Klio #01 (193) 2023

Karpova V.V. (St. Petersburg). The activity of pupils’ agricultural labor squads during the World War I in the documents of the Russian State Historical Archive

Veronika Viktorovna Karpova,
Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Associate Professor of Department
of Russian History, Pushkin Leningrad
State University, St.-Petersburg, Russian Federation
196605, Russia, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10
e-mail: nika7676@mail.ru

Abstract. The history of pupils’ agricultural labor squads in Russia in 1914-17 can be viewed in various aspects: as a page in the history of charity; through the prism of the interaction of government and society in extreme conditions; as one of the directions of educational work of educational institutions; as an element of the history of everyday life of Russians during the First World War. The article presents an analysis of unpublished documents stored in the Russian State Historical Archive, which reflect various aspects of the process of formation and activity of squads throughout the country. 

The documents are concentrated in several funds, because there were different types of educational institutions in the Russian Empire, subordinate to different departments. Clerical documents prevail: reports and business correspondence. They make it possible to identify both typical features and problems of the activities of pupils’ squads, as well as their regional peculiarities. Normative acts make it possible to trace the process of transformation of individual regional initiatives into an all-Russian movement controlled and directed by government structures. Sources of personal origin (diaries) show the daily life of the squads, the attitude of the pupils’ themselves to this activity.

It is necessary to attract additional sources to create a complete picture, because the information in the documents of the Department of Agriculture and the Holy Synod is fragmentary, there are no reports on some school districts in the fund of the Ministry of Public Education, sources of personal origin are not enough.

Keywords: pupils’ agricultural labor squads, World War I, Russian State Historical Archive, charitable assistance, historical sources

Volintsev M.S. (St. Petersburg). Swedish press about the February Revolution of 1917 (based on reports from Russian agents in Sweden)

Postgraduate student of the Department of Contemporary History of Russia, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University.
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5.
Assistant of the Department of History of Culture, State and Law,
St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI”.
197022, Russia, St. Petersburg, st. Professor Popov, 5, building 5, room 5323.
e-mail: maximvolintsev@gmail.com 

Abstract. The subject of the paper is the study of the reaction of the Swedish periodical press to the revolutionary events of 1917 in Russia based on the reports of the Russian military intelligence in Sweden. The paper is based on materials from the Russian State Archive of the Navy. Despite the revolution and the change in the political system of Russia, the Russian intelligence network of the Baltic Sea continued its activities. Regular reports were produced, among other things containing valuable information about the mood in the Swedish press. For these purposes, a huge array of Swedish periodicals was processed, which made it possible to trace the evolution of Swedish public opinion and the positions of the political forces of the kingdom according to newspaper materials, including official newspapers of the Swedish political parties. The Swedish press at first enthusiastically reacted to the events of February 1917, but soon became disillusioned with the new Russian authorities and the course they were pursuing. The author comes to the conclusion that the Swedish press, despite some disagreements, was generally in solidarity with the pessimistic assessment of the prospects for the development of the Russian state and the ability of the Russian people to preserve the democratic achievements of the revolution. The February Revolution and the activities of the Provisional Government, having received fairly wide coverage in the Swedish press in the spring of 1917, were rapidly leaving their line of sight, displaced by Sweden’s own problems, primarily the complication of relations with Great Britain and economic turmoil. In general, the February revolutionary events in Russia for the Swedish press remained an exciting, but far from a paramount event. Particular attention is paid to the consideration by the press of the situation in Finland, which continued to be a zone of close interest of the Swedish society despite the general weakening of attention to the events in Russia by the summer of 1917.
Keywords: Provisional government, newspaper, press, Russia, February Revolution, Finland, Sweden

Zalunin A.O. (Moscow). Personality and Intellectual Heritage of Byzantine Scholar Macarius of Ancyra: Historiography and Problems of Study

PhD-student, Department of Middle Ages, Faculty of History,
Lomonosov Moscow State University
117133, Moscow, Russia, Tyoply Stan st. 21/6, ap. 227
e-mail: andrei227@mail.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the history of biographic and literary heritage studies of the ΧVth c. Byzantine intellectual metropolitan Macarius of Ancyra. Until now, there is no special study that would analyze all the publications devoted to the topic. In the article the works are analyzed that were published since mid. ΧVIIth c. and up to our days. The work highlights the main stages of the historiographical tradition dedicated to Macarius of Ancyra. At the first stage, the main attention οf the Catholic and Orthodox polemicists was paid to the anti-Latin treatise «Against the errors of Latins». For a long time, the attitudes towards the activities and intellectual heritage of the Byzantine metropolitan depended on the confessional affiliation of the researcher who wrote about it. In the works of western scholars a negative attitude towards Macarius of Ancyra was entrenched and persisted until the XXth c. A new stage of study was caused by the discovery and partial publication of documentary sources, as well as a number of writings by Macarius of Ancyra. These sources were related to the history of the prolonged canonical process of Macarius against Patriarch Matthew I. Thanks to the efforts of European and American Catholic scientists, this process was studied in detail. This allowed to expand our knowledge about the history of the Byzantine church in the beginning of the ΧVth c., as well as to reconstruct the biography of Metropolitan Macarius for the first time. At the beginning of the ΧΧΙ c. researchers’ attention turned again to the polemical treatise of Macarius. This voluminous oeuvre has not been previously considered as a source on the history of Greek-Latin relations. In this time the first critical edition of this work was completed, including a commentary in which the main theological ideas of the treatise were analyzed. Despite the significant progress in biographic and literary heritage studies of Macarius of Ancyra, the work is still far from complete.

