Klio #04 (196) 2023

Kudlasevich N.N. (Moscow). The acquisition of autocephaly by the Estonian Orthodox Church in 1923 (the question of the canonicity of the actions of the Patriarchate of Constantinople)

postgraduate student of the Department of the Church History
Lomonosov Moscow State University
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospect, str. 27, building 4
E-mail: nikola3.3@mai.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the event of the receipt of autocephaly by the Estonian Orthodox Church in 1923. The ambiguity of this event lies in the fact that the autocephaly by the Estonian Orthodox Church was received not from the Moscow Patriarchate, under whose administration it historically was, but by the decision of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Patriarch Meletius IV of Constantinople granted autocephaly by a synodal act – Tomos – dated July 7, 1923, reassigning the Estonian Church to the Synod of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. The purpose of the article is to prove the canonical inconsistency of the decision adopted by the Patriarchate of Constantinople. For this purpose, archival sources are being investigated, revealing the details of the process of gaining the “independence” of the Estonian Orthodox Church from the Moscow Patriarchate. According to the results of the study, the conclusion is made about the illegality of the actions of the Patriarchate of Constantinople for the following reasons: the lack of coordination of these actions with the Moscow Patriarchate; The decision to grant autonomy was made on the basis of incorrect ideas about the history of the Estonian Orthodox Church and its connection with the Moscow Patriarchate. That’s why the granting of autonomy to the Estonian Orthodox Church in 1923 cannot be considered as an argument for the existence of the Estonian Orthodox Church of the Patriarchate of Constantinople in the XXI century. The research is based on materials from the archive of the Metropolitan of the Estonian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate in Tallinn and other archival sources.
Keywords: Estonian Orthodox Church, Patriarchate of Constantinople, Russian Orthodox Church, Alexander Paulus, Patriarch Meletius IV

Koltachykhina E.Yu. (Moscow). The evolution of the field of registration, transmission and processing of information (a brief history of ideas and discoveries)

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Associate Professor, Department of Physics, Moscow Aviation Institute;
Head of the Group of the Department of Science Policy and Organization of Scientific Research, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov.
119991, Russia, Moscow, Leninskie gory, Moscow State University, Main building, sector A, room. 1010a
e-mail: kolt-elena@yandex.ru

Abstract. Based on a wide range of published sources and extensive historiography, the evolution of ideas and discoveries in the field of registration, transmission and processing of information is shown. At all stages of human development, these processes played an exceptional role. Appropriate means and devices were developed, which during their existence went through a difficult path of evolution – from rock paintings, papyri, writing, printing, photography and Morse codes to modern optical disks, fiber-optic cables and space communications.

The article analyzes not only world works in the researched area, but also little-known works of Soviet and Russian scientists and inventors.

In 1795, the Russian inventor I.P. Kulibin designed a “long-range warning machine” – an optical telegraph. This design could be used day and night, and even in a little fog. In 1828, the Russian scientist P.L. Shiling built the first electromagnetic telegraph. He proved the possibility of practical application of electromagnetic phenomena for the needs of communication. It can be considered the guiding thread that opened the way for the work of S. Morse. In 1840, the Russian physicist and electrical engineer B. Jacobi proposed a self-recording electromagnetic telegraph apparatus, the advantage of which was the absence of a multi-wire telegraph line. In the 20–40s. 20th century Russian scientist V.O. Kotelnikov formulated a theorem that solved how to convert a signal to digital without loss. Today it is at the heart of digital technology. In the middle of the twentieth century. Soviet scientists A.M. Prokhorov and N.G. Basov developed the basic technology of “cold lasers”, which made possible the appearance of laser discs. In 1977, Soviet scientists M.V. Gorshkov and V.V. Petrov proposed the idea of an optical disk as a “single” information carrier. 

The author identifies and describes the key stages in the development of the field of registration, transmission and processing of information.
Keywords: registration of information, transmission of information, information processing, carrier, information storage

