Klio #01 (181) 2022

Hippolitov G.M., Filatov T.V. (Samara). Object, matter, subject of historical research in the mirror of the methodology of historical science. Article one. Object and subject of historical research as a methodological problem

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Volga State University of Telecommunications and Information Technology (Samara)
443010, Russian Federation, Samara, L. Tolstoy St., 23.
Email: gippolitov@rambler.ru

Doctor of philosophical science, professor, head of the Department of philosophy of the Povolzhskiy State University of Telecommunications and Informatics (Samara), 443010, Russian Federation, Samara, L. Tolstoy St., 23.
Email: tfilatoff1960@mail.ru

Abstract. An elementary truth says: the knowledge of history occurs mainly through historical research. The second elementary truth is expressed in the following proposition: historical research cannot claim to be scientific if its object and subject are not clearly indicated in it. Moreover, they must necessarily be reduced to a harmonious linear system. This is just one of the cases where the synergistic approach is in no way unacceptable. It should be emphasized that the object and subject of historical research determines its subject. Thus, a complex dialectical link is emerging – an object – an object – a subject of historical research. And if you look at this complicated dialectical connection, then it is the subject of historical research, that is, the scientist who is developing any scientific and historical problem, who received clear theoretical and methodological guidelines for himself. The authors of this article have made an attempt to consider, first of all, the complex dialectics of the object and the subject of historical research. In the following, we will separately analyze everything that is connected, from the point of view of the theory and methodology of history, with the subject of historical research. In the study of our problem, we relied in every way on the historiographic developments of our predecessors. Moreover, we tried to ensure a careful and correct attitude towards them. But this does not exclude a critical aspect (not to be confused with criticism!). The work was done in a controversial, but not polemical, key.
Keywords: science, historical research, object, subject, subject, philosophy, methodology of history, K. Marx, V.A. Lektorosky, I.D. Kovalchenko, scientific reference publications

Sivkina N.Yu., Novosilnov A.S. (Nizhny Novgorod). The Battle of Chaeronea 338 BC: the problem of sources

Doctor of historical Sciences, associate Professor,
Professor of the Department of history of the Ancient world and the Midlle Ages of the Lobachevsky national
Nizhny Novgorod, Russia;
senior researcher at the research and educational center of the Dobrolyubov national University “Slavic-Greek-Latin cabinet”,
603155, Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, st. Minina, 31A
E-mail: natalia-sivkina@yandex.ru

603155, Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, st. Minina, 31A

Abstract. The Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC is one of the famous battles of antiquity, after which Greece fell into the sphere of influence of Macedonia. However, poor preservation and fragmentary sources make it difficult to objectively reconstruct the battle. The data of ancient authors often allow an ambiguous interpretation of the facts. The relevance of the research lies in the need for an objective analysis of all aspects of the topic. To do this, you need to conduct a deep analysis of the preserved sources. In historiography, there is an old version of the course of the battle of 338 BC, which is based on the testimony of Diodorus, Polyenus and Plutarch. The novelty of the research lies in a new conceptual solution to the reconstruction of the battle. The authors propose to divide the topic into episodes and consider the sources for each fragment. Using the method of analysis and synthesis, comparative historical and the method of retrospection, the authors analyze several episodes of the battle. As a result of the study, the authors conclude that there are grounds for an alternative version of the course of the battle. With a more detailed and comprehensive examination of the sources, a different picture of the battle emerges, strikingly different from the traditional point of view. Therefore, it is time to revise the theory that has dominated historiography for many years.
Keywords: Battle of Chaeronea, 338 BC, Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great, sources, Diodorus, Plutarch

Gessen V.Yu. (St. Petersburg). House of Russia may refer to: confiscation of libraries and archives by the Soviet authorities in 1917–1925 (based on documents relating to Petrograd) 

Ph.D. in Economics
Russian Federaion,
196233 St. Petersburg, Zvezdnaya 11/ 2, 140
e-mail: geen27@mail.ru

Abstract. This article in its content refers to our publications in the journal “Klio” on the topic “The Bolshevik Cultural Revolution in Petrograd-Leningrad in 1917-1929”. They mainly concerned the seizure by the new authorities of cultural property from the population, except for libraries and archives. And they are discussed in this article in relation to the property of the members of the Royal House. It is shown that those of them about whom there is information, for the most part, showed considerable interest in collecting books and historical documents, sought to preserve and multiply what they received from their ancestors. As a rule, books seized from palaces were depersonalized, received in the Public Library, in the BAN, in many other repositories of Petrograd, Moscow, and many other cities, and sold abroad. All archival documents had to be submitted to the Centrarchive, especially those that were given political significance.
Keywords: Emperor, Grand Duke, Palace, Decree, Libraries, Books, Archives, Security Department, Museum, Bookseller, State Book Fund