Keywords: Historiography, Macarius of Ancyra, Byzantine Intellectualism, the History of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Buzantine anti-Latin Polemics

Artsybashev E.N. (Tula). Research and educational activities of the intelligentsia of the Tula province in the late XIX – early XX centuries: problems of Russian historiography

Postgraduate student of Tula State University
300012, Tula, Lenin Ave, 92
e-mail: egor030492@mail.ru

Abstract. This article discusses the main works on the history of research and educational activities of the Tula intelligentsia at the turn of the 19th – 20th centuries.

The historiography of the issue under study is divided into three periods: pre-revolutionary (late XIX – 1917), Soviet (from 1917 to the present 90s of the XX century) and post-Soviet (n. 90 – to the present). In the pre-revolutionary period, research topics were closely related to the pressing issues of that time. The second, Soviet, stage is characterized by the creation of prerequisites and the beginning of the formation of intellectual studies into a separate branch of historical science, a significant expansion of research topics. The third period completes the formation of intellectual studies as a separate branch of historical knowledge, the methodological base of research is expanding.

The main topic that was in the focus of attention of the authors in the pre-revolutionary period was the question of the goals and methods of achieving universal literacy and the dissemination of natural science knowledge among the people. In the Soviet period, a comparative analysis of the conditions for the formation of public organizations that carried out educational and scientific activities is carried out. In the third period, the stratification of research by professional groups of the intelligentsia and the study of certain aspects of their activities within individual provinces is gaining momentum.
Keywords: intelligentsia, intellectual studies, historiography, Tula province, education

Korzun A.A. (Moscow). The Roman theater in Side: the plots of sculptural frieze

PhD student, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Faculty of History, Department of General History of Art,
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4
e-mail: Arina_korzun@mail.ru

Abstract. Created in the 2nd century, the relief decoration of Side theater (Asia Minor) rarely comes to the attention of researchers due to its poor preservation. Apart from archaeological publications on the architecture of the building, the frieze and its plots are cited as analogies for the sculptures of other theaters in the region – Perge, Nysa, Hierapolis. The article discusses the compositional features of the frieze, its storylines, the specifics of iconography. Special attention is paid to mythological subjects that are rare for the monumental decoration of public, in particular theatrical, buildings – “the abandoned Ariadne” and “the return of Hephaestus to Olympus”. Being the part of narrative cycle dedicated to the life of Dionysus, these scenes acquire additional meanings in the context of theatrical culture and the socio-cultural environment of the Empire. The overall composition of the frieze is considered taking into account the important cultural and religious trends of the era – the concept of the “golden age”, the triumphal and “militant” ideas of Dionysian religion, the contingence of the cult of the emperor with that of deity. The interpretation of the mythological narrative is supported by artistic tradition as well as by literary sources. Particular attention is paid to Catullus, Horace, Ovid and their interpretation of the plot with abandoned Ariadne, as well as the sophist Aelius Aristides and his prose hymn to Dionysus. The author highlights the original features, gives the reasons to particular composition design – division of the frieze into subjects of “peaceful life” and “scenes of war”. Finally, determines the place of the reliefs in the general decorative program of the theater and the significance of the cult of Dionysus for the divine pantheon of the very polis.

Keywords: Dionysus, theater, Side, abandoned Ariadne, “Golden Age”

Kholev R.R. (Moscow). Early sculptural busts and all’antica representation of Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici

Ph. D. student
Moscow State University
Faculty of History, Division of the History of Art
119991, Leninskie Gory 1, Moscow, Russian Federation

