Klio #03 (195) 2023

Lapina I.Yu., Kargapoltsev S.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Problems of chronology and attribution of “stone circle” in the antiquities of Central and Northern Europe

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes a rare type of megalithic structures in continental and insular Europe – the co-called “stone circles”. The total dating of such objects is determined in a wide range from the Early Roman time to the epoch of migrations (1/2th – 5/6th centuries). An internal relationship is established between the “stone circles” of the circum-Baltic region (Poland, Estonia, South Fennoscandia) with similar complexes of the subarctic and arctic polar regions in Norway and in the north-west of the kola Peninsula. An iron D-shaped buckle and a knife with a straight back, found in the perimeter of a concentric “circle” near the village of Kilpyavr, are being investigated. A preliminary dating of the complex under consideration is established by the C3/D1 – E1 period of the European chronology (within a wide range of 350/370 – 520). Such a far spread of “circles” to the north is explained by the fur trade, the routes of which were controlled by detachments of militarized barbarians of German, Baltic and, possibly, Finnish origin.
Keywords: Kola Peninsula, Norway, “stone circles”, D-shaped iron buckle, iron knife with straight back, European Barbaricum, trade of fur, Roman time, Migrations period

Barynkin A.V. (St. Petersburg). Domestic historiography on the economic confrontation between the Entente and the Central Powers (1914-1918)

PhD in History, Associate Professor, Department of European Studies, Faculty of International Relations, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет,
Saint-Petersburg State University.
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
e-mail: avbarinkin@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the formation of the scientific problem of the economic confrontation of military-political blocs during the First World War. The author identifies and describes the main stages in the study of this problem in Russian historiography against the background of the historical realities of a particular period.

Issues of the economy of the Russian Empire, international trade, the formation of credit obligations, socio-economic processes, the economic potential of allies and opponents were the subject of interest of researchers even during the First World War itself. The trend, laid down then and strengthened by the studies of Soviet authors in the 1920s and 1930s, had a profound impact on modern Russian historical literature. In most cases, for this reason, economic processes and international trade in particular were not perceived as a subject and object of confrontation, the forms and methods of conducting a collective struggle between the Entente countries and the Central Powers remained outside the brackets, with the exception of studies on the naval blockade of Germany and some studies regarded neutral countries.
Keywords: Entente, Central Powers, World War I, historiography, blockade, neutral countries

Vafin M.O. (Khabarovsk). Formation, development and activity of BHSS units in the Far East of the USSR (1937 – 1950s): historiography of the problem

Postgraduate student of the
Far Eastern Home Ministry Law Institute of the Russia.
680020, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Lermontov st., 5 – 36.
E-mail: vafin_1992@mail.ru

Abstract. This article examines the domestic historiography of the history of the formation, development and activity of the BHSS units in the Far East of the USSR during the 1937 – 1950’s. The main directions of the research are outlined and their brief characteristics are presented. The author emphasizes that the historiography of the problem in the Soviet period did not receive targeted research, however, it was fragmentally covered in works on related topics, especially on the history of internal affairs bodies. Purposeful research on the historiography of the problem began to be carried out in the modern period, but most of it affected the scale of the whole country and a smaller part of some of its regions. The paper notes that the history of BHSS services in the Far East has not been practically developed in regional historiography, with the exception of several articles and fragmentary coverage in Far Eastern scientific works on related topics. In the final part, the author states the need for further research on the history of the formation, development and activities of the BHSS units in the Far East in the conditions of the 1937 – 1950s.
Keywords: militia, BHSS units, the Far East, protection of the economic basis of the country, economic crime, historiography, scientific research, prospects of study

Blondin V.N. (St. Petersburg). Folklore in the structure of the Yemeni historical chronicles of the late Middle Ages as a way to preserve the national literary tradition

Candidate оf Philological Sciences,
Associate Professor of the Department of Languages and Cultures of the Islamic World,
Institute of Oriental Studies,
Russian State Pedagogical University in the name of A. I. Herzen,
191186, Russia, St. Petersburg, Moika River Embankment, 48,
e-mail: blondin47@mail.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the problem of the functioning if folklore in the Yemeni historical literature of the Late Middle Ages. After the conquest in the XVI century Ottoman Turkey of the Arab East, the Ottoman authorities banned the Arabs from any literary work in Arabic. With the exception of the right to create works only in the genre of historiography. This indication of the Sublime Porte pursued goals: (reorientation of the Arab-Muslim history to Ottomanism) and economic ones (taking into account the Arab territories and their inhabitants necessary for collecting taxes and taxes). However, this Ottoman decision only led to a king of surge in the creation of Arab-Muslim historical and geographical literature, especially in a number of peripheral areas of the Arab-Muslim world: Arabia, Zanzibar, Maghreb, Niger, Syria, Somalia, etc. Our article will discuss about late medieval Yemen, where a large number of historical works, in Arabic were created during this period, including historical chronicles. They reflect both the rich pre-islamic cultural tradition of Ancient Yemen and medieval Arabic folklore.
Keywords: genre of historiography, late medieval Yemeni historical chronicles, late medieval Yemen, medieval Arabic folklore, rich cultural tradition of Yemen

Gardymova D.K. (St. Petersburg). The role of women in the representation of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party during the Weimar Republic time

3-year Postgraduate student, History institute, Saint Petersburg State University
199034, Russia, Saint Petersburg, Mendelejewskaja-Linie, 5
e-mail: dgardym@gmail.com

Abstract. The period of the Weimar Republic is a time of broad discussion in German society on various issues. One of the topics discussed at that time was the women’s issue. The article examines the view of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party on the role and place of women in society during the first German democracy. It is believed that the party line was unambiguous and expressed in the classic slogan 3K — Kinder, Küche, Kirche (“Children, kitchen, church”). Women themselves often saw their tasks differently. This directly influenced their activities in the Weimar era. In this article, using the example of the work of various women’s organizations, the areas of activity that women could lead are analyzed. It also compares the points of view of the official leadership of the party and the women themselves, who were supporters of the National Socialists coming to power. The article analyzes the place assigned to women in direct party work and the position of the party regarding the role of women in saving the German nation through the work of reviving morality. For writing this article, archival sources from the State Archive of Germany (Bundesarchiv Deutschland), as well as the works of predecessors in Russian, English and German, were used.
Keywords: Weimar Republic, women’s question, NSDAP, morality, nationalism

Rutkovskaya T.V. (Moscow). Charter 77: a path to Europe

postgraduate student of the Faculty of History
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
Russia, Moscow, Khodynskaya street, 10, 123022
e-mail rutkovskaya.tanya@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of contacts of the Charter 77 signatories. Two direction of the most active contacts are the following: eastern direction (Polish People’s Republic, German Democratic Republic, Hungarian People’s Republic and Soviet Union) and western direction (USA, France, Great Britain and various international organisations). The article examines the cause of the contacts, factors affecting their development and essence, as well as why the Soviet Union, being the political leader of the socialist camp, turned out to be an “outsider” in cooperation with dissidents from Eastern European countries. The article concludes that the more active appeal of the chartists to the West is due on the one hand to the lack of initiative from Soviet dissidents and the collapse of hopes for perestroika reforms in Czechoslovakia after Gorbachev’s visit to Prague in 1987 and on the other hand to the chartists active contacts with subsequent OSCE conferences and the European peace movement.
Keywords: Czechoslovakia, normalisation, dissidents, international contacts, Charter 77, socialist camp, Eastern Europe

Derbak Nariman Feth Zehor (Moscow). Art Deco in Algerian architecture

Architect, Post Graduate Student, Department of Architecture,
Institute of Urban Planning and Architecture. Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe sh., 26, Moscow, 129337,
E-mail: derbak.narimane@gmail.com

Absract. As an object of architectural research, the façade of a building is a presentation of its stylistics, a precondition for the interior design. The visual integrity of a facade is represented by the synthesis of its details: wall surfaces, openings, decorative elements, segmentation, revealing its semantics, its social significance, its role in shaping the overall form of the urban environment. Each building, which is part of a whole, marks the formation of an integral concept of the impression of the city or its part. The concept is unified, but its analysis distinguishes historical, architectural, and artistic aspects.

This study focuses on the architectural and aesthetic metamorphosis of the Art Deco style, which occurred during the French colonization of Algeria, particularly in Oran. The characterization of the process of patrimonialization (appropriation) of this style and its consolidation as a natural phenomenon in the cultural history of the region are important to address the issues of preservation and renovation of urban architecture.
Keywords: Algerian Art Deco, Oran, French colonization, architectural style, city`s history

Nikiforenko E.M. (St. Petersburg). Architectural and construction legislation in pre-Petrine Russia

PhD, Associate Professor of the Higher
School of Design and Architecture
St. Petersburg State University
Peter the Great Polytechnic University
195251 Sankt-Peterburg ul. Politehnicheskaja, d. 29
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. Historical events of the XVI-XVII centuries had a strong influence on the further development of the construction and architectural industry in the Russian Empire in Modern times. The Cathedral Code, which was issued in 1649, formulated all the rules and traditions of the Orthodox Church, the administrative powers of the church, which, among other things, concerned urban planning, landscaping and church building for the first time in Russia. Since by the end of the XVII century there were no laws on urban planning and landscaping, there was no general law. Such documents as Statutory and Decree Books, charters, judicial charters, charters and similar documents were the only documents that could regulate architectural and construction relations. The publication provides an analysis of the activities of the construction departments of the XVII century, which vividly illustrates the first attempts of the state to control this type of activity. Achievements in the field of construction in the pre-Petrine period became the necessary economic, technical and creative foundation that allowed the Russian Empire to declare itself rapidly to the whole world in the field of construction and architecture.
Keywords: the construction and architectural branch, the Cathedral Code of 1649, Orthodox churches in pre-Petrine Russia, construction artels, the Pushkar order, the Monastery order, the Order of stone affairs

Antonov E.P., Antonova V.N. (Yakutsk). Russian Arctic old–timers of Yakutia in the XIX – early XX century: features of imperial politics

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher Department of History and Ethnosociology of Arctic Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North, Siberian Branch of RAS. 677027, Russia, Yakutsk, Petrovskogo street, 1-408.
E-mail: Antegor@yandex.ru 

Ph.D. in Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Social Pedagogy, Pedagogical Institute, North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk. 677000, Russia, Yakutsk, Belinskogo street, 58.
E-mail: Antegor@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article presents the measures of the imperial government following the results of disputes over fishing and hunting grounds, when in the case of the Russo–Austenians, it protected their interests from the encroachments of the Yakut colonists, and in another case, it stopped the attempts of the villagers to oust the Yukaghirs and Evens. The process of drawing Russian Arctic old-timers into bonded dependence as a result of unequal trade with merchants who set low purchase prices for fish and high cost of imported goods is revealed. Correspondence between the Yakut Governor, the Regional Government and local authorities of the Verkhoyansk and Kolyma districts, on the one hand, and between the Yakut Governor and the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia and the Yenisei Governor, on the other, revealed communications that contributed to the development of a paternalistic policy aimed at combating hunger. The measures taken by the authorities to organize spare stores with bread, fish, salt, horsehair, tea, etc. are shown.; establishment of preferential prices for raw materials for weaving nets and seines and its distribution among fishermen without interest and for a long time; introduction of salting and drying of fish; arrangement of deep and cold cellars, etc.
Keywords: Russian Mouth, Pokhodsk, zaimki, Russian old-timers, imperial power, paternalistic politics, famine

Zhilkibaeva R.R., Burdina G.V. (Yelabuga). The main mandatory requirements for the level of education and the degree of trustworthiness of teachers in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries

Ph.D. in History, Assistant, Department of General and Russian History, Yelabuga Institute of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University
423600, Russian Federation, Yelabuga, Kazanskaya St., 89
e-mail: RRSajfullova@kpfu.ru

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of General and Russian History, Yelabuga Institute of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University
423600, Russian Federation, Yelabuga, Kazanskaya St., 89
e-mail: GMBurdina@kpfu.ru

Abstract. In the context of preserving the conservative foundations of the Russian autocracy and attempts at social modernization in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries. Of particular importance was the improvement of the quality of education, while its key traditional foundations remained unchanged. In this regard, great attention was paid to the formation of a special professional group of teachers who would respond, on the one hand, to the state request, which consists in the inviolability of the autocratic foundations of the Russian monarchy, and on the other hand, the ever-increasing public need for well-trained teaching staff. Unfortunately, these two principles contradicted each other and created problems in the development of all-Russian education. One of the problems was the underdevelopment of pedagogical education and the lack of qualified teaching staff. The second problem was that the priority for the state was not the professional training of teachers, but their reliability. These problems significantly hampered Russian education as a whole and, accordingly, the very formation of professional teachers as a special socio-professional group of Russian society.
Keywords: folk teacher, folk school, gymnasium, pro-gymnasium, reliability, Russian Empire

Fedina I.M. (Krasnodar). Land Redistribution in Cossack Stanitsas of Kuban (From Mid-19th To Early 20th Centuries)

Cand.Sci. (History), Assistant Professor of Russian History,
FGBOU VO Kuban State University, 149 Stavropolskaya St.,
Krasnodar, 350040; e-mail ir_Lap@mail.ru

Abstract. Based on documentary evidence, the article analyzes the land relations, which act as a generalizing element of the settlement way amid the Kuban Cossacks. The issues of land use and land management in the middle of the 19th and early 20th centuries are considered in the center of the scientific problem. During this period, a land order with a balance of private and public interests was laid in the historical region of the Kuban, and the region itself was the largest exporter of grain and other agricultural products of the Russian Empire.

Throughout the history of its existence, the Kuban Cossacks are closely interconnected with the history of Russian agriculture, land ownership and land use. This allows us to comprehend the dynamics of agricultural production and generalize the historical experience of preserving the traditional agricultural way of life, which was based on two common elements of the land ideology of the Cossacks – land and freedom.
Keywords: land use, allotment share, Cossacks, stanitsa, hamlet, farmstead, Kuban

Stogov D.I. (St. Petersburg). The foreign policy position of the right–wing salons and circles of Petrograd (1914 – February 1917)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI” named after V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin), Associate Professor of the Department of History of Culture, State and Law
Russia, St. Petersburg, 197022, St. Petersburg, Professor Popov str., 5, litera F.
e-mail: bel-grigorij@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the foreign policy position of the leaders and participants of the right-wing salons and groups of Petrograd in the pre-revolutionary years. It is emphasized that the legal monarchical salons and groups that existed in the capital of the Russian Empire in the period from July 1914 to February 1917 at their meetings touched upon foreign policy problems. Contrary to the claims of liberal politicians and publicists, contemporaries of the events, about the alleged widespread “Germanophilism” of the right, sources indicate that the leaders and participants of right-wing salons and groups fully supported the foreign policy course of the tsarist government, the fighting, talked about the need to achieve victory in the war. The Extraordinary Commission of Inquiry of the Provisional Government did not reveal any facts of espionage in favor of Germany by members of right-wing salons and groups. At the same time, the article concludes that the categorical rejection of the participants of right-wing salons and groups was caused by the attempts of the liberal opposition to use the events related to the war for their own political purposes. Some of the monarchists (the groups of Count S.D. Sheremetev, etc.) doubted the achievability of the goal of mastering Constantinople and the Straits by Russia. In the statements of the leaders and participants of the right-wing salons and groups, it was emphasized that only the preservation of the monarchy in the country would contribute to the victory of Russian weapons. To achieve success, the right-wingers recommended that the government pay special attention to the state of the press, strengthen their conservative component. The article concludes that the specific proposals of right-wing salons and groups to restore “order” in the country during the war were not implemented in practice due to their disregard by the supreme power.
Keywords: Russian Empire, World War I, the right, salon, circle, Germanophilism

Puzanova M.S. (St. Petersburg). The agro-industrial complex in the USSR: the basic principles of its development and specialization and its impact on food security

Postgraduate student, School of International Relations,
Saint-Petersburg State University
199034, Universitetskaya Naberezhnaya, 7/9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: puzanovamari@rambler.ru

Abstract. The article provides an in-depth analysis of the fundamental principles underlying the functioning and development of agriculture in the USSR. Originally designed to boost the development and ensure specialization of agro-industrial production in the USSR in the framework of the first five-year development plan for the country’s national economy (1928-1932) when modernization of agriculture was declared one of the main goals, these principles were largely retained in the years to come both in the USSR at large and its individual republics. 

Despite considerable progress made in the agro-industrial sector during the first five-year development plans, the overall focus was on the extensive development of the sector, the secondary role of agriculture compared to other industries, over-regulation of the number of mandatory production indicators by the state, and the gradual reduction of the autonomy and responsibility of individual enterprises.

These factors formed the basis of the following agricultural (grain) crises and resulted in the growing dependence of the USSR on imports of basic food products.
Keywords: food security, agro-industrial complex, agriculture, the USSR, Russia, the CIS

Milbach V.S., Dusin A.V. (St. Petersburg). Statistics of repressions and the scale of losses of the command and commanding staff of the North Caucasus Military District in 1937-1938

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Military-Political Work in the Troops (forces), Mikhailovsky Military Artillery Academy,
195009, St. Petersburg, st. Komsomol, d. 22.;
e-mail: v.milbach@yandex.ru

Lecturer of the Department of Military-Political Work in the Troops (Forces), Mikhailovskaya Military Artillery Academy,
195009, St. Petersburg, st. Komsomol, d. 22,
e-mail: cadet73-75@mail.ru

Abstract. The period of mass political repression in the USSR of 1937-1938 entered the world historiography as the “Great Terror” thanks to the British historian Robert Conquest [1]. As a historiographical basis of the study, it is necessary to highlight the works of researchers who devoted their works to the study of the phenomenon of political repression in the Red Army: O.F. Souvenirs [2], N.S. Cherushev [3], M.I. Meltyukhov [4], A.A. Pechenkin [5], I.M. Veselnitsky [6], S.E. Lazarev [7].

One of the problematic issues of the historiography of this topic is the statistics of mass political repression in the army and navy, information about losses in the commanding staff during the political purge. For a long time, the main sources for research – materials of archival and investigative cases were inaccessible to a wide range of historians. Currently, researchers have the opportunity to study in detail the once classified documents stored in state and departmental archives. This article presents the results of a study of losses among the commanding officers of the North Caucasus Military District (SKVO) during the repressions of 1937-1938.
Keywords: North Caucasus Military District, commanding officers, arrest, capital punishment, rehabilitation

Berkutov A.S. (Moscow). Features of the service and combat activities of the F.E. Dzerzhinsky division to ensure public safety (1945-1960)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher,
Research Center Fundamental Military-Historical Problems
Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
123001, Russia, Moscow, B. Sadovaya str., 14
E-mail: berkutov-andrey@mail.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the service and combat activities of the F.E. Dzerzhinsky Division to ensure public safety in the post-war period. The purpose of the study is to prove the hypothesis that the service and combat activity of the division’s personnel was a necessary condition for restoring the peaceful life of Soviet society. For this purpose, the documents of the State Archive of the Russian Federation on issues of ensuring public security in the post-war period, the Russian State Military Archive, including the materials of the F.E. Division Foundation, have been analyzed. Dzerzhinsky and its individual military units; orders and orders of the heads of the law enforcement forces, located in the Central Archive of the National Guard Troops of the Russian Federation, the historical form of the Dzerzhinsky Division and its individual military units. The article considers the tasks, composition and main directions of service and combat activities of military units for the protection of public order, the fight against criminal crime and participation in the elimination of the consequences of emergency situations. To identify trends in the activities of the military units of the division, a comparative analysis of various types of their service and combat activities was carried out. The main trends that have a decisive impact on ensuring public safety were the strengthening of the interaction of various troops and law enforcement agencies. Depending on this, the development of methods for ensuring public safety took place.
Keywords: NKVD–MVD–MGB troops, F.E. Dzerzhinsky Division, ensuring public security, protecting public order, combating criminal crime, patrolling

Klykanova A.A. (Moscow). Historical genetics and the industry of Banderonazism

Advisor to the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences
PhD, member of the Association of World War II Historians
named after O.A. Rzheshevsky National Committee of Historians of Russia
117334, Moscow, Leninsky pr., 32а
e-mail: Anna_123-84@mail.ru

Abstract. Based on the generalization of information from a number of publications, the author reveals the reasons for the raising of the Bandera ideology by the collective West and the modern Ukrainian leadership to the rank of the main instrument of modern political struggle. It is this ideological platform that makes it possible to most effectively build anti-Russian actions in the current anti-Russian hysteria. The article makes an excursion into the historical past: the reasons for the emergence of the concept of “Ukraine” are shown, it is noted that Russians and Ukrainians ethnically and historically represent a single people. The author draws attention to the consequences of the practical actions of Bandera during the Great Patriotic War and in the post-war period, expresses the opinion that a person who committed such large-scale atrocities against people, including against his own people, has no right to be considered a national hero. The conclusion is made about the reasons for the glorification of Bandera, as the only tool currently available to Ukrainian politicians to influence fellow countrymen in the fight against the Russian World.
Keywords: Bandera, UN Charter, Ukraine, Nazism, Donbass

Surovegina E.S. (Nizhny Novgorod). Inventive and rationalization activities at the gorky plant “Dvigatel Revolyutsii” in the second half of the 1960s

3rd year postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History and Auxiliary Historical Disciplines, Nizhny Novgorod Pedagogical University named after I.I. K. Minina
603005, Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, st. Ulyanova, d.1.
e-mail: ekaterina.surovegina@mail.ru

Abstract. During the second half of the 1950s – 1960s, fundamental changes took place in the socio-economic sphere of the USSR, associated with the scientific and technological revolution, which led to a qualitative leap in the development of Soviet industry.

A characteristic feature of the scientific and technological policy of the USSR is the building of a centralized system for managing scientific and technological progress. The mobilization model of development provided for the creation of conditions for the inclusion of as many workers as possible in scientific and technical creativity, therefore, a special place in the scientific and technical infrastructure was given to scientific and technical associations, such as scientific and technical societies, the All-Union Society of Inventors and Rationalizers, etc.

The article is devoted to the activities of local branches of the All-Union Society of Inventors and Innovators (VOIR) and their contribution to the development of the regions of the USSR, including the Gorky region in the second half of the 1960s.

The author reveals the conditions for the creation, functioning, structure and main activities of the All-Union Society of Inventors and Innovators, and also analyzes the contribution of VOIR to the development of industry in the Gorky region during the eighth five-year plan using the example of the Dvigatel Revolyutsii plant.
Keywords: rationalization, invention, eighth five-year plan, Gorky region, Dvigatel Revolyutsii plant, VOIR, economic reform

Bazhanov D.A. (St. Petersburg). D.N. Verderevsky as the Commander of the Baltic Fleet (June–July 1917)

PhD in History, associate professor, department of Russian History (XIX-XXI centuries) of Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, assistant professor
191186, 48, River Moika Emb., Saint Petersburg, Russia.
e-mail: dbazhanov@herzen.spb.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the circumstances of the appointment and activity of D.N. Verderevsky as the commander of the Baltic Fleet. His biography, circumstances and motives that allowed him to make a brilliant career in March – October 1917 are a gap in historical research. The main goal is to identify the features of the leadership of the Verderevsky fleet in the conditions of the military and political situation of the beginning of the summer of 1917. Based on clerical sources and personal impressions of contemporaries and participants of the events, the author comes to the conclusion that a specific feature in Verderevsky’s work was the attitude to the position not only as a military one, but also as a political one. This was reflected in the desire to seek political support for the implementation of decisions (cooperation with revolutionary authorities), the use of political leadership methods (blocking with individual representatives of new self-government bodies).
Keywords: the Revolution of 1917 in Russia, the Baltic Fleet, D.N. Verderevsky, A.F. Kerensky, P.E. Dybenko, Central Committee of the Baltic Fleet, 1st All-Russian Congress of Soviets

Ilchenko M.A. (Samara). A.V. Kolchak in 1917: naval commander and politician

History and Social Studies Teacher
School No.145
443065, Samara, Dolotny lane, home 4
e-mail strays885@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article briefly examines the main content of the military-political activity of A.V. Kolchak in the revolutionary year 1917. The relevance of the topic is due to the increased interest in this historical figure and the controversial assessments of his activities over the past decades by researchers, journalists, politicians and ordinary citizens. The aim of the author was to generalize the conclusions and characteristics given to Alexander Vasilyevich in the specified significant period of history. Special attention is paid to the moral and psychological qualities of Alexander Vasilyevich, which made it possible to effectively manage the Black Sea Fleet, despite the dramatic conditions of “Turmoil” in the country. The factors and events that influenced the end of his professional career as a naval officer are indicated.
Keywords: A.V. Kolchak, commander of the black sea fleet, February revolution of 1917, military and political activities of A.V. Kolchak, Provisional government, Bosphorus landing operation, CIVIC; Petrograd Soviet of workers ‘and soldiers’ deputies

Nikolaev N.E. (Moscow). The social policy of United Russia on the example of Moscow in 2019-2021

A second-year master’s student
Department of the History of Social Movements and Political Parties,
 Faculty of History,
Lomonosov Moscow State University,
Russia, 119618, Moscow,
 Poselenie Moskovskii, Tatiana Park Street.
e-mail:  Nicknickolaev1@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article discusses the social policy of the United Russia Party, conducted in Moscow in 2019-2021. The main trends of its development and prospects are highlighted. Special attention is paid to the activities of party leaders who initiated innovative and progressive approaches. It is indicated that party members constantly come up with proposals to improve the current legislation in the social sphere, which has a beneficial effect on the development of support for vulnerable segments of the population. The general characteristics of the vectors of social policy development in the city of Moscow are considered in dynamics. Transformations in the following areas of social policy are considered: regarding children and youth, pensioners, disabled people, as well as large families. Social policy is correlated with the election campaigns to the Moscow City Duma in 2019 and to the State Duma in 2021, which were conducted taking into account current global challenges. Timely and systematic changes in the social policy of the United Russia party in Moscow indicate that party leaders are trying to use the potential of the social infrastructure of the capital with the support of program priorities at the federal level.
Keywords: United Russia, social policy, social transformations, Moscow City Duma, election campaign