Gusev A.V. (Moscow). Results and prospects of the NEP in the views of the “Bolshevik Leninist” opposition in the early 1930s (on the materials of the “Verkhne-Uralsk Political Isolator’s Notebooks”)

Ph. D in History, Associate Professor,
Department of History of Social Movements and Political Parties,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovskiy pr., 27-4.
e-mail: alexei-gusev@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the reconstruction of the analysis by representatives of the Communist (Trotskyist) opposition in the early 1930s of the experience of the New Economic Policy in the USSR. The main source is the “Notebooks of the Verkhne-Uralsk Political Isolator”, a set of handwritten documents of imprisoned oppositionists dating back to 1932-1933, which were discovered in 2018. The article reveals the Trotskyists’ views on the nature and significance of the NEP, their interpretation of the causes of its crisis and liquidation. The author looks at the critique by the Trotskyists of the economic policies of “Stalin-Bukharin” party-state leadership of the 1920s and describes the alternatives they proposed in the field of prices, taxes, finance and cooperative building. It is shown that the crisis of NEP that resulted in its collapse has been attributed by the opposition to insufficient and inefficient use of instruments of state regulation of mixed economy. The article characterizes the Trotskyist evaluation of the collapse of the NEP and transition to a policy of total collectivization of agriculture and forced industrialization in which they saw the ruling bureaucracy’s reaction to the failure of the preceding socioeconomic course. The author reconstructs the program of practical measures, the implementation of which the opposition considered necessary in order to return to the path of “Lenin’s NEP”, to recovery and strengthen the economy. As the author shows, in the early 1930s, the opposition prisoners, on the basis of their theoretical ideas, rejected the course of building “national socialism” within the borders of the USSR, counterposing to it maintaining in the country, until the victory of the world revolution, of a regulated multi-structured economy with a gradual expansion of its socialized sector.
Keywords: NEP, Communist opposition, Bolsheviks-Leninists, Trotskyists, Verkhne-Uralsk political isolator, economic policy, agriculture

Tribunsky S.A. (Samara). Cultural and educational work in the Red Army in the so-called interwar period: Soviet historiography of the problem. Article one. Analysis of Soviet historiographical sources (1920s – first half of the 1930s)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Russian History, Samara National Research University named after academician S.P. Korolev”,
443086, Volga Federal District, Samara region, Samara, Moscow highway, 34,
E-mail: ser.6791@yandex.ru

Abstract. Cultural and educational work in the Red Army in the so-called interwar period: Soviet historiography of the problem. First article. Analysis of Soviet historiographic sources (1920s – first half of 1930s) In the vast and diverse Soviet historiography of the so-called interwar period (1920s – June 22, 1941), a certain array of aspects of cultural and educational work in the Workers ‘and Peasants’ Red Army (RKKA) – this unique component of party and political work in the Armed Forces of the young Soviet state. The subject of this article is the established Soviet research historiographic tradition of studying the topic of cultural and educational work in the Red Army in the so-called interwar period, the views of Soviet historians, the analysis of the process of accumulation and increment of historical knowledge, the depth of scientific elaboration of the topic indicated above, in 1920s – early 1930s. Based on the results of studying the problem indicated above, some of its main historiographic tendencies have been synthesized. The article is written in the format of problem-thematic historiography. There are no copyright claims for completeness of coverage of the problem.
Keywords: Red Army, cultural and educational work; party political work; historiographic source; historiographic analysis; historiographic trends; 1920s – second half of 1930 s

Vartanyan E.G. (Krasnodar). The Kurdish problem in the politics of the republican Turkey: history and modernity