Abstract. The text focuses on the early sculptural portraits of Cosimo I de’ Medici by Baccio Bandinelli and Benvenuto Cellini, which depict the Duke of Florence as a victorious antique ruler and military leader. This article discusses the origins of Cosimo’s all’antica portraiture, dating back to the art of the second half of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, and analyzes the differences between the busts of Bandinelli and Cellini, which led to their different positions in the artistic representation of the Duke of Florence. Whereas Bandinelli’s portrait was placed in the duke’s private chambers, Cellini’s sculpture was «exiled» to the island of Elba, the geographical and semantical outskirts of Cosimo’s dominion and cultural rhetoric. The analysis, which chronologically follows the artistic competition between Bandinelli and Cellini at the Florentine court, focuses on the representation of Duke Cosimo as the new Augustus and the role of the pseudo-antique armor which creates a heroic image of the ruler all’antica. The analysis shows that Bandinelli’s busts are focused on attributes and symbols which represent Cosimo as the emperor Augustus, while Cellini’s bronze portrait and its marble copy represent the Duke of Florence primarily as a fierce and threatening ruler. Cellini’s interpretation was out of step with the cultural rhetoric of the duke’s late reign, aimed at glorifying Cosimo-Augustus as the giver of Peace, Justice and Abundance to Florence. This inconsistency with the Duke’s cultural rhetoric determined the unenviable fate of the Cellini’s works. The nuances of the iconographic programme turn out to be more important than the artistic qualities of Bandinelli’s and Cellini’s works in the context of the glorification of the Duke of Florence as the new Augustus.
Keywords: Florence, Mannerism, bust, iconography, Cosimo I de’ Medici, Baccio Bandinelli, Benvenuto Cellini, Augustus

Philippov A.V. (St. Petersburg). On the peculiarities of chronology, dates and periodization of the history of Japan

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor,
Head of Department of Japanology,
Faculty of Asian and African Studies, Saint Petersburg State University,
199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7/9.
PhilAlex2005@mail.ru, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9894-8304

Abstract. The article is devoted to the peculiarities of periodization, dating and chronology of the history of Japan. The original Japanese methods of periodization of history, which differ from Western standards, as well as chronology and calendar systems common in Japan, are presented. The relevance of the publication is related to the analysis of Japanese methods of chronology and periodization in a comprehensive and integrated form, although Japanologists are well familiar with each individual method. In particular, the model of chronology from the founding of Japan, which went out of use after the end of World War II, is presented. The system of era names of the reign of the emperors, still in used today, is also considered in detail. For a long time in Japan, the system of the zodiac sixty-year cycle, adopted from China, was widely used (it was officially abandoned only after the Meiji Revolution). The article deals with some very specific Japanese periodization systems, such as by the location of capitals or by the dynasties of real rulers (shoguns, etc.). The system of periodization familiar to Western historians (from antiquity to modern history) is correlated with the usual Japanese and English terminology. The specificity of the methods of dating and periodization under consideration are presented on the background of historical evolution of society. The presented materials allow not only to learn about the specific nature of the Japanese chronology, calendar system and periodization of history, but also to get a complete picture of the features of the historical evolution of Japan.
Keywords: periodization of the history of Japan, chronology, calendar system, era names nengo, the sixty-year zodiac cycle, historical era jidai, Emperor Jimmu, theory of socio-economic formations

Grunsbergs I. (Tokyo, Japan), Philippov A.V. (St. Petersburg). To the origins of Edo Castle (ancestor of Tokyo – prehistory)

Independent Researcher,
220-0206, Tokyo, Japan
e-mail: PhilAlex2005@mail.ru 

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor,
Head of Department of Japanology,
Faculty of Asian and African Studies, Saint Petersburg State University,
199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9.
e-mail: PhilAlex2005@mail.ru, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9894-8304

Abstract. The article is devoted to the origins of the Edo settlement, which later turned into the capital of the Tokugawa Shoguns, and today is known as Tokyo. The origin of the region dates back to the appearance of the Asakusa Temple in the 7th century and subsequently the port of Edo. The peculiarities of the economic and geographical position of Kanto were predetermined, on the one hand, the existence of an impassable (by land and by water due to swamps and shoals) delta of the Tone-gawa River, which divided the region into western and eastern parts. On the other hand, the specifics consisted in the presence of harsh mountains and the “seven hills of the Musashino plateau”, with cliffs and gorges unsuitable for development. The village of Edo in Musashi was the junction of these two elements (stone and water, mountains and swamps). The region was difficult to access, in the old days the way went roundabout through the mountain tract of “eastern mountains” Tosando. So, Musashi Province in the 7th century belonged to the jurisdiction of Tosando region. Only a further and later reorganization made the province part of the Tokaido “Eastern seas” region. Edo Castle was built in 1456-1457 by the talented fortifier Ota Dokan, who took into account both the military and economic functions of this place. Nevertheless, for a long time Edo was used only as an outpost in the eastern Kanto, without showing a tendency to turn into a political and administrative center. The situation remained the same during the “warring provinces” period, when Hojo Soun became the ruler of Kanto (with residence in Odawara Castle). Edo became a significant political and economic center only since the time of Tokugawa Ieyasu, when Kanto lands were transferred to him (from the 1590s and 1600s; with the involvement of all state resources).
Keywords: Tokyo, Edo castle, Musashi province, seven hills of the Musashino plateau, Tosando, Tokaido, Chichibu-daira clan, Edo Shigenaga, Hojo Soun, Tokugawa Ieyasu, Odawara castle, Eastern Kanto, Western Kanto

