical views and practical activities of Mikhail Isaakovich Liber – one of the founders of the Bund and the leaders of the right-wing movement in Russian Menshevism, a very influential figure of Russian social democracy, one of the recognized leaders in 1917 of revolutionary democracy and its main body – the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet of workers’, soldiers ‘and peasants’ deputies. This analysis covers the periods of the First Russian revolution of 1905–1907, the First world war, the February revolution and the October coup of 1917, as well as the Civil war and foreign intervention in Soviet Russia. The uncompromising and militant anti-Bolshevik orientation of both his ideological views and their empirical implementation in the daily political activities of Lieber, who, among other things, in contrast to the then official leadership of the Menshevik party headed by Yuli Osipovich Martov and Fyodor Ilyich Dan, advocated active participation in the armed struggle against the Bolsheviks who seized power in October 1917 with the aim of overthrowing him, eventually led him to the sad final execution in 1937.
Keywords: Liber, social-democracy, Menshevism, revolution of 1905–1907, First world war, revolution of 1917, the Civil war.


Lagvilava U.G. (Moscow). The architect, the builder, the agricultor – L.P. Beria. The development of the Caucasus .................................................................................139

Uta Guramoevich Lagvilava
Member of the Presidium of the International Academy
of Historical and Social Sciences, (Doktor in der Geschichte),
Executive Board Member of the Association of
the World War II, 1939-1945 Historians in the National Committee of
Historians of Russia, Member of the Commission on Military History of the Peoples of the East of the Association of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
10100, Moscow, poste restante
E-mail: lagvilava1000@gmail.com , uta.lagvilava@strabag.com

Based on the directives of the Fifteenth Congress of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks in 1927, the First Five-Year Plan was approved by the Fifth All-Russian Congress of the Soviets in 1929 and was a logical follow-up and development of the idea of a long-term of GOELRO plan. The overriding priority of the First Five-Year Plan was to lay the foundation of the socialist economy. Due to the issued challenges, the Transcaucasian republics (Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan) achieved significant success in the development of their economy and culture in the 1920s-30s. In the region, collectivization and mechanization were carried out in agriculture, and the dewatering of swamps in the coastal zone of western Georgia contributed to the intensive development of tea and citrus plants and vegeculture. New industries have been established (machinery manufacturing, ferroalloy smelting, oil and petrochemicals production, etc.). Significant progress has been achieved in the field of public education and science. Although the economy of the Transcaucasian republics was integrated into the general Soviet economic system and became part of it, it could not exist independently. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and due to internal conflicts, the level of industrial production and the welfare of the general public decreased dramatically. The article covers the early years of the activities and the role of Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria in the economic development of the Transcaucasian region and the Georgian SSR, with a focus on Georgia.
Keywords. L.P. Beria, Transcaucasia, Georgian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, 1920 – 1930.


Filatov T.V. (Samara). The answer to the falsifiers. Critical notes in the margins of a very timely monograph. [Repulse the attempt on the feat of the people. Against falsifications of the history of the Great Patriotic war / G. M. Ippolitov, A. I. Repinetsky, Yu. S. Repinetskaya / under the General editorship of G. M. Ippolitov. Moscow; Berlin: DirectMedia publishing, 2020. 448 p. (pages of the Great Victory)] ..........................................................................................................156

Doctor of philosophical science, professor, head of the Department of philosophy of the Povolzhskiy State University of Telecommunications and Informatics (Samara), 443010, Russian Federation, Samara, L. Tolstoy St., 23.
tel.: 8-937-209-84-57; Email: tfilatoff1960@mail.ru

The current historiographical situation in Russia indicates that the problems of the history of the great Patriotic war (June 22, 1941 – May 9, 1945) are becoming the object of large – scale falsifications with obvious ideological overtones. At the same time, falsifiers are very cynical in methodological terms, acting according to the canons of information wars of the second half of the 20th-21st centuries. In this connection, it should be emphasized that the publication of the collective monograph of Samara historians-scientists G. M. Ippolitov, A. I. Repinetsky and Yu. S. Reineckii is an important phenomenon in the modern Russian historiography of the Great Patriotic war. The authors, in a tough offensive style, expose not only foreign falsifications of the First cold war era (1946-1990), but also falsifications that are permanently structured by representatives of the modern Russian “liberal school” of research on the history of the Great Patriotic war, whose ideological preferences practically do not differ from similar preferences of their foreign predecessors of the era of the bipolar world. At the same time, we focus on an extraordinary methodological approach used by researchers who organically combine different styles of coverage of the problem: scientific and journalistic, academic, and educational.
Keywords: The Great Patriotic war; falsifications and falsifiers of the history of the Great Patriotic war; “crooks of the ether, the artist of the pen, equilibrists from cyberspace”;” demythologization of history”, A. Hitler, I. V. Stalin, F. Halder, M. Gareev, “homegrown lights of freedom”.