professor, doctor of historical sciences, professor of the Kuban State University.
Krasnodar, 350040, st. Stavropolskaya, 149. Kuban State University.
е-mail: vartaneg@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the struggle of the people of North-West Kurdistan for self-determination and the attempts of the Turkish government to resolve the Kurdish issue. The Kurdish problem is an important component of the national question in Turkey. Its essence lies in the economic backwardness of the Kurdish regions, the slow development of its social and cultural life, and the ignorance of the national rights of the Kurdish people. The Kurdish issue significantly affects the socio-economic, political and national processes in the Republic of Turkey. The article is based on the general scientific principles of historical knowledge – historicism and objectivity, as well as on the totality of historical-systemic, historical-typological, historical-genetic research methods. The stages of the struggle in Turkish Kurdistan are presented. It was emphasized that the Turkish Republic, at the dawn of its birth, was concerned about the thesis of the so-called Kurdish separatism. The methods and possibilities of resolving controversial issues that required the participation in their settlement of a number of other states of the world are considered. It is shown that in the 1990s. the Kurdish issue was included in the list of topics of negotiations between Turkey and the European Union, and in the early 1990s. the Turkish authorities tried to prove to the international community that they respect the identity of non-Turkish peoples. It is concluded that at the end of the XX – beginning of the XXI century. significant changes are taking place not only in the Kurdish movement, but also in the dynamic development of the very geopolitical situation around Kurdistan, and hence in the political-theoretical approach to existing problems. The evolution of methods of fighting the Kurdish liberation movement is observed: from harsh suppression with the use of military force, repression, assimilation policy, non-recognition of the people’s right to self-identity to recognition by the Turkish government in the 1990s. Kurdish language, culture and attempts to find a new approach to solving the problem. The main tendency in this matter is to move away from overly ideologized and extremely radical illusions and in a turn towards the search for real compromise solutions by non-military means. The basic principles on which the Kurdish problem should be built are highlighted.
Keywords: Kurdish national movement, Turkey, struggle, self-determination, identity, rights

Shtoda A.E. (Moscow). Establishing of the Soviet Trade Representation in India as a Way to Strengthen Economic Ties Between Countries

Postgraduate student, Lomonosov Moscow State University,
School of Public Administration,
Department of History of State and Municipal Administration.
119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospekt, 27, building 4,
E-mail: antropovskaia@gmail.com

Abstract. The article is devoted to the establishment and development of Soviet-Indian economic relations. The Soviet Union and India have always had close ties and these countries were extremely important to each other. India considered the USSR as a model of how to create an effective economic system, to cope with the key problems that hinder economic development. The Soviet Union viewed India as one of the most important trading partners, as well as the largest partner in the ideological struggle against the capitalist camp.
Soviet assistance was essential to India, especially in the early years after gaining independence. The article focuses of the establishment of the Soviet Trade Representation in India. This period can be seen as a foundation for economic relations. Subsequently, close economic ties between the countries were preserved, in particular, the USSR helped implement large infrastructure projects, supplied the necessary products, including industrial ones, and actively purchased Indian goods. Undoubtedly, such close economic ties had a favourable inpact on the development of political ties. Despite the fact that India was neutral in the bloc confrontation, the countries continued to develop close cooperation.
Keywords: M.A. Menshikov, economic relations, trade mission, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Soviet-Indian trade agreement

Shlyakhovskii A.I. (Moscow). It is now for professionals: exploring development issues of Yugoslavia’s film industry (1945-1949)

postgraduate student of the Department of History of South and West Slavs
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119192, Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, bldg. 4

Abstract. This article focuses on the development issues of Yugoslav cinema in the post-war period (1945-1949). With the establishment of socialist authority throughout the country, the importance of cinematography faced sharp increase as films possessed a great potential for propaganda and agitation. However, after World War II, the Yugoslav film industry was in poor condition, and it needed starting from scratch. The most acute problem was the lack of qualified personnel. Initially, they tried to solve the issue of training filmmakers by creating courses with film studios, but the level of training was not sufficient at such courses. The project of foreign internships for young filmmakers also failed: after the severance of relations with the USSR in 1948, Yugoslavia found itself in international isolation. The High Education School for Film Acting and Directing in Belgrade, founded in 1946, managed to train the first Yugoslav filmmakers of the new generation and became a true feeder for the reviving film industry. This success, not least, could be attributed to the personality of the School’s headmaster Viekoslav Afrić, who organized not only theoretical training, but also actively engaged students in practical experiments based on the existing film studios. Despite its disbandment in 1949, it was the High Education School for Film Acting and Directing in Belgrade that made it possible to provide a qualified staff for the further development of Yugoslavia’s national film industry.
Keywords: Yugoslavia, cinema, culture, state cultural policy

Bandurin S.G., Kozubov A.A. (Moscow). Factor analysis of the adjustment of the military-political course of Great Britain after the end of the Second World War

senior research officer of Research Institute (military history)
of the Military Academy of the General Staff,
Doctor of historical Sciences, assistant professor.
119330, Russian Federation, Moscow, Universitetsky Prospect, 14.
Е-mail: bs963@rambler.ru

researcher of Research Institute (military history)
of the Military Academy of the General Staff.
119330, Russian Federation, Moscow, Universitetsky Prospect, 14.
Е-mail: aleks.hard-nosed@yandex.ru