Gotin M.B. (Krasnodar). The Libyan crisis as a challenge to the EU CSDP: the US position

Postgraduate Student
Department of General History and International Relations
Kuban State University
350040, Russia, Krasnodar, Stavropol st., 149,
E-mail: maxim_leto96@mail.ru

Abstract. The Arab Spring was a significant geopolitical phenomenon that required an immediate reaction from the European Union. The need to take a firm stand on the events in Libya in 2011 revealed the internal split between the EU countries. The inability of the European Union to act independently within the framework of the CSDP led to Washington’s intervention in the conflict, as well as the formation of another «coalition of the willing» within NATO. The intervention in Libya was initially prepared by the United States, France and the United Kingdom, however, Washington sought to distance itself from direct participation in the military operation, not wanting to be drawn into a war in one more Islamic country. Based on the analysis of the Libyan conflict, the author focuses on the position of the United States regarding the preservation of the institution of CSDP within the EU and its development as a «European pillar» of NATO. The White House, as part of the intervention, once again clearly outlined its position, formulated in the late 2000s, regarding support for the development of the EU CSDP institute. The Libyan conflict in particular reminded the European Union that it has its own area of responsibility, within which it will have to act independently in the future, in the context of the ongoing US pivot to Asia.
Keywords: Libyan crisis, EU, CSDP, NATO, USA, intervention

Osmachenko M. V. (St. Petersburg). Naryshkin’s coup of 1682 and the reasons for its failure

3rd year postgraduate student of the Institute of History of St. Petersburg State University,
Laboratory researcher,
199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya embankment, 7-9
e-mail: maksim.osmachenko@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the events of the spring of 1682, when, after the death of Tsar Fyodor Alekseevich, contrary to tradition, his younger brother Peter was proclaimed tsar bypassing his elder brother Ivan. Powerful Naryshkins clan, which entered into a political alliance with the entourage of the late tsar, stood behind the young tsar Peter. The illegality of such a decision was obvious to everyone, but initially did not cause open opposition. Confident in victory, the Naryshkins underestimated their political opponents and were almost completely exterminated as a result of retaliatory actions. In mid-May, the rebel streltsy defeated the boyar estates and destroyed most of the leaders of the “party” of the Naryshkins and their allies. Ivan and Peter were proclaimed tsars, which marked the beginning of a unique period of diarchy in Russia. The focus of the author of the article is the study of the balance of power at court, the formation of possible alliances, the goals of the warring parties, the definition of the role of the most significant figures in the events described. This article is the first detailed study in historiography, fully devoted to the palace coup of April 1682 and the analysis of the reasons for its failure, most of which, as shown in the article, consisted of mistakes made by the political forces that came to power.
Keywords: seventeenth century, Russian history, princess Sophia, Peter the Great, political history

Latonova A.V. (Moscow). Alexander I in the confrontation with Napoleon: assessments of the German and British press 1812-1815

the applicant
Department of Russian History of the 19th Century
– Early 20th Century, Faculty of History,
 Lomonosov Moscow State University,
199992, 27/4 Lomonosovskiy prospect, Moscow, Russian Federation.
e-mail: iskrenne_vasha_aa@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the specifics of the image of the Russian Emperor Alexander I in the representation of the British and German press of 1812-1815, i.e. the period of his confrontation with Napoleon Bonaparte. The dynamics of the image of Alexander I is traced from the defeated ruler of Russia to the victor, the liberator of Europe, while the assessments of British and German correspondents regarding the same events are compared. The conscious representations of Alexander I, as well as his presentations from the pen of correspondents, are considered as part of the key episodes of the confrontation with Napoleon (Borodino, the abandonment of Moscow, the transfer of hostilities to German lands, the battles of Lutzen, Bautzen, Dresden, Kulm, Leipzig) and the travels of the Russian emperor in Europe. In addition, the article examines the images of Alexander I on the pages of German and British newspapers during his triumph in Paris, as well as his representations during a military review in the vicinity of Vertu. In conclusion, it is stated that during the period under review, the assessments of both sides have changed to diametrically opposite from the initial ones, and conclusions are drawn about the reasons for such a change.

Keywords: Alexander I, Napoleon, British press, German press, imagology, War of the Sixth Coalition, War of the Seventh Coalition

Skutnev A.V. (Kirov). Reorganization of Russian Orthodoxal clergy during the Alexander II church reform in Vyatka governorate

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Vyatka State University,
Head of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law,
610027, Russia, Kirov, st. Krasnoarmeyskaya, 26, office 311
e-mail: skutnev@mail.ru

Abstract. The goal of the article is to research the reform of Orthodox parishes after the church reform of Alexander II. The relevance of the study is justified by a huge interest in history of the Church and social history of the country amongst researchers.

The article is dedicated to realization of the clergy reform project with regional peculiarities taken into account. Orthodox clergy often was criticized by contemporaries for a lack of true clergy „life” and communication between the church and the churchgoers. The churchgoers traditionally influenced the clergy’s activity through the institution of church wardens. The church warden was a necessary part of resolution of mostly material problems. Their role in other fields was limited by law.

In 1864 the church patronages were created. Because of them we see the liberalisation of religious life through the introduction of the elective principle and provision of limited autonomy for the patronages.

We can observe the diversity of social life in different Russian regions. In the Vyatka eparchy the experience of creating church patronages was especially successful. Patronages were made in a significant amount of parishes and collected some impressive funds for the Church.

At the same time neither church wardens nor patronages could help breathe life into clergy life. Relations with parishes were extremely formalised by the government, which tried to regulate it exclusively via law.

The clergy and the churchgoers’ interests were different and weren’t taken into accoun when the reform was made. Churchgoers’ hopes for influencing the clergy life on a par with clergymen were in vain, and clergymen saw church wardens and church patronages as extra money collectors, and moreover, were planning on managing money by themselves without patronages. At the same time this experience has shown that churchgoers have a social demand for participating in a parish life and that they are willing to spend great money on it.
Keywords: Russian orthodox church, church warden, church patronages, church reform, Vyatka diocese

Nesterova A.A. (Moscow). The activities of the Moscow City Duma to reform medicine and the sanitary condition of the city of Moscow in 1863-1869

postgraduate student of the Department of State and Municipal Administration of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119992, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4
E-mail: anastaciazueva@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the activities of the Moscow City Duma and its head A.A. Shcherbatov to improve the sanitary condition of the city in the 1860s, as well as to expand the accessibility of medicine for the general population. In this activity, the most significant areas were the search for funding for socially significant events, the improvement of the structure of sanitary and medical services. The first direction in the work of the Duma was to identify the origins of the problem in order to further search for the most optimal ways to solve it. Following this, reforms in the sanitary sector were launched in Moscow, such as the establishment of a temporary sanitary commission, the organization of migration control and round-the-clock duty of doctors, and the delivery of clean drinking water. The struggle against the epidemic of 1866 had a serious impact on the nature of the reforms and their topics.
Keywords: history of Russia, A.A. Shcherbatov, Moscow City Duma, history of local self-government, reforming medicine and the sanitary condition of the city

Kazantsev V.P. (St. Petersburg). The experience of private military shipbuilding in Russia in the context of the threat of armed conflict with Great Britain and France in the early 60s of the XIX century

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Rector’s Assistant,
head of the department of history
St. Petersburg University “REAVIZ” Academician,
State Counselor First Class,
Honored Worker of the Higher School of the Russian Federation,
 Honored Military Specialist of the Russian Federation,
lieutenant general
198099, Russia, St. Petersburg, Kalinina st., 8, bldg. 2, lit. A.
e-mail: spb@reaviz.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to Russian private military shipbuilding. Against the background of the diplomatic intervention of European states, caused by an uprising in the Kingdom of Poland, which was part of the Russian Empire, there was a threat of an armed attack from the sea on St. Petersburg and Kronstadt by a joint Anglo-French armored squadron in 1863. The capital of the Russian state, in the face of the danger that arose, turned out to be defenseless, since the presence of iron armored ships in England and France reduced to zero the combat effectiveness of the wooden screw fleet of the Russian Empire in the Baltic Sea. Russia did not yet have such warships, so the Naval Ministry in the shortest possible time organized a large-scale construction of the first domestic iron armored boats at private shipbuilding and mechanical plants. On the example of the interaction of the Shipbuilding Department of the Maritime Department with the private Nevsky Iron-Making Mechanical and Ship Plant, the organization of the construction of iron armored boats exclusively from Russian iron is considered. The terms of the contract of the Shipbuilding Department of the Maritime Department with two classmates at the Mining Institute, mining engineers, Colonel P.F. Semyannikov and retired Lieutenant Colonel V.A. Poletika for the construction of three iron armored ships hulls at their plant are analyzed. Such cooperation is interesting in that P.F. Semyannikov, at the time of the conclusion of the contract, was an official for special assignments at the Department of Mining and Salt Affairs of the Ministry of Finance, and V.A. Poletika was previously seconded to the office of His Imperial Majesty to study in the mining department, but by the time the treaty was signed, he had already retired. In addition, using the materials of the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire, an idea is given of the regulatory framework in the field of private military shipbuilding.
Keywords: Private Russian military shipbuilding, mining engineers, Colonel P.F. Semyannikov, retired lieutenant colonel V.A. Poletika, Nevsky Iron-Making Mechanical and Ship Plant, iron armor, teak lining, ship mechanisms, organization of the construction of iron hulls for the first Russian battleships in the second half of the 19th century