Soloviev K.A. (Moscow). On the history of the development of church-state relations in the era of the Second Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1922-1939 on the territory of Western Belarus

candidate of Cultural Studies, Associate Professor of the Department of Architectural and Structural Design and Construction Physics of the National Research University – MGSU.
Moscow State Construction University
129337, Moscow, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26
e-mail: k.solovev@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the difficult interfaith relations between Catholics, Uniates, Protestants and Orthodox on the lands of Western Belarus in the interwar period of 1922-1933. For the proposed study, it is very important to understand that the Western Russian lands have always been at the junction of the European Christian world and the Russian Eastern Christian one. That is why the article deals with the problems of the interfaith world in a historical retrospective, starting from the era of the Reformation and the proclamation of the Union of Brest, the Russian Empire and ending with the period of existence of the Western Belarusian lands as part of the Second Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1922-1933. In the article, the author raises a number of issues of historical understanding of the development of the ethno-confessional history of Western Russian lands in various historical periods.
Keywords: The Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Republic of Belarus, the reformation movement, princely, а popular Reformation, Union, Orthodoxy, the Spassky Virovsky Monastery, revindication, parcellation and cassation, rehabilitation regime, osadniki

Hieromonk Lavr (Arkhipov M.I.) (Moscow). Reports of the commissioners of the Council for the affairs of the Russian Orthodox Church as a historical source of information about the closure of monasteries”

post-graduate Student of the Department of Church History, Faculty of History Lomonosov Moscow State University
119991, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, bldg. 4
e-mail: maksim-arxipov@mail.ru

Abstract. The reports of the commissioners of the Council for the Affairs of the Russian Orthodox Church are analyzed as a source of information on the implementation of the anti-religious program of N. S. Khrushchev to eliminate and reduce the number of monasteries in the late 50s of the twentieth century. In the Ukrainian SSR in 1959 there were 40 out of 56 monasteries in the USSR. The historical significance of the reports of the commissioners containing statistical information on the economic and economic condition of monasteries, information about the inhabitants, the attitude of the abbots of monasteries to the actions of the Soviet government, details of the anti-religious Soviet policy in general is revealed. The reports describe the specifics of running a monastic subsidiary farm; comments are given on the consequences of the introduction in 1958 of a tax on buildings and land rent, an increase in the tax rate on land plots in relation to monasteries. The reports reflect the details of the strategy for the liquidation and reduction of monasteries and contain the commissioners’ own ideas regarding the process of closing monasteries.
Keywords: closing of monasteries; anti-religious policy of the USSR; commissioners’ reports

Sokirkin D.N. (St. Petersburg). “Mr. Pskov” during the Russian-Livonian-Lithuanian war (1500 – 1503)

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: sokirkin1976@mail.ru

Abstract. This study examines one of the key stages of Russian history, the period of formation of the Russian centralized state. Special attention is paid to the peculiarities of the entry into the Grand Duchy of Moscow of previously independent Russian lands. This process can be traced on the example of the Pskov Veche Republic. The direct object of study is the participation of Pskov on the side of the Moscow state in the Russian-Livonian-Lithuanian war of 1500-1503. The reasons for the outbreak of hostilities, the contradictions between the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, as well as the peculiarities of Moscow-Pskov relations in the political and military context are analyzed. The features of military-strategic planning in certain periods of the war are considered, along with the change in the political situation that influenced its course. The political reasons for the interaction at this historical stage of the Moscow state and the Pskov Republic are analyzed. The strategic role played by the Pskov troops in the military-political plans of the Russian High Command is determined. The principles of interaction between the Moscow and Pskov troops are traced directly in the course of jointly conducted military campaigns. The influence of the operational situation in the Pskov lands on the overall political and military-strategic situation is investigated. The results of the war and their impact on the subsequent development of international relations are analyzed.
Keywords: Moscow, Pskov, Livonian Order, Lithuania, war, Seritsa, Smolino

Zhilkibaeva R.R., Nasyrova L.G. (Yelabuga). Stages of the formation of the social and legal status of teachers in the Russian Empire

Ph.D. in History, Assistant, Department of General and Russian History, Yelabuga Institute of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University
423600, Russian Federation, Yelabuga, Kazanskaya St., 89
e-mail: RRSajfullova@kpfu.ru

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of General and Russian History, Yelabuga Institute of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University
423600, Russian Federation, Yelabuga, Kazanskaya St., 89
e-mail: LGNasyrova@kpfu.ru

Abstract. The article examines the evolution of the social and professional status of Russian pre-revolutionary teachers. Changes in the system of public education, caused by the change of ministers and the political situation in the Russian Empire, are taken as the basis for highlighting the stages of the formation of teachers. Along with the formation of a socio-professional status, teachers are being formed as a special socio-professional group, which has been endowed with special rights and privileges, which depended on the level of education in which the teacher worked. The evolution of the socio-professional status was characterized by the opportunities for teachers that appeared at the legislative level. These could include pensions and lump-sum allowances, housing payments, exemption from the poll tax (for taxable estates), exemption from recruitment, and later from universal military service. At the same time, teachers were assigned certain requirements for the level of education, political, moral and religious reliability. The position of a teacher in pre-revolutionary Russia can be described as unstable, since if there were suspicions of unreliability, teachers could be fired from the educational department without the right to reinstatement.
Keywords: teaching, socio-professional status, Russian Empire, 19th century, trustworthiness

Troianowski C.V. (St. Petersburg). Project for the co-optation of the lesser Polish szlachta of the western provinces into the Russian imperial nobility, 18071808

candidate of sciences, lecturer at the Department of Humanities, Institute of Medical Education
Almazov National Medical Research Centre
197341, St. Petersburg, Akkuratova str, 11 a
e-mail: troianowski@rambler.ru

Abstract. After the partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795 the Russian authorities started to deliberate on how to utilize for state purposes the human resources of the numerous local nobility – szlachta. Concurrently the issue of determining szlachta’s legal status in imperial hierarchy should have been solved. The present article focuses on of the project of legislative co-optation of petty szlachta into the ranks of imperial nobility which was developed and discussed in 18071808. Alexander I commissioned a special committee to resolve the issue of the lesser Polish nobility. In August 1807 a governmental body known in historiography as the Second Jewish Committee developed a programme of co-optation of szlachta into the imperial nobility and the regulations for the land’s use. Three members of the Jewish Committee were also the emperor’s closest associates and members of the Privy Committee – Alexander I’s private consultative body which worked on the programme of state reforms. At the same time, the Russian imperial authorities were interested in exploiting szlachta for military use in the era of Napoleonic wars. In July of 1808 the State Council approved the special Committee programme. Yet, minister of the war A. A. Arakcheev proposed a plan of voluntary-compulsory recruitment of a mass of landless szlachta into the army. Arakcheev’s plan in its essence disavowed the Committee’s programme since it stipulated that szlachta should serve in the army to be entitled to nobility’s privileges.
Keywords: Russian Empire, Alexander I, The State Council, Privy Committee, Second Jewish Committee, western provinces, lands of partitioned Poland, imperial policy, social estates (sosloviia), nobility, lesser szlachta, social status, A. A. Arakcheev, V. P. Kochubey, P. V. Lopukhin, N. N. Novosiltsov, N. P. Rumiantsev, A. Czartoryski, T. Czacki

Avliev V.N., Batyrov V.V., Goryaev M.S., Sandzhieva V.S. (Elista). Cattle theft from the Stavropol Turkmens in the first half of the 19th century and the problem of joint land use with the Kalmyks

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikova,
Russian Federation, Elista, Pushkin st., 11
e-mail: bartolomeod@yandex.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of world history, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikova,
Russian Federation, Elista, Pushkin st., 11
e-mail: valerabatyrov@gmail.com

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikova,
Russian Federation, Elista, Pushkin st., 11
e-mail: mergengoryaev@mail.ru

Master of Historical sciences 1nd year, Department of IRDA, Faculty of Humanities,
Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikova,
Russian Federation, Elista, Pushkin st., 11
e-mail: sandzhieva-v@mail.ru

Abstract. The article deals with issues related to cattle rustling by the Kalmyks from the Stavropol Turkmens in the first half of the 19th century and the problem of their joint land use. The article examines the history of criminal and economic relations between the two nomadic peoples in pre-revolutionary times. The work is based on a wide range of archival sources (Kalmyk and Stavropol archives), periodicals and monographs. At the beginning of the article, the essence and significance of the tradition of cattle rustling among representatives of nomadic peoples is shown, that is, what it meant in the everyday consciousness of the people. This tradition of nomads, in this case the Kalmyks and Turkmens, puzzled Russian officials, who regarded it as an absolute crime. It is noted that the traditional custom of “barant” began to transform from a means of gaining public authority into a means for making money and gaining benefits. Already in the second half of the XIX century cattle rustling began to be qualified as a crime not only among the settled peoples, but also among the nomads themselves. In the first half of the XIX century cattle theft among the Turkmens as a way of legal division of inheritance according to the norms of customary law was transformed into one of the forms of enrichment. The ill-conceived division by the Russian authorities of the nomadic territories between the Turkmens, Nogais and Kalmyks led to many years of enmity between these peoples, which was expressed in constant and fierce raids. This was the reason why the evolution of the attitude of Turkmens towards cattle rustling from “good luck” to crime was directly related to the natural course of the socio-economic development of their lands.
Keywords: cattle, nomads, custom, theft, Turkmens, Kalmyks

Sosnitsky D.A. (St. Petersburg). Figures of science and culture in the monumental sculpture of St. Petersburg of the XIX-early XX centuries

Ph.D. in History, senior lecturer
Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University
199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7/9.
e-mail: d.sosnitskij@spbu.ru 

Abstract. Within the framework of this article, the place of monuments to figures of science and culture established in St. Petersburg of the XIX – early XX centuries in the state historical policy is analyzed. The circumstances of the erection and installation of monuments, as well as their cost, are considered. The circumstances of the solemn ceremonies for the opening of monuments, the participation of representatives of the authorities and the public in them are described. Within the framework of the article, as a result of the analysis of reference and research materials, a list of monuments of monumental sculpture of pre-revolutionary St. Petersburg has been compiled and the proportion of sculptures dedicated to scientists, writers, composers, architects and travelers has been determined. The article provides calculations that make it possible to compare the studied group of monuments with monuments to outstanding statesmen and military figures. The articles of the city periodical press, which described in detail the opening ceremonies of the monuments, are analyzed. Conclusions are drawn about the leading role of the urban community in the construction of monuments to figures of science and culture in St. Petersburg of the XIX-early XX centuries. It is emphasized that, unlike monuments to military and statesmen, sculptures from the studied group practically did not suffer after the Bolsheviks came to power. It is suggested that this circumstance is due to the fact that, as a rule, figures of science and culture who were the place of consensus of national memory were immortalized in stone.
Keywords: historical memory, sculpture, monuments, scientists, writers, cultural figures, images of the past

Nosov E.A. (Pushkin, St. Petersburg). Assessments of the Russian government at the beginning of the First Russian Revolution in the Russian press

2nd year postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History,
Leningrad State University named after A. S. Pushkin
198328, Russia, St. Petersburg, Peterhof sh., 10
Email: eugeny.nosoff@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article will examine how the Russian press covered the events of “Bloody Sunday” and the subsequent first Russian Revolution in January – February 1905, as well as the actions of the Russian government during this period. The purpose of this work is to analyze, compare and draw conclusions about the reaction of the Russian press to the actions of the Russian authorities at the beginning of the 1905 revolution. The scientific and practical significance of the work lies in the generalization and comparison of the materials of the Russian press on the assessment of the actions of the Russian government during the “Bloody Sunday”, the beginning of the revolution and the decision to convene a legislative parliament. The conclusions drawn in the course of the study can be used in further scientific research on the internal policy of the autocracy both during the first Russian revolution of 1905 – 1907 in general, and its initial period in particular.
Keywords: Bloody Sunday, the First Russian Revolution, press, public opinion, 1905

Dolgova A.V. (Moscow). “Plays in cafes and goes from house to house like a musician…” The life of children left without parental care in the Perm province in the 1920s

PhD in History,
Associate professor of Department of Humanities, Faculty of Social Sciences and Mass Communications, FGIBU VO “Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation”
125167, Moscow, pr-kt Leningradsky, 49/2
e-mail: angela_dol@mail.ru 

Abstract. The article is devoted to the history of the daily life of children left without parental education during the formation of the Soviet state. Issues such as the causes of homelessness and neglect, the adaptation of minors in reception departments and orphanages in the context of the transition to a unified labor school, the living conditions of children in families, the fate of parents are considered. The revolution and civil war swept the homeless, whose number was in the millions. The loss of one or parents forced the children not only to look for a roof over their heads, but also the problem of food. But the parents themselves were not able to have children due to chronic earnings or a serious illness, so they had a way out of the orphanage, at least for a while. However, living conditions in orphanages left much to be desired: there were no financial and material resources, and there were difficulties in recruiting staff. 

The flow of homeless children to the reception centers did not stop, and there was a catastrophic lack of premises for their maintenance. Those that existed required major repairs. The article is based on rare, previously unpublished documents from the State Archives of the Perm Territory, which allow us to restore some episodes from the daily life of children left without parental care. When writing the study, a statistical method was carried out, as a result of which data were obtained on the age and sex composition of children, their parents, social incidents, the number of people admitted to orphanages and those who left, data on relatives who decided to raise children. The target of the work is to determine the role of receivers-distributors in regulating the problem of homelessness.
Keywords: homeless child, shelter, orphan, orphanage, Civil War, famine, peasantry, miners

Zