Klio #04 (172) 2021



Lapina I.A., Eroshkina O.N. (St. Petersburg). Blockade notes of A. I. Mashirov-Samobutnik

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of Herzen
State pedagogical University of Russia.
198328, St. Petersburg, Leninsky Ave., 75,
bldg. 2, ap. 652.
E-mail: lapina_ir@inbox.ru

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of Herzen
State pedagogical University of Russia.
198510, St. Petersburg, Petrodvorets, Dashkevich
street, house 11A / 9, ap.2.
E-mail: o.eroshkina@mail.ru

Annotation. The authors tell about a previously unknown source on the history of the Leningrad blockade – materials from the personal fund of the proletarian poet, chairman of the Petrograd Proletkult, “red director” of the State Research Institute of Theater and Music, an active conductor of the idea of socialist culture, A. I. Mashirov-Samobytnik. On the basis of these materials, the scientific and everyday life of the institute is reproduced in the pre-war months and in the most difficult months of the blockade.
Keywords: daily life of besieged Leningrad, State Research Institute of Theater and Music, A. I. Mashirov-Samobutnik, anti-Nazi propaganda.

Vaschuk R.I. (г. Пушкин, Санкт-Петербург). Soviet historiography of Byzantine hesychasm

2nd year postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History, Leningrad State University named after V.I. A.S. Pushkin
Russia, Pushkin, 196605, Petersburg highway, 10
E-mail: vashchukr@mail.ru

Annotation. The article is devoted to the views of Soviet Byzantine historians on the doctrine of Byzantine hesychasm. It reveals the main ideas and directions in the study of Byzantine hesychasm, developed by Soviet historical science. A specific contribution to the study of Byzantine hesychasm, which was made by one or another Byzantine school, is highlighted. The ideological background of such research carried out in the Soviet Union is taken into account. The most topical direction in the study of Byzantine hesychasm in the USSR was socio-political. The philosophical and theological direction was quite secondary and often entered under the guise of literary and art studies. In this article, if necessary, the works of the earlier pre-revolutionary period are used, as well as the works of representatives of the Russian emigration, foreign researchers, supplemented by the research and conclusions of experts of the post-Soviet period, devoted to various areas of study of Byzantine hesychasm, which are of an interdisciplinary nature. Particularly highlighted are the discussion issues that have retained their relevance to this day. In addition to scientific literature, the study also uses educational literature, presented by textbooks and teaching aids for students of history faculties, created during the Soviet period. A general conclusion is made about the historiography of Byzantine hesychasm in the Soviet Union.
Keywords. Byzantine hesychasm, Soviet historiography, Byzantine studies, historical science, Soviet ideology, cultural history, philosophy of history.

Shcherbakova M.E. (St. Petersburg). The reasons of USSR collapse in Chinese academic discourse

PhD Student at the Faculty of Asian and African Studies
of Saint Petersburg State University
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7/9
Email: st043116@student.spbu.ru

Annotation. Considering the Chinese currently building “socialism with Chinese characteristics”, it is critically important for them to study the history of its predecessors and partners in the international Communist movement and to make its own conclusions about the reasons for success and failure. The object of this article is Chinese academic discourse of 1992-2020, and the subject is the explanation of USSR collapse reasons in Chinese academic literature. The purpose of this article is to determine the tasks set by Chinese scientists investigating USSR collapse reasons. In addition, it is very important to indicate whether the views on this issue differ from 1990 to 2020 or remain the same, whether it is allowed to freely discuss this topic in China and whether the Chinese researchers remain unprejudiced.
Among the tasks that follow from the main goal of the article, one should also mention the examination of the modern Chinese ideological context and the role assigned to research on the topic of USSR collapse reasons regarding the political goals of the CPC. The article concludes that the views of Chinese researchers on this topic differ unsignificantly. In addition, the research on this issue is often closely related to the shaping of CPC political goals and serves certain ideological purposes. However, some Chinese researchers follow more independent assessments and think that the main reason for USSR collapse is economic policy.
Keywords. Reasons of USSR collapse, Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), Communist Party of China (CPC), peaceful evolution theory, conflict between the capitalist and socialist camps.

Vinogradov A.M. (Vladivostok). The activity of the internal affairs bodies in the fight against economic crime in 1991–2011: historiography of the problem

senior lecturer of the Department
of operational investigative and administrative activities
of the Vladivostok branch of the Far Eastern
Judicial Institute of Russian Ministry of the Interior
690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikova st., 21,
E-mail: philosophyworld@inbox.ru

Annotation. The article outlines the main directions of studying the activities of the internal affairs bodies of the Primorsky Territory in the fight against economic crimes in 1991–2011and provides a brief description of them. Attention is drawn to the fact that the study of economic crime, its determinants and patterns of development, the nature and size of the harm caused, the system of counteraction is an urgent task of modern science. It is concluded that the analysis of publications related to the history of specialized operational units of the internal affairs bodies of the Primorsky Territory to combat economic crime indicates that a large amount of factual material has been accumulated in the modern period, and the first conclusions and generalizations have been made in the development of the studied issues. The emergence of new research areas creates a basis for continuing the study of the historical experience of the activities of the internal affairs bodies of the Primorsky Territory in the fight against economic crime.
Keywords: internal affairs bodies, economic crime, specialized operational units, Primorsky Krai, Russia, historiography, scientific research.

Kukil N.V. (Moscow). German Question Through Eyes of Russian Political Elite at Turn of XIX and XX Centuries

Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
27 Lomonosovsky Prospekt, bldg. 4, Moscow, Russian Federation
E-mail: nikolai.kukil@yandex.ru

Annotation. The article identifies the main ways of the solution of the German Question on the eve of World War I and describes its complexity and contradictory nature. The relevance of the article is proved by the fact that Russia has now activated the German direction of its foreign policy whose historical background needs to be studied thoroughly. To describe the centers of influence in the Russian political elite and different views on Germany, the author of the article has used extensive archival material which corresponds to the tasks of the study in terms of its content and purpose. It has been found that the Russian political elite, which incorporated the court circles, industrialists and entrepreneurs, top military officers, diplomats and leaders of the legal political parties, was keeping track of the important processes which were taking place in Germany at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries. The Russian political elite needed reliable intelligence for assessing the prospects of the Russian-German interaction. The article pays a special attention to the motives of the Liberals and Conservatives which proposed different approaches to conducting a dialog between Russia and Germany. It identifies the main mechanisms and tools which were used in the foreign policy activities. The article offers information on the reasons and consequences of the deterioration of the Russian-German relations in the period under consideration, taking into account the trends in the political life of both countries.
Keywords. German Question, history of Russia, German Empire, Liberals, Conservatives, political elite.

Markova V.N. (Moscow). Korean diaspora in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan in 1991-2020. Comparative analysis of social institutions and diasporal organizations of both countries

Postgraduate student, the department of History of the Former Soviet Union Countries
M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
119192, Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovskii pr., 27, 4 
E-mail: vasilmarkova1993@gmail.com

Annotation. The active dynamics of the development of modern diasporology focused research interest on the issue of interethnic relations in the republics of the former USSR – new independent multinational states. One of the most extraordinary diasporas is the Korean diaspora of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, which has a common historical destiny and ethnocultural portrait. For many years, the Koreans of Central Asia have existed in similar conditions of sociopolitical development. With the onset of the period of independence in 1991, the national policy of both republics, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, lined up according to its own vector. New features have appeared in the diaspora identity, the dynamics of the development of the institutions of the diaspora. Over the past decades, the organizational foundation of the Korean diaspora in Central Asia has been built, the material and technical base has significantly increased, and there have been shifts in national identity. The aspects listed above have not yet been the object of close research.
How do the official tribunes build their national policy? What place does the diaspora play in it as its main addressee? How is the Korean diaspora developing within the framework of the new doctrines of national development in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan? The author gives answers to these questions in this study. The analysis focused on the ethnocultural organizations of the Korean diaspora, the level of development and functioning of which can give an idea of the ethnic identity of Central Asian Koreans, as well as the presence of a demand for its cultivation and preservation.
Keywords. Korean diaspora, CIS national policy, Middle Asia Koreans, koryo saram, interethnic relations, Korean organisations, Koreans of Ubekistan, CIS, diaspora, Koreans of Kazakhstan.

Kondakov Yu.E., Fedotiev D. S. (St. Petersburg). Orthodox Palestinian Society against B.P. Mansurov (part 2)

doctor of historical sciences, associate professor, professor of the department of history of the institute of history and social sciences, The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, 191186, Russia, St. Petersburg, Moika river embankment, 48
E-mail: yukondakov@herzen.spb.ru

assistant of the department of history of the institute of history and social sciences, The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, 191186, Russia, St. Petersburg, Moika river embankment, 48, 191186, Russian Federation,
E-mail: dfedotiev@herzen.spb.ru

Annotation. After the Crimean War, the Russian government began building infrastructure for pilgrims in Palestine. These institutions were to be in charge of the Spiritual Mission in Jerusalem. Since 1859, the care of the pilgrims came under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Committee, and since 1864, the Palestinian Commission under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Conflicts and a struggle for dominance began between the staff of these institutions and the Spiritual Mission. Since 1857, BP Mansurov became one of the leading officials in the care of pilgrims. He became involved in the struggle between different departments. In 1882, the Orthodox Palestinian Society was created, one of whose tasks was to take care of the pilgrims.
Mansurov became a member of the founder of the society, as the most competent specialist in Palestine. The founders of the society had their own ideas about the policy of Russia in the East, which did not coincide with the views of Mansurov. The main areas of the conflict were relations with the Greek clergy, care for the Orthodox Arabs and archaeological excavations in Jerusalem. Mansurov was criticized as a representative of the bureaucracy for the poor care of pilgrims. He was blamed for all the mistakes and miscalculations in the activities of the Palestinian Commission and the Palestinian Committee. They were accused of conflicts with the Spiritual Mission and opposition to the Orthodox Palestinian society.
The conflict in 1883-1887 resulted in a fierce literary controversy. Articles, brochures and books by Mansurov and his opponents from the Orthodox Palestinian Society for the first time became the subject of a special study. An appeal to them shows that Mansurov became a victim of a struggle between two parties in Russian society, who saw politics in the East differently. As a result, an excellent specialist in the East, Mansurov, was removed from his life’s work – caring for pilgrims.
Keywords. Pilgrims, Holy Places, Jerusalem, Palestine, Spiritual Mission, Palestinian Committee, Palestinian Commission, Palestinian Orthodox Society

Yakhimovich S.Yu. (Khabarovsk). “Without the recommendation of this bandit committee, citizens of the USSR were not allowed to serve”: the trade union of motorists in Northern Manchuria (1920 – 1931)

Ph. D in History, Associate Professor,
Associate Professor of the Department of social and humanitarian
and economic disciplines
Far Eastern law Institute of the Ministry of interior Affairs of Russia.
680042, Russia, Khabarovsk, Shelest St., 83 – 20.
E-mail: sergyahim-69@yandex.ru

Annotation. In this article, the author continues the historical review of the activities of Soviet trade unions in the Chinese-Eastern railway zone of the 1920s – early 1930s. The study found that the trade union of local transport workers has become one of the pro-Soviet professional associations of motorists in the territory of Northern Manchuria. In its activities, the trade union dealt mainly with private enterprises. At the first stage of its existence, the board of the union organized its work insufficiently effectively, which led to increased patronage of the association by higher trade union authorities. Great difficulties in the work of the trade union to increase the level of wages and improve the working conditions of motorists were caused by strong competition in the market of employment and transport services in Manchuria. The heterogeneous social composition of workers in the field of road transport led to the “purge” of the ranks of the organization by the trade union leadership. Nevertheless, the union pursued a policy of spreading Soviet spiritual values among its members. Like other trade unions, it was persecuted by the Chinese authorities for ideological reasons during the aggravation of the political situation on the CER. With the sale of the Manchukuo Railway by the Soviet Union in 1935, the motorists’ union in Northern Manchuria ended its existence.
Keywords. Northern Manchuria, trade union, local transport, motorists, local committee.

Vorobeva E.E. (Moscow). 1953 amnesty: conditions and difficulties

Postgraduate Student,
Department of Historical Informatics,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, 119192, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4.
E-mail: eev115@mail.ru

Annotation. The subject of this article is a description of the 1953 amnesty’s process and an analysis of the documents issued by the GULAG to regulate it. The author analyzes the difficulties faced by the leadership of the camps and colonies when carrying out work to release prisoners (when issuing documents, sending them to places of residence, obtaining information about the existence of grounds for inclusion in the number of amnestied ones, accounting for days worked and money accrued on them, etc.) and those regulatory documents that were issued in response to incoming requests. The author comes to the conclusion that many problems in the amnesty process arose not due to the lack of regulatory documents, but as a result of the negligent attitude of the GULAG employees to their work.
Keywords. GULAG, amnesty, camp system of the USSR, forced labor, reforms.

Ivanov V.E. (Vladivostok). Reform of the structure of the internal affairs bodies of the USSR during the perestroika (1985–1991)

Post graduate student of the Department of History of the Far East Federal University
690922, Primorsky Territory, Vladivostok, Russky Island, 10 Ajax.
E-mail: vikenty1994@mail.ru

Annotation. The article examines the process of reforming the structure of the internal affairs bodies in 1985-1991. The article focuses on the relevance of studying the transformation of the structure of the internal affairs bodies of the USSR during the period of perestroika, which is determined by the uniqueness of the studied period, marked by the transition to a large-scale reform of the political and socio-economic system of the Soviet society and, as a result, ended with the formulation of the tasks of forming the foundations of the rule of law and the transition to a market economy. Within this period, both central and regional law enforcement agencies are analyzed. The main directions of changing the legal status of the internal affairs bodies, the features of structural transformations are highlighted. The author concludes that the evidence of the insufficiently satisfactory reform of the internal affairs bodies and the developing crisis in the socio-economic sphere was the increase in the crime rate.
Keywords. structure, internal affairs bodies, reformation, perestroika, USSR, RSFSR, Primorsky Territory.

Sharonova V.G. (Moscow). St. Nicholas Church in Shanghai is the Russian monument to Suffering, Love and Faith

Ph.D. of History
Senior Research Fellow Institute of Far Eastern Studies
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
117997 Russian Federation, Moscow, Nakhimovsky Av., 32
Senior Research Fellow of Institute
St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities
127051 Russian Federation, Moscow, Likhov lane, 6, bld.1
E-mail: vsharonova@mail.ru

Annotation. The article is devoted to the history of St. Nicholas Church – the Temple is the Monument to the Crowned Martyrs Emperor Nicholas II and His Family which were killed, it was built in Shanghai in 1934 at the expense of the Russian émigré colony. It was created by the military architect A.I. Yaron, it had a difficult fate, in many ways very similar and repeating the fate of its parishioners. During the years of exile, it served as a spiritual citadel for Russian refugees who were cut off from their homeland. At first, the temple was considered as an officer’s, the initiator of its construction was the military personnel of the Russian Empire, with the head General F.L. Glebov. Starting from the year 1935, Bishop Ioannes (Maksimovich) of Shanghai served in this temple. In the second half of the 1940s, the Russian émigré colony began to leave Shanghai and go far away around the world. During the years of Cultural Revolution Shanghai temples were closed. At the end of 2009, owing to the negotiations held by the DECR delegation of the Patriarchate, headed by the chairman of the department, Metropolitan Illarion (Alfeyev) Volokolamskiy and the leaders of the Russian Consulate General with the Shanghai authorities, divine services started to be held in the church on Sundays since May 2009. In 2019, the church had some internal reconstruction and a bookstore was opened inside. Orthodox services are held rarely.
Keywords. St. Nicholas Monument Temple, Shanghai, priests, Russian emigrants, F.L. Glebov, A.I. Yaron, construction, donations, military, Orthodox services.

Pocheshkhov N.A., Khotko S.H. (Maykop, Republic of Adygea). Social banditry of the Circassians after the Caucasian War (1865 – 1920s)

Nurbiy Aslanovich Pocheshkhov
Ph.D. in History,
Professor of the Department of National History,
Historiography, Theory and Methodology of History,
Adygean State University.
385000, Republic of Adygea, Maikop,
Pervomaiskaya, 208.
E-mail: bases11@yandex.ru

Samir Hamidovich Khotko
Ph.D. in History,
Principal Researcher of the Ethnology and Folk Art Department,
Adygean Republican Institute of
Humanitarian Researches named after Kerashev.
385000, Republic of Adygea, Maykop,
Krasnooktyabrskaya, 13.
E-mail: inalast@mail.ru

Annotation. Social banditry is a phenomenon inherent in class society. Not only ruined and landless peasants, but representatives of the nobility took the role of protectors of the people from the arbitrariness of the government and its local agents, and foreign power. Even persons with openly deviant forms of behavior could significantly improve their image in those cases when they systematically redistributed material values acquired by illegal means. A man with the appropriate moral principles dared to become a noble robber, a people’s avenger. In addition, the very difficult conditions of existence and the need to resist external pressure determined the corresponding life strategy. The alienation of the population, ethnic group, national or social minority increased the scale of noble or politically tinged banditry. In Circassia of the feudal era, this phenomenon took shape under the influence of social oppression of the peasantry, but was almost completely eliminated as a result of the successful democratic transformation of the 18th century. After 1864, under the influence of a radical breakdown of the entire way of life, coupled with a very sharp decline in the standard of living and the establishment of total forms of control over the conquered population, forms of resistance associated with social banditry inevitably developed. The phenomenon does not acquire a large scale, since the region of settlement of the Kuban Circassians was very densely populated with Cossack villages and was rather effectively controlled by an extensive system of military garrisons and posts. The second stage of the relatively significant spread of social banditry is associated with the anomie of the Civil War and the first years of Sovietization.
Keywords: abrek, social banditry, Caucasian war, Khodz uprising, Khakuchian resistance, disarmament, restriction of movement, circular liability policy

Demidov A.V. (Vidyaevo, Murmansk region). Finns of the Kola peninsula (on the materials of the Ursk colony, second half of the XIX – early XX centuries)

Andrey Vasilyevich Demidov
Candidate of historical Sciences, teacher of history
MBEI CATE Vidyaevo “ Secondary school No. 1”
184372, Russian Federation, Murmansk region, Vidyaevo,
Zarechnaya str., 60 (1 building)
E-mail: andrej.demidoff2017@yandex.ru

Annotation. In article on the basis of the analysis of sources and research domestic and foreign scholars studying the history of the Genesis of the Finnish colonization of the Kola Peninsula, for example, by Urska colony the second half of XIX – early XX century. The paper considers the prerequisites and initial stage of settlement of the region, the influence of political and economic factors on the activation of resettlement from the territory of the Grand Duchy of Finland. The article analyzes the economic activity of the settlers of the Ur colony, determines the degree of involvement in the system of economic relations of the region, indicates the reasons for success in the economic activity of the colonists, examines their mentality. The fishing activities of the Finns of Ur-Guba were based on national traditions, taking into account local climatic features, which made it possible to create a special calendar of economic activities. The author studies the material culture (the structure of settlements, housing, clothing) of the population, taking into account ethnicity. Special attention is paid to the life of the colonists. The housing of the Finnish colonists was arranged according to the Norwegian model with sharp wooden roofs, which is explained by the close cultural interaction of the population of the Kola Peninsula. By the beginning of the XX century, a significant part of the Finnish ethnic specifics will be preserved, as evidenced by the language and religious beliefs that have not lost their significance. The Lutheran Church acted as the only link between Finland and the local Finnish population. The author draws attention to the role of the pastor in the community. Urskaya colony is a vivid example of the development of the Kola Peninsula by Finnish settlers, demonstrating the historical features of the region’s development in the second half of the XIX-early XX century.
Keywords: Ursk colony, Ura-Guba, Kola Peninsula, Finnish colonists, immigrants.

Halin A.A., Akimova E.A., Kainova E.V. (Nizhny Novgorod). At the Origins of the Soviet River Militia (1918-1921) (based on the materials of the Volga Region-Nizhny Novgorod)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Head of the Department of History and Theory of State and Law,
Nizhny Novgorod Institute of Management,
Branch of the Russian Presidential Academy
of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA).
603950, Russia. Nizhny Novgorod, ave. Gagarina, 46;
E-mail: a.halin@niu.ranepa.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of History and Theory of State and Law,
Nizhny Novgorod Institute of Management,
Branch of the Russian Presidential Academy
of National Economy and Public Administration.
603950, Russia. Nizhny Novgorod, ave. Gagarina, 46;
E-mail: akimova-eka@ranepa.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of History and Theory of State and Law,
Nizhny Novgorod Institute of Management,
Branch of the Russian Presidential Academy
of National Economy and Public Administration.
603950, Russia. Nizhny Novgorod, ave. Gagarina, 46;
E-mail: evkainova@mail.ru

Annotation. The article is devoted to the formation of the Soviet river militia. Based on the materials of the Volga Region and Nizhny Novgorod, it shows the process of creating the structure of the river militia in Russia as a single centralized service within the Soviet workers’ and peasants’ militia. The authors reveal the almost continuous process of constant reform of the river (water) militia, the search for new organizational forms of its activities. Special attention is paid to the selection of personnel based on the principle of “class origin”. In this regard, the main professional and social requirements for candidates for admission to the water militia are given. At the same time, the practice of using old, mainly army, personnel is shown. The personnel shortage required the creation of a training system for the Soviet law enforcement system, which is also reflected in the article in the form of a story about the creation of training courses for the command staff of the water militia. In general, it is concluded that the transformation of all social relations in Soviet Russia led to the transformation of the law enforcement system. This process was not a simple replacement of some structures with others, but was long and ambiguous.
Keywords. Soviet management system, law enforcement agencies, river militia, training of militia personnel and social status of militia officers.

Skochin A.V., Borodulina E.V. (Tyumen). Pedagogical activity in general educational institutions of Tyumen (1956–1965)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
of the Department of National History, Tyumen State University.
625003, Russian Federation, Tyumen, Lenina St., 23.
E-mail: A.V.Skochin@utmn.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
of the Department of National History, Tyumen State University.
625003, Russian Federation, Tyumen, Lenina St., 23.
E-mail: E.V.Borodulina@utmn.ru

Annotation. The article examines a range of problems related to the pedagogical activity of teachers in Tyumen schools in the period characterized by important reforms in the sphere of Soviet education – in the mid-1950s and mid-1960s, using regional materials. The authors analyze the influence on this problem of such factors as changes in the methods of work of teachers, qualification of teachers, technical equipment of the educational process in schools of the city. Along with educational activities, the article studies various forms of extracurricular work of students, assesses their importance in professional development of schoolchildren.
The authors note that the reforms in the field of education in the mid-1950s and mid-1960s had a serious impact on the pedagogical activity of teachers in the city. Despite numerous difficulties, active work aimed at improving the education system has significantly expanded the content of educational activities in the city’s schools, increased the attention of the leadership and teachers of educational institutions to the quality of student training. The variety of extracurricular forms of work has also grown. The initiation of various hobby groups, both in schools and outside of them, the involvement of schoolchildren in social activities contributed to the diversified development of schoolchildren, allowed children to manifest their abilities from an early age.
Keywords: education, pedagogics, teachers, Tyumen, educational activities, extracurricular activities.

Ragimova P.F. (Moscow). Dagestani settlers in Georgia: history and modernity

PhD Candidate in History, Associate Professor,
Department of History of the Near Abroad Countries,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, 119192, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4.
E-mail: ragimova73@mail.ru

Annotation. The article is devoted to the interconnections and relations between Dagestan and Georgia. The author consecutively sanctifies the history of the appearance and resettlement of ethnic Dagestanis (Avars) in the Kvareli region of Georgiaand also the tragic events of 1944 associated with the resettlement of the Karelian Dagestanis in the Sayasanovsky region of the former Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic to the lands of the deported Chechens and Ingushs. The author pays attention to the events of the summer of 1990, when the Karelian Dagestanis were forced to settle in their historical homeland. The scientific novelty of the article lies in the fact that the author, studying the history of political, economic and cultural ties between Dagestan and Georgia, is trying to determine the reason for the resettlement of Dagestanis to Dagestan – to their historical homeland.
Keywords: cultural connection, economic connection, political connection, ethnic Dagestanis, resettlement, Kvarelsky district, Kvareli Dagestanis, household.

Pilishvili G.D. (Kursk). The combat path of the people's militias in the regular units of the Red Army in 1941 1945 on the example of the 2nd and 64th Guards Rifle Divisions

Candidate of historical science
Associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal Administration
Kursk State University
305 000, Kursk, 5 Kirova Street, ap. 59-b
E-mail: pilishvili.georg @ yandex.ru

Annotation. In the article, the author, with the involvement of an extensive source base: the archives of the Voronezh and Kursk regions, as well as the archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, revealed the process of forming parts of the people’s militia on the territory of the Central Black Earth Region and the further combat path of the militia. The main reason for the creation of the militia was also noted, the critical situation of the Red Army at the beginning of 1941. It was especially noted that the people’s militia is not permanent formations, but only temporary for solving a specific task. First of all, the defense of cities and towns from the enemy, in this case Voronezh and Kursk.
For the first time, the issue of the further fate of the militias of the Central Black Earth Region in the ranks of the regular armed forces was considered. As an example, the 2nd and 64th Guards Rifle Divisions were selected. They proved to be effective in battles with Nazi units. Liberated many cities and towns in Europe. This is also the merit of the militia fighters who took a direct part in the battles.
Summing up, the author notes that the people’s militia during the Great Patriotic War fulfilled its role not only in protecting cities together with units of the Red Army, but also as a kind of source of replenishment of military units in 1941-1943.
Keywords. Red Army, people’s emergency volunteer corps, the Great Patriotic War, combat operations, infantry division, party bodies

Stabrovskaya L.G. (Kursk). The place and role of museums and libraries in the field of environmental education and education of the population of the Kursk region from 1991 to 2014

PhD student, Department of Russian History,
Kursk State University,
305 048, Kursk, 33/52 Literaturnay Street
E-mail: pilishvili.georg@yandex.ru

Annotation. The author, using a large amount of statistical material, as well as material gathered from the media, analyzed the environmental education system in the Kursk region from museums and libraries.
Time frame 1991 is the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of a new state of modern democratic Russia, 2014 is the time of summing up the all-Russian year of ecology (2013). This period allows us to consider the origin, formation and development of the system of environmental education and education of Russian citizens.
Museums and libraries are not randomly selected as objects of consideration. It is to these state institutions that all age categories of citizens have equal access. In his article, the author emphasizes the features of each of these institutions when working with visitors in the field of environmental education.
The article analyzes the performance of museums and libraries in the Kursk region from 1991 to 2014, notes the positive dynamics in the dissemination of environmental knowledge among the population of the Kursk Territory, not only in cities but also in areas. The difficulties that the administration of museums and libraries had to deal with in promoting environmental knowledge were noted, primarily, underfunding on the part of state and local budgets, especially in the mid-1990s.
Keywords. Ecology, Kursk region, environmental education, environmental education, museum, library, Central Chernozem region.

Shishkina Yu.I. (Moscow). Romantic Hero of Fonthill Abbey (Gothic Revival in the life and work of William Beckford)

Russian Academy of Sciences
Institute of World History
Institute for intellectual history
PhD Student
127322, Russia, Moscow, Fonvizina st., 4
E-mail: iulia1993aestiva@gmail.com

Annotation. At the end of the 18th – beginning of the 19th centuries in England an interest in original culture and, as a result, in the Middle Ages and Gothic culture was widely distributed. The article investigates the construction of the premises of the English Abbey of Fonthill by its owner William Beckford. The author shows the era of the Gothic revival through Beckford’s subjective perception. The methodology of the research is based on the “Hermeneutic” biographical history, which generally aims at studying a person’s lifestyle, character traits, motives of behavior, ideas and intentions, as well as the degree of their implementation. The purpose of this article is to identify the role which Fonthill Abbey played in the life of William Beckford, as well as how the creation of the “Gothic space” of the estate helped him construct his image in society. The research is based on different types of sources, mainly the ones of personal origin, journalism, as well as various estate guidebooks. In the course of this work, the author draws the following conclusions: William Beckford lived a colorful life and developed an unconventional view of things. He was fond of oriental culture, was far from English high society and spent a lot of time alone in his estate. Fonthill Abbey was rebuilt by Beckford in accordance with the fashionable trend of the Gothic Revival, with addition of the symbolism of the oriental fairy tale “Vathek”, the fairytale which he had written himself. The representation and the premises of the estate constructed the image of an aloof, unsociable romantic hero.
Keywords. Fonthill Abbey, Gothic Revival, William Beckford, English manor, romantic image

Bakanov A.V., Magomedkhanov M.M., Emirova M.N. (Makhachkala). Life in the name of science (In memory of S.M. Soloviev)

Junior Researcher The Institute of History,
Archaeology and Ethnography of the
Daghestan Federal Research Centre of RAS
Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 75 st.

D.Sc. (in History), Prof., Head of Dept. of Ethnography
The Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the
Daghestan Federal Research Centre of RAS
Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 75 st.

Ph.D., Professor, Department of General history
Dagestan State Pedagogical University
Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 53 st.

Annotation. It is unambiguous that in the conditionally subdivided into imperial, Soviet and modern Russian historiography, the name of Sergei Mikhailovich Solovyov stands especially apart, and all his scientific works are still in demand today. As a fact, the scientist lived a very bright life full of various events. The historiographer with all his soul and heart selflessly, sincerely loved the Russian past and present, and tirelessly fought for the continuously progressive, multidimensional and multifaceted development of Russia. Note that this development in the understanding of the scientist, besides other fateful factors, is determined by the progression of sciences. According to the scientist, science and education carry both political and social stability. With the proper level of the latter, society and the state are equally, without fail, protected from many troubles. And even if you take a quick look at the main life milestones of the classic, you can quite boldly and confidently say that he, in no way seeking praise and dividends, faithfully serving science, with honor, sincerely served the Fatherland. It should be noted that in the field of the development of historical science his talent was revealed, blossomed and shone brightly.
Keywords. Russian historiography, S.M. Soloviev, the concept of history, science, education system, scientific & pedagogical activities, socio-political views.

Akhramovich N.V. (Moscow). The Delegates of the Brussels Conference of the Communist Party of Germany (October 1935)

Postgraduate Student
Department of Modern and Contemporary History
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, 119192, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4.
E-mail: impeccable434@yandex.ru

Annotation. One of the most important events for the creation of the antifascist strategy of the emigrated German communists was the Brussels Conference, on which gathered the leaders of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) and their colleagues from party organizations in the Third Reich and other European countries. The community of the Communists was divided and because of it occurred a problem of different understanding of the antifascist activity. The reasons for it could be the participants’ characteristics (personal and professional), important for the legitimation in the Comintern. The present article represents an attempt to reconstruct the profile of the delegates of the conference. The main sources for the research were the personal acts of the Communists in the Russian State Archive of the Social and Political History (RGASPI), biographical inquiries along with the memoirs. There were no generalizations of the Communist characteristics in foreign and Russian historiography despite of the installations and researches dedicated to individual Communists. The author comes to the conclusion that personal experience was one of the main reasons of the division among the Communists – those party members, who worked in Germany, had another understanding of goals and methods of the political struggle against fascism.
Keywords: antifascism, Comintern, communism, bolshevism, revolution, politemigration, USSR, Germany.

Izmozik V.S., Rudnik S.N. (St. Petersburg). The Great Russian Revolution 1917-1922 - a modern interpretation of historical events or "another pseudoscientific myth"?

Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor at the Department of History and Regional Studies at the Bonch-Bruevich St. Petersburg State University of Telecommunications. Russia, 193232, St. Petersburg, Bolshevikov av., 22.
E-mail: izmozik@mail.ru

PhD in History, Associate Professor, Saint-Petersburg Mining University;
Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, 199106, Vasilievsky island, 21st Line, 2;
E-mail: rudnik7@yandex.ru

Annotation. The article is debatable in relation to the publication of A.V. Grinev – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Humanitarian Institute of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. This author came out with a refutation of the concept of the Great Russian Revolution of 1917-1922 as “another pseudoscientific myth”. In his opinion, this concept “obscures the cardinal differences between February and October 1917,” because February 1917 was the February bourgeois democratic revolution, and October 1917 was the “Great October political counter-revolution”. The authors of this article substantiate the acceptance by the scientific community of the concept of “The Great Russian Revolution of 1917-1922” as an important step in the scientific understanding of those events.
Keywords. Social Revolution, Great Russian Revolution of 1917-1922 years, February 1917, October 1917, Civil War.

Podoprigora B.A. (St. Petersburg). On the Margins of an Unwritten Novel, or Will the Red and White Reconciliation Take Place?

Member of the Board of the St. Petersburg branch of the Union of Writers of Russia and the Union of Journalists of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region, President of the St. Petersburg Club of Conflict Intermediaries,
Member of the Expert and Analytical Council under the Committee for CIS and Compatriots Affairs of the State Duma of the Russian Federation
195220, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky pr., 11
E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Annotation. The article by the well-known writer, journalist and analyst is devoted to the process of comprehending the results of the Civil War in Russia and, in particular, to the issue of reconciliation of supporters of the white and red ideas. The author draws attention to the fact that the problem of reconciliation both during the Civil War and in our time has not yet become an object of scientific research. The problem of the attitude of the descendants of the leaders of the white movement to modern Russia is touched upon, as well as the conflict situation in their environment. References to the family archives of emigrants, which remained unclaimed, are provided. The author of the article recreates the psychological environment in the modern post-emigrant environment, which preserves the oral attributes of the Civil War: anecdotes, sayings, sayings that are not known to our current compatriots. The article makes an attempt to feel the connection between the times of the Civil War and the times that have come.
Keywords. Civil war, centenary of the end of the Civil War in Russia, reconciliation between whites and reds, emigration, descendants of the leaders of the white movement.

Ozova F.A. (Cherkessk). Review of the book: Historу and Fiction. Moscow: Russian History Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Center for Humanitarian Initiatives, 2018.

Doctor of History, Associate Professor,
Head of the Department of the History of the
Peoples of the KCR by Karachai-Cherkess
Research Institute of Humanities ordered
by “Sign of Honour” under Government of KCR.
369000, Cherkessk, Russian Federation, st. Gorky 1 a
E-mail: fo7799@gmail.com

Annotation. The review considers essays by professional historians analyzing the works of major domestic writers, poets and playwrights on the artistic understanding of the pressing problems of Russian history. A comparison of scientific and literary texts by the authors of essays clearly demonstrates that artistic methods often allow to comprehend some historical subjects deeper than scientific approaches. This suggests that the experience of artistic comprehension of historical plots can enrich the research arsenal of historical science with subtle observations of writers about the motives of human activity in various historical circumstances, about the hidden springs of historical processes. On the other hand, the conclusions of historians are also important on the extent to which the plot of historical novels, narrative stories and plays match the existing corpus of historical sources, as well as the degree of persuasiveness of the artistic images of historical figures. Peer-reviewed essays demonstrate both the importance of in-depth study of historical sources by writers on historical topics and the systematic mastery of literary heritage by historians.
In the present context, essays devoted to the problems of the formation of historical thinking of such major historians as Yu.V. Gauthier, S. B. Bogoslovsky, N. M. Druzhinin, M. V. Nechkina, as well as the artistic images of professional historians in Russian literature of the second half of the XX ― beginning of the XXI century are of great interest.
Keywords. History, Fiction, Russian Literature, artistic Methods, scientific Approaches.

Hippolitov G.M., Filatov T.V. (Samara). A weighty scientific slap in the face to those who vulgarize the great feat of the great Soviet people who saved the world from the "brown plague". Marginalia on the margins of an extraordinary publication. [Rubtsov, Yu.V. They had no grudge against Russia. Penalty and barrage formations during the Great Patriotic War. Moscow, Veche Publ., 2020 384 p.]

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Volga State University of Telecommunications and Information Technology (Samara)
443010, Russian Federation, Samara, L. Tolstoy St., 23.
Email: gippolitov@rambler.ru

Doctor of Philosophical Science, Professor, head of the Department of philosophy of the Volga State University of telecommunications and Informatics (Samara)
443010, Russian Federation, Samara, L. Tolstoy St., 23.
Email: tfilatoff1960@mail.ru

Annotation. In the first twenty years of the 21st century, one interesting historiographic tendency in the study of the multifaceted problems of the history of the Great Patriotic War (06/22/1941–05/09/1945) was formed and assumed a stable character – a sharp increase in all kinds of falsifications here. The danger of such falsifiers is obvious, since they sow lies and slander about the great victory of the great Soviet people over the “brown plague” of Nazism and fascism, primarily in the minds of young people. Of course, they receive a worthy rebuff from scientists who take a state-patriotic position. One of them is Professor Yuri Viktorovich Rubtsov. This publication is made in the form of a detailed scientific review of his next book, which comprehensively and comprehensively investigated the problem of the history of penalty and barrage units of the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War. He gave, among other things, a worthy rebuff to those who today sow great lies and slander around such an urgent problem as indicated above. This publication is made in the form of a detailed scientific review of the next book by Yu.V. Rubtsov, in which he comprehensively revealed the topic of penalty and barrage units of the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War. Reviewers, evaluating this edition as extraordinary, point out, at the same time, some of its shortcomings, make recommendations that will allow the author of the book to develop further research on such an urgent problem. Especially in the context of the fight against the falsifiers of the history of the Great Patriotic War.
Keywords. The Great Patriotic War; falsifications; penal battalions; penal companies; barrage detachments; Red Army; Yuri Viktorovich Rubtsov; S.N. Poltorak, Order No. 227, historiography of the problem, Central archive of the RF Ministry of Defense.

Poltorak S.N., Zotova A.V. (St. Petersburg). Service to historical science (to the 75th anniversary of Professor V.F. Soldatenko)

Editor-in-chief of the journal “Klio”
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honorary Worker
of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation,
consulting professor of the“Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin”.
196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10.
E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

First Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Klio”
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Docent, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations in the Post-Soviet Area, Saint-Petersburg State University. 199034, Russia,
St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
E-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

Annotation. On April 13, the prominent Ukrainian historian Valery Fedorovich Soldatenko turned 75 years old. Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine V.F. Soldatenko is one of the leading specialists in the history of social and political movements in the first decades of the twentieth century in Ukraine. He wrote brilliant works dedicated to personalities: M. Hrushevsky, M. Dragomanov, V. Vinnichenko, D. Doroshenko, S. Petlyura and many other prominent figures of Ukraine. For his contribution to the development of historical science, V.F. Soldatenko was awarded the title of Honored Worker of Science and Technology of Ukraine.
Keywords. Soldatenko Valery Fedorovich, 1917-1920, revolution in Ukraine, Civil war in Ukraine, national liberation movement in Ukraine.