Zubov A.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Training of officers of the fleet of the Russian Empire late XIX – early XX century

Senior Lecturer of the Department of History and Personnel Management
Federal State Budgetary
Educational Institution
of Higher Education “St. Petersburg State
University of Civil Aviation
named after Chief Marshal of Aviation A.A. Novikov”.
196210, St. Petersburg, 38 Pilotov Street,
e-mail: aleksey.zubow2013@yandex.ru

Abstract. Modernization of the Russian fleet in the late 19th and early 20th centuries demanded and entailed a reform of the officer training system, the implementation of which was not limited to the structuring of military educational institutions and the renewal of curricula, but also affected the principles of service. Reforming the training system was based on well-developed and discussed collegial decisions, without affecting, however, the estate (mainly noble) principle of recruiting naval command personnel and not relying on modern conceptual provisions of the naval doctrine, which made the transformations contradictory. The hypertrophy of the course for specialization, technicalization and practical orientation infringed upon training in socio-economic, socio-political and military-pedagogical disciplines, the lack of knowledge and skills in which turned out to be critical in the conditions of revolutionary crises.
Keywords: Russian navy, navy, naval corps, naval education, Baltic navy, Black sea navy

Cherepanov A.V. (Moscow). Ideological and political struggle for unity of command in the Red Army at the turn of 1927-1934

Postgraduate student of the Institute of History and Politics,
departments of modern Russian history,
Moscow Pedagogical State University
119421, Russia, Moscow, 38th quarter of the Southwest, building 1.
E-mail: aleks.1100@mail.ru 

Abstract. Affecting many high-ranking party and military figures, mass arrests of the late 1930s entailed personnel confusion in senior positions. The lack of initiative, fear of taking responsibility and general suspicion spread from party circles to all Soviet society. In this sense, the army has become the best indicator of the scale of the rocked repressive flywheel – the cornerstone of the fight against the internal party opposition. The system of strict subordination and discipline not only did not deter the Red Army from being involved in political discussions, but on the contrary even intensified interest in political life. Ordinary Red Army soldiers and junior commanders monitored the events carried out by order of the party – collectivization and industrialization. Additionally attracting a number of his own sources, the author tried to show that one of the reasons for repression in the Red Army should be sought in the plantations of united command. The struggle for power and the intrigues of the top Soviet leadership led to the confrontation of party ideologists. Faced with each other, the leaders of different ideological and political movements tried to extend their influence to their subordinate structures. Many military men caught up in political discussions were doomed to death. Whether the hobby for politics served as a starting point in the need to “decapitate” the Red Army or it was the struggle of its own army elites – a question the author is trying to answer.
Keywords: Intra-army opposition, Red army, ideological-political struggle, introduction of one-man command, Tolmachev Academy, Belarusian military district

Pilishvili G.D. (Kursk). The activities of the organs of the Office of the People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs in the formation and strengthening of the operational and service component in the activities of the fighter battalions on the territory of the Voronezh region in the summer of 1941

Candidate of historical science
Associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal Administration
Kursk State University
305000, Kursk, Radishchev street, 33
E-mail: pilishvili.georg @ yandex.ru

Abstract. In the scientific article, involving not only archive data, but also an extensive analysis of the scientific literature of military historians, an analysis was made of the work of the UNKVD bodies of the Voronezh region in the formation and strengthening of the operational and service activities of the fighter battalions formed in the summer of 1941. An important role in this was played by a document from the state archive of the Voronezh area “Temporary regulation on the service of fighter battalions to combat enemy airborne assault and saboteurs.”

The protection of the Soviet rear was one of the most important state tasks. Fighter battalions of the NKVD began to form from the first months of hostilities in 1941. It was a difficult time during the retreat of the Red Army on all fronts. The time of the enemy’s occupation of a significant amount of Soviet territory. On July 19, 1941, N.A. Vorotnikov was approved by Major N.A. Belenko “Temporary Regulations on the Service of Fighter Battalions to Fight Enemy Airborne Assaulters and Saboteurs”, which explained in detail the main aspects of the operational and service activities of destroyer battalions: pursuit, encirclement and destruction of enemy gangs; outfit briefing; pursuit of gangs and singles of the enemy; verification of persons and documents; the service of the fighters of the fighter battalions, as well as the rules for the use of weapons in business.

Fighter battalions showed their effectiveness not only in maintaining strictly military order in the rear throughout 1941, but also in combat operations with the enemy, as was the case, for example, during the defense of Voronezh in the summer of 1942.
Keywords: extermination battalions, World War II, Voronezh region, People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the USSR, combat activities, service activities, operational activities

Balandina O.A. (St. Petersburg). From the Russian Liberation Army to the partisans (little-known pages of the history of Leningrad partisan formations, 1943–1944)

candidate of historical sciences, leading archivist, Central state archive of historical and political documents of Saint-Petersburg,
191015, Russia, St. Petersburg, 39 Tavrichesky str.
e-mail: olesya.balandina@inbox.ru

Abstract. The article raises the question of the participation of defectors from collaborationist units (the concept from the time of the war is used – vlasovtsy, roavtsy) in the partisan movement on the territory of the Leningrad region in 1943–1944. The author reveals the motives of their betrayal, and also examines the actions taken by the stumbled Soviet citizens to atone for their guilt before the motherland. Based on the study of the materials of the Leningrad headquarters of the partisan movement (F. R-116 L) and the collection of memories of partisans (F. R-4000. Op. 10,12,18) stored in the Central State Archive of Historical and Political Documents of St. Petersburg, the article highlights the vicissitudes of the service of former collaborators in the ranks of the people’s avengers. Methods of propaganda processing by partisan agents of Vlasov military formations are revealed. The procedure for filtering fighters from the RLA is presented. It is told about how partisan commanders checked them during the performance of dangerous combat missions. The attitude of fellow partisans to the Vlasov replenishment is shown, the characteristic of the moods of the defectors themselves is given. The work counts the number of former Russian Liberation Army servicemen who fought in the thirteen Leningrad partisan brigades. At the same time, the course of the formation of the four “Vlasov detachments” and their combat operations are described in detail. Attention is paid to disciplinary violations among defectors and, among other things, the topic of creating “penal companies” to punish the perpetrators is touched upon. The conclusion presents the fate of former Russian Liberation Army servicemen after the disbandment of partisan brigades.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Leningrad region, enemy rear, Leningrad headquarters of the partisan movement, partisans, Russian Liberation Army, Vlasov, partisan sabotage, partisan brigade.

Krasnyuk I.I. (Moscow). Echo of Breslau. The fate of the Soviet JS-2 tank No. 537, known from the photograph of A.V. Egorov «Musical Moment» (part I)

doctor of pharmaceutical sciences, professor, PhD, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), A.P. Nelyubin Institute of pharmacy, department of analytical, physical and colloidal chemistry.
127254, Russia, Moscow, Goncharova str., 8/13, apartment 12.
E-mail: krasnyuk.79@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the historical investigation of the circumstances of the last battle of the JS-2 heavy tank No.537, widely known from the photograph of A.V. Egorov «Musical Moment». A comprehensive study of the key photos of the tank before and after the fighting in april-may 1945 during the storming of the german city of Breslau by the Red Army (currently, the polish city of Wroclaw). Based on the study of archival materials (reports, orders, maps), as well as the memories of the participants in the storming of the city, the exact location of the action was established, and a historical reconstruction of the events in chronological order was proposed, the participants of which were the heroic crew and its combat vehicle. The author comes to the conclusion that the JS-2 tank No.537 marked in the photo, belonging to the 222nd separate tank Ropshinsky Red Banner Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky and Kutuzov regiment (222 otp), attacked 271 infantry regiment from 181 infantry division in the offensive zone (from 04/23/1945 as part of the 22 rifle corps), and was lost in battle on april 26, 1945 in Breslau at the junction of Legnitska street to Striegauer platz. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of the warring parties in this area. The composition, number and affiliation of the enemy units defending these quarters have been established. The damage to the tank has been studied in detail. On the basis of which assumptions are made about the reasons for the tank’s failure – the fire of enemy artillery or assault guns. Special attention is paid to the identification and fate of the JS-2 tank crew, No.537, which literally reached victory.
Keywords: JS-2 heavy tank No.537, musical moment, assault on Breslau, lieutenant Degtyarev B.I., foreman Kargopolov K.A., private Kazeikin I.A., private Kalyagin B.V., 222 separate tank regiment

Berkutov A.S. (Moscow). Activities of the NKVD–NKGB operational groups of the USSR in cities occupied by the Red army (1944-1945)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher,
Research Center Fundamental Military-Historical Problems
Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
123001, Russia, Moscow, B. Sadovaya str., 14
E-mail: berkutov-andrey@mail.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the activities of the operational groups of the NKVD–NKGB of the USSR in the cities occupied by the Red Army. The aim of the study is to prove the hypothesis that the activities of the operational groups of the NKVD-NKGB of the USSR were a necessary stage in the transition from a state of war to peaceful life. For this purpose, the documents of the State Archive of the Russian Federation were analyzed, including reports by the People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs L.P. Beria to the Chairman of the State Defense Committee I.V. Stalin (“Stalin’s Special Folder”) on the results of the activity of the troops protecting the rear of the Active Red Army; the reports highlight the main information that has an impact on ensuring public safety; the tasks, composition and main activities of the operational groups of the NKVD-NKGB of the USSR are considered. To identify trends in the activities of operational groups of the NKVD-NKGB of the USSR, a structural analysis of documents was carried out. The main trends that have a decisive impact on ensuring public safety were the institutionalization of organizational forms of operational groups of the NKVD-NKGB of the USSR and the increase in the forces attracted by them to conduct events. Depending on this, methods of ensuring public safety were developed with increased efficiency and scale of actions.
Keywords: NKVD troops, restoration of territories, State Defense Committee, task force, operational situation, cities occupied by the Red Army, protection of the rear of the front, degree of safety, authorized NKVD

Lapina I.Yu., Kargapoltsev S.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Globalization Transhumanism as a destructive doctrine of legitimization of neo-pagan occultism, neocolonialism and Russphobia (part 1)

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. The publication analyzes the circumstances of the globalization processes in the modern world, also known as the “Fourth industrial revolution” or the “Great Reset”. The system components of this doctrine are determined: total digitalization and population control, hybrid wars, genetically modified viruses, epidemics, medical-sanitary dictate, hunger, gender transhumanism, primitivization of cultural educational standards, neopagan occultism, ecumenism, Russphobia, Americanism, neocolonialism, etc. The organized chaos of “Arab Spring”, the Nazi takeover in Ukraine, and the COVID-19 pandemic are cited as examples of globalist expansionism. The point of view is argued that Russia is an independed “Center of Power”, forming a geopolitical median between the Collective West (USA, Great Britain, Euro Union), Southeast Asia (China, India) and the Middle East (Arab countries, Turkey, Iran). In combination with resource self-sufficiency and a “Nuclear Shield”, this is a basic advantage in protecting the national interests and territorial integrity of the state.

An opinion is expressed that the mail problems of the Russian Federation are import dependence and the split of the elites into patriots and pro-Western liberals. A clear vision by the President of Russia of ways to implement the necessary solutions to overcome external challenges and achieve stabilization of the domestic political space and the revival of a self-sufficient national economy is noted.

The presented material is supported by a set of quotations and statistical data with links to primary sources, regulatory framework and representative literature.
Keywords: Globalization, gender transhumanism, Collective West, Special military operation, COVID-19, pandemic, medical-sanitary dictate, Satanism, tolerance, liberalism, Russphobia, neocolonialism, Russia, Vladimir Putin, Ukraine, USA, Great Britain, European Union

Arkhipova A.I. (Yakutsk). Vice Governor of the Yakutsk Region V.L. Priklonsky is an intellectual official

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Researcher Institute for Humanitarian Research and North Indigenous People Problems SB RAS
Russian Federation, Yakutsk, 677007, 1, Petrovskaya st.
e-mail: ali-titova@rambler.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the biography, administrative career and research activities of the official intellectual Vasily Lvovich Priklonsky, who became the first vice-governor of the Yakutsk region in 1883. Based on the formulary list, the main stages of his service are shown. Generalized and analyzed the main available information about his life. Attention was paid to the fulfillment of additional duties and special assignments. As a research methodology, a prosopographic approach was used; from this position, the activities of V.L. Priklonsky is considered as one of the representatives of the social group of bureaucracy, as well as elements of a traditional biographical sketch. Service in the Yakutsk region contributed to the formation of Priklonsky as a researcher. The administrative position gave him access to audit materials, memorial books and other records management sources. The following factors contributed to the desire of the official for research activities: personal qualities of a lively and inquisitive mind; lack of sources of knowledge in the form of a museum and a library; the fact that he was a contemporary and a participant in the period of active study of the region and, within the framework of his official powers, was directly involved in helping the ongoing expeditions.
Keywords: Eastern Siberia, Yakutsk region, management, official, vice-governor, intellectual, V.L. Priklonsky, bibliography, chronicle, history

Blondin V.N. (St. Petersburg). Yahya ibn al-Hussein – as a Yemeni historian of the Middle East

Candidate оf Philological Sciences,
Associate Professor of the Department of Languages and Cultures of the Islamic World,
Institute of Oriental Studies,
Russian State Pedagogical University in the name of A. I. Herzen,
191186, Russia, St. Petersburg, Moika River Embankment, 48,
e-mail: blondin47@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the events of the political history of Yemen in the Late Middle Ages (XV-XVII centuries), which were vividly reflected in the chronicle of the author of the XVII century Yahya ibn al-Hussein «News of contemporaries on the history of Yemen». This undeservedly forgotten Yemeni historian, grandson of the leader of the Zaydite opposition imam al-Qasim, the founder of the Qasimid state in Yemen, who expelled the Ottoman invaders from the country, is rightfully considered one of the outstanding Yemeni historians of the XVII century and the most objective of them. The high level of education, undoubted literary talent, Yahya ibn al-Hussein and his impartial socio-historical position as an independent historian contributed to the fact that the original and distinctive Yemeni historical tradition existed almost until the Modern era.

Keywords: cultural history of Yemen, Qasimid state, Zaydite opposition, Yemeni historical tradition, “news on contemporaries” chronicle