Abstract. On the basis of an analysis of the national and English-speaking public, as well as of the materials of the Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Federation, a factor analysis of changes in the military and political course of the United Kingdom since the end of the Second World War was made, which accompanied the disintegration of the colonial system, the search for new vectors of development of British statehood, the arms race, the promotion of imperial ambitions. The United Kingdom is somewhat dependent on American politics. Against the backdrop of changing international circumstances, the US and Britain have elevated their expansionist activities on the world stage to official government policy. The reasons caused of the world national liberation movement in opposition to the imperial ambitions of the leading world powers were investigated. The mechanism of countering the anti-colonial movement on the part of Great Britain from information suppression to open military conflicts is shown. The military-political, socio-political and economic factors of strengthening the expansionist vector of British foreign policy are outlined prospectively.
Keywords: British Empire, Great Britain, USA, USSR, Cold War, military conflict, national interests, factor, end of World War II, political domination, collapse of the colonial system, hegemony.

Roslova G.V. (Moscow). Transformation of East German media during the reunification of Germany on the example of the newspaper «Noyes Deutschland» as the main press agency of SED (from September 1989 to March 1990)

Assistant Professor
Moscow Automobile and Road Construction State Technical University (MADI),
University of Rostock, Doctor Philosophiae (PhD)
125319, Moscow, Leningradsky prospect, 64
e-mail: galina.roslova@gmail.com

Abstract. The article continues the series of the author’s articles for the first time in Russian historical science dedicated to reactions of central and regional SED newspapers to political events in the Republic and her districts, also it is stated what was happening in the editorial offices themselves that responds the goals of the research. The article deals with the history of the main SED press agency – the newspaper «Neues Deutschland» in the period from the autumn of 1989 to the spring of 1990. Through the use of a variety of sources and two unique interviews with the newspaper’s employees, it was possible to implement the following research tasks: to trace the dynamics of the editorial office’s relationships with the district leadership and its readers and to determine whether the newspaper has taken a leading position in the dialogue with the population, in the struggle for the freedom of speech and the democratic transformation, which the people have persistently and loudly declared on the streets, or it has been unable to separate from the old party politics in conditions of an increasing crisis of power?
Keywords: German reunification, press of the East Germany, mass media, Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Berlin, Neues Deutschland

Kulbidiuk R.V. (Moscow). Prospects for the development of industry in Transnistria in conditions of unrecognized political status

Applicant for the Department of History of the Near Abroad Countries,
Faculty of History, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov,
125047, Moscow, 2nd Brestskaya street, building 30, office 1,
E-mail: kulbidiuk@mail.ru 

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the prospects for the development of industry in Transnistria in conditions of unrecognized political status. The relevance of the study is due to the extremely difficult geopolitical and geo-economic situation in the Northern Black Sea region, which inevitably affects the state of industrial production and the economy as a whole of the unrecognized Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. The initial thesis in the study is the presence in Transnistria of significant industrial potential inherited from the USSR, which the local authorities sought to preserve and develop, which favorably distinguishes Transnistria from other states and regions of the post-Soviet space. In the study, the following tasks have been solved: the periodization of the history of the development of industry in Transnistria after 1991 is proposed, with the characteristics of each of the identified stages; given a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the current situation in the industrial sector of the PMR; a forecast and description of the prospects for the development of the Pridnestrovian industry is given, taking into account the current situation and subject to the preservation of the influence of key factors. The research was carried out using comparative analysis, description, periodization method, retrospective analysis, systemic and geopolitical approaches. The author came to the following conclusion: despite the fact that the results of the industry’s work over the years of independence have led to some reduction in the gap between the actual and formal recognition of Pridnestrovie, the prospects for its development are closely interconnected with the international recognition of its status by the world community. At the same time, the ongoing slow reorientation of the former republics of the USSR towards the USA and Europe, incl. Transnistria is the result not only of the activity of external forces, but also a consequence of the lack of a well-thought-out and consistent policy towards these countries on the part of Russia.
Keywords: Transnistria, unrecognized state, industry, problems, prospects

Bakanov A.V. (Makhachkala). On the issue of the territorial-administrative structure of Dagestan in the early middle ages, the horde and post-horde epochs

Historian independent researcher
367030, Russia, Makhachkala,
e-mail: mr.bakanov85@mail.ru

Abstract. If we talk about the basic principles and rules of the territorial-administrative structure, the limits of modern Dagestan, throughout the entire period of the Early Middle Ages, then we can quite safely and confidently say that in this phase it was characterized by multidimensional and multi-tiered fragmentation. As a fact, at the presented time, this region was a bright, independent world. Here, we also denote that in the Horde and post-Horde dynamics of the space of the Country of Mountains, as in the initial medieval studies, it is indisputable that they had a mosaic structure. As a fact, during the Horde and post-Horde dynamics, as well as the era of the Early Middle Ages, Dagestan was composed by a whole set of global and local forces, different in their parameters. In relation to that, notice how they had an autochthonous and allochthonous nature. And at the same time, it should be added that the latter in the announced time, just like the former, were split into a segment. From what has been noted, it directly follows that in the presented time phases, Dagestan in its design, undoubtedly, was an extremely unprofitable, complex region. Let us add that at the indicated time, it consisted of a group of scattered independent states.
Keywords: Eurasia, Dagestan, territorial and administrative structure, Western Caspian region, Early Middle Ages, Horde and post-Horde epochs, state borders

Ivanov V.A. (Kaluga). Implementation of the legal norm level of rank in the level of position in the activities of local state institutions of Russia in the mid-nineteenth century

Ph.D in History, associate Professor,
associate Professor of the Department of History
E. Tsiolkovsky Kaluga State University.
248023, Russian Federation, Kaluga, Stepan Razin st. 26.,
E-mail: madivasv@rambler.ru

Abstract. The article based on the study of different in origin and purpose sources – legal acts and the representative corps of group personnel records of officials extracted from the state federal and regional archives, serving in the institutions of two departments – Internal affairs and State domains of Moscow, Kaluga and Tver provinces, using the comparative statistical method, disclose the use of the rules introduced by the government of Nicholas I the rules of correspondence of the rank class to the post class in the daily practice of ranks promotion and the determination of employees to official places at the local level of public administration in the mid-nineteenth century. The author concludes that in local institutions, the promotion of employees in ranks and the appointment to official vacancies was carried out in accordance with the current legal provisions: the rank of official coincided, was higher or lower than the statutory grades of regular posts. The latter is explained, first of all, by the absence of the necessary number of employees in the local personnel reserve of the required classes. The retreat from the prescriptions approved by the supreme power in the appointment of officials on class posts was the rarest exception. It is noted that in real practice, the first and perhaps the most important thing that was paid attention to when civil servants were promoted to the ranks was the official position they held, i.e., ranks were combined with positions.
Keywords: legislation, personnel records, local administration, officialdom, ranks promotion, determination to class position, correspondence of rank class to post class

Daudov A.Kh., Ovsyannikov D.V. (St. Petersburg). Islam and Ingush societies in the context of joining the Russian Empire (late 18th – first half of the 19th century)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Institute of History of St. Petersburg State University,
 Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, 199034, Mendeleevskaya line, 5,
 e-mail: a.daudov@spbu.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of the History of the Peoples of the CIS Countries, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University,
Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, 199034, Mendeleevskaya line, 5
e-mail: d.ovsiannikov@spbu.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the events of the end of the XVIII – first half of the XIX centuries associated with the entry of the mountain Ingush societies into the Russian Empire. Attention is paid to issues related to the Islamization of the Highlanders during these events. The paper presents the results of a study of the main plots from the military-political history of the region, during which the ancestors of modern Ingush adopted Russian citizenship. Special attention is paid to the issue of the struggle for flat territories between representatives of the main mountain societies of the Central Caucasus. Russian citizenship was chosen by individual societies (Nazranites, etc.) not only under the pressure of Russian military officials who doubted the loyalty of the Highlanders, but also due to the fact that the representatives of the elders of these societies were able to integrate into the new system of power relations within the empire. The question of the degree of influence of Islam on the Ingush mountaineers is also raised and the steady growth of the influence of Muslim theologians on the processes in the mountain society is traced. The relevance of the work is due to the controversy taking place in scientific circles on the degree of Islamization of the Ingush during this period and ambiguous interpretations of the pre-Islamic heritage. All this is analyzed on the basis of a systematic historical approach, using the achievements of social science and involving a wide range of material, including unpublished archival sources.
Keywords: Caucasus, Ingushetia, Ingush, tariqa, virds, murids

Vasilev A.D. (Yakutsk). Problems in the management of the Yakutsk region in the annual reports of regional heads (second quarter of the 19th century)

Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North
Siberian Branch (Yakutsk)
Assistant Researcher
Russian Academy of Sciences
1, Petrovskogo str., 677027
e-mail: aysen_vasilev@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the problems in the management of the northeastern outskirts of the Russian Empire – the Yakutsk region in the second quarter of the XIX century. in the annual reports of regional chiefs, stored in the funds of the Russian State Historical Archive (St. Petersburg). The author notes that in the conditions of the vastness of the region and the complexity of affairs in the management system of Yakutia, there were many problems associated with a lack of personnel, a lack of financial resources for maintaining the administrative apparatus, in particular, offices, which the regional chiefs explained by the lack of staffing positions. The administrative subordination of the region to the Irkutsk provincial administration negatively affected the effective functioning of the Yakut institutions, for example, as noted in the reports, the remoteness of the city of Yakutsk from the city of Irkutsk slowed down the execution of cases in Yakutia. Some of the measures taken by the bosses in the face of a desperate situation are highlighted, for example, the distribution of funds and responsibilities between various positions. However, management problems were not resolved in the 1840s. Raising the administrative status of the region, increasing the powers of the local administration, separating from the dependence of the Irkutsk province were considered by the higher Siberian administration in the middle of the 19th century as the main way to solve the above problems.
Keywords: annual reports, office work, regional head, management problems, administrative apparatus, Yakutsk region, Russian Empire

Likhachev V.G. (St. Petersburg). Industrial practice of cadets as an aspect of training personnel for the civilian fleet in marine secondary specialized educational institutions in 1946 -1953 on the example of the North-West of the RSFSR

graduate student of the “Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin”.
196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10.
E-mail: suna-kivach@yandex.ru

Abstract. The work considers industrial practice as one of the key factors in the successful training of cadets of secondary specialized educational institutions. The division of industrial practice of cadets into two components is considered: swimming industrial practice and coastal industrial practice. The main normative legal acts regulating the swimming industrial practice and onshore industrial practice are characterized. Using the example of the Leningrad Naval School, the author considers the main problems of both objective and subjective nature, which the leadership of educational institutions of the North-West of the RSFSR faced when organizing the passing of industrial practice by cadets.
Keywords: industrial practice, onshore practice, swimming practice, cadet training, civilian fleet

Zolotarev V.A. (Moscow). The need for a theory of countersurprise

Honorary Professor of the Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation,
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Doctor of Law, Member of the Berlin
medical society, Acting State Advisor of the Russian Federation of the 1st class. 195220, Russia, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect, 11, office 1N.
E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Abstract. A theoretical article by one of the largest modern military historians of Russia, Professor V.A. Zolotarev substantiates the need to develop a theory of countersurprise in the current complex military-political situation. Countersurprise does not preclude a preemptive strike against a potential enemy and implies the start of hostilities, according to a completely unexpected scenario based on the use of our own military experience accumulated during the period of strengthening Russian statehood.
Keywords: historical experience, experience of military history, countersurprise, experience of Soviet military development, special propaganda

Yanshina V.V. (Moscow). Vibrations of Creativity. Evgenia Kokoreva (explication of the project “Monument”)

member of the Union of Journalists of Russia, laureate of the first regional award among journalists and bloggers of the Moscow region “Median” (2021). Host of the Tsvetaevsky bonfires in Tarusa
195220, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky pr., 11
e-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Abstract. The publication assesses the exhibition of works of art (mainly graphics) by the artist E.Ya. Kokoreva, held in Moscow, in the house-museum of Marina Tsvetaeva. The scale of the search for artistic solutions of the author, the evidence of the original work of the artist is emphasized. The exhibition is inextricably linked with the names of A.S. Pushkin, F.M. Dostoevsky, A.M. Opekushin and M.I. Tsvetaeva. Their creativity and worldview are interconnected both in the sphere of feelings and ideas, and in the work of the artist E.Ya. Kokareva. 2022 is the year of the 130th anniversary of the birth of M.I. Tsvetaeva. It will be marked by many cultural and historical events, including new exhibitions of works by E.Ya. Kokareva.
Keywords: House-Museum of Marina Tsvetaeva, project “Monument”, A.S. Pushkin, F.M. Dostoevsky, painting

Somov V.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). How to become a Komsomol member. Reflections on the novel by N.A. Ostrovsky

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History of Russia and Auxiliary Historical disciplines, Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University named after Kozma Minin.
Ulyanov, 1, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia 603005
e-mail: somoff33@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article examines the features of the formation of the mentality of Soviet youth in the 1920s. The development of rational thinking in the conditions of the socio-economic and political crisis of the early twentieth century gave rise to unique forms of perception of the surrounding reality by representatives of this generation. Intolerance of injustice becomes the main motive of social behavior. Confidence in the correctness of the chosen path of life gives strength to participate in revolutionary transformations. The energy of the younger generation, reinforced by communist ideology, has become the main psychological factor in actively participating in the demolition of the old state apparatus. The actualization of the social component of the motivation of behavior, dedication and sacrifice in decision-making served as a model for Soviet youth during the pre-war decades. The problem is considered on the basis of the analysis of the well-known autobiographical work of N.A. Ostrovsky “How the Steel Was Tempered”. The circumstances of the author’s biography and the reaction of readers to his novel make it possible with a high degree of reliability to reconstruct significant factors in the dynamics of the worldview of Soviet youth in the 1920s and 1930s. The fate of the author of the work became for many an example of sacrificial service to the socialist fatherland, an example of Soviet patriotism. The plot of the novel largely determined the content of the educational impact on the generation of victors in the Great Patriotic War.
Keywords: USSR, Soviet society, generational approach, Soviet patriotism, youth

Vlasov N.A. (St. Petersburg). Hans Lothar von Schweinitz and Otto von Bismarck’s image of Russia

Candidate of historical sciences, Associate professor, St. Petersburg State University, Chair of Theory and History of International Relations
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
E-mail: n.vlasov@spbu.ru

Abstract. The topic of this article is the influence of the reports of H.L. von Schweinitz (1822-1901) on the evolution of O.v. Bismarck’s perception of Russia. General Schweinitz spent about 20 years in St. Petersburg – 1865-1869 as Prussian military plenipotentiary, 1876-1892 as German ambassador. In his reports to Berlin Schweinitz described various aspects of the development of the Russian state and society. The article describes life story and diplomatic activities of general Schweinitz and examines his relations with imperial chancellor. To achieve the main goal of the research the author traces the evolution of Bismarck’s opinion about Russia during the late 1870s and 1880s. The chancellor’s statements are juxtaposed with the Schweinitz narratives. As result of this analysis a lot of coinciding opinions about Russian Empire can be discovered: Bismarck’s beliefs correspond with the reports from the ambassador. Sometimes almost exact wordings can be found. The conclusion is that Schweinitz strongly influenced Bismarck’s opinion about Russia that gradually became more and more pessimistic over time.
Keywords: Hans Lothar von Schweinitz, Otto von Bismarck, Russian-German relations, image of Russia, foreign policy decision-making

Gridyaeva M.V. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Soviet scientists at the origins of the creation of academic science on Sakhalin: Mikhail Grigorievich Popov

Ph.D. in History, Leading researcher,
State historical archive of the Sakhalin region
693007, Russian Federation, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Dzerzhinsky St., 72
E-mail: grimar123@yandex.ru

Abstract. In 1946, at the state level, it was decided to create a new academic institution in the east of the country – the Sakhalin base of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Its main tasks were the earliest study of the resource potential and productive forces of South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, which, as a result of the Second World War, came under the jurisdiction of the USSR. The creation of the scientific center was carried out due to several factors – the availability of infrastructure, scientific potential, etc. This article examines one of them – the participation of scientists who laid the foundations for many areas of research, made a significant contribution to the study of the mineral and natural resources of the region. Through the prism of the biography of the outstanding Russian botanist M.G. Popov, the historical background, “pain points” of regional science at the stage of its formation and formation are characterized. The previously unexplored “Sakhalin” period of the scientist’s life is reconstructed. Previously unknown personal documents, as well as party materials, which make it possible to deepen knowledge about various aspects of the life and work of scientists, including the moral and psychological climate in the scientific team during the years of “late Stalinism”, have been introduced into scientific circulation.
Keywords: M.G. Popov, Sakhalin base of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, biological science, agrobiology, scientific activity

Sirota N.M., Mokhorov G.A. (St. Petersburg). Russian’s risks in the context of the global turbulence

Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor,
Professor of History and Philosophy Department,
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation.
190000, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Bolshaya Morskaya St., 67A.
E-mail: sirotanm@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Professor of philosophy and history department of St. Petersburg
Institute of International Economic Links, Economics and Law.
191014, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Liteiniy avenue, 42
E-mail: g.mohorov@gmail.com

Abstract. The content of the turbulence of world politics and the factors causing it – environmental and conjunctural ones – are revealed. Among the most important characteristics of the phenomenon, the authors consider the permanent instability of the international environment, the ambivalence of processes, a sharp change in trends and uncertainty of prospects. The authors see the environmental determinants of turbulence in information and communication technologies, transnational problems, economic crises, natural sources – natural, demographic. The increasing heterogeneity of the world, multidirectional national interests, and ideological confrontation are considered as opportunistic factors. According to the authors, turbulence reflects the dynamics of transformation of the existing world order into a dynamically changing polycentric world order.
In the context of the turbulent state of the international environment, the specificity of the risks and vulnerabilities of the Russian society is revealed as a consequence of the demodernization processes and the reproduction of the crisis. The main groups of factors destabilizing Russian society and posing a threat to the country’s survival are analyzed – sociogenic, ideological, political and international.
The author’s position is expressed regarding the possible ways and means of solving the accumulated problems, providing Russia with the role of an active participant in the development of the rules of the future world order. The main direction of overcoming the current risk situation for the country is seen primarily in the radical transformation of all spheres of society on the basis of high technologies, the synthesis of the best domestic and European values.
Keywords: turbulence, the new normality of the world system, risk society, crisis reproduction, social identity, national security challenges, risk management

Makedonskaya V.A. (Moscow). Review of the monograph by D.V. Khmyrova (Hieromonk Nikodim) “The Orthodox Church on Both Sides of the Soviet Border” (Journal of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia “Church Gazette”, 1922-1925)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor of National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”
Kashirskoe highway, 31, Moscow, 115409
e-mail: VAMakedonskaya@mephi.ru

Abstract. This article explores the monograph of D. V. Khmyrov (hieromonk Nicodemus), dedicated to the position of the higher ecclesiastical bodies of the Russian Church Abroad in relation to the new trends that arose in the early 1920s in Soviet Russia. The range of sources used by the author is analyzed, in particular, the main source is the journal of the ROCOR “Tserkovnyye Vedomosti”. The conclusions made by the author on the basis of the facts found in the ROCOR journal are estimated. The issue of hunger raised by the author in the early 1920s is considered. The author’s arguments on the separation of church and state are not left without attention, the consequences of certain decisions are analyzed. The conclusions made by the author on the topic of several stages in the state’s policy towards the ROC in the early 1920s are described.
Keywords: ROCOR, the magazine “Tserkovnyye Vedomosti”, Patriarch Tikhon, the seizure of church values, the church in Soviet Russia, church magazines, the famine in the 1920s

Izmozik V.S., Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg). A.A. Zdanovich is 70 years old

доктор исторических наук, профессор кафедры «История и регионоведение» Санкт-Петербургского университета
телекоммуникаций имени проф. М.А. Бонч-Бруевича.
Россия, 193232, Санкт-Петербург, пр. Большевиков, 22.
E-mail: izmozik@mail.ru

Главный редактор журнала «Клио»
доктор исторических наук, профессор, почетный работник высшего профессионального образования РФ, главный научный сотрудник ГАОУ ВО ЛО «Ленинградский государственный университет имени А.С. Пушкина».
196605, Санкт-Петербург, г. Пушкин, Петербургское шоссе, д. 10.
e-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Аннотация. Статья приурочена к 70-летию со дня рождения известного российского историка доктора исторических наук, профессора А.А. Здановича. Авторы отмечают основные вехи жизни и деятельности юбиляра, подчеркивают заметный вклад ученого в исследование истории российских спецслужб. Обращено внимание на трудности, с которыми столкнулся Александр Александрович в своей научной карьере, на то, с каким упорством этот талантливый и трудолюбивый человек преодолевал трудности, возникавшие в процессе подготовки кандидатской и докторской диссертаций. Отмечается, что занятие историей для А.А. Здановича – это его главное жизненное занятие, естественная среда обитания.
Ключевые слова: история спецслужб России, история КГБ, история ФСБ, история внешней разведки, история контрразведки

Izmozik V.S., Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg). A.M. Plekhanov (10/16/1931-01/13/2022, Moscow). In memory of a historian

Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor at the Department of History and Regional Studies at the Bonch-Bruevich St. Petersburg State University of Telecommunications. Russia, 193232, St. Petersburg, Bolshevikov av., 22.
E-mail: izmozik@mail.ru

Editor-in-chief of the journal “Klio”
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honorary Worker
of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation,
consulting professor of the “Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin”.
196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10.
E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is dedicated to the memory of a prominent Russian historian, a major specialist in the history of domestic special services A.M. Plekhanov. The authors note the significant contribution made by Alexander Mikhailovich to the study of many aspects of the history of the Cheka-OGPU, especially to the history of the activities of F.E. Dzerzhinsky. It is especially emphasized that A.M. Plekhanov valued the honesty and objectivity of the researcher above all else in historical science. The authors argue that the works of the scientist are an example of research skill and human honesty.
Keywords: history of special services, F.E. Dzerzhinsky, A.V. Timireva, history of the Cheka-OGPU, 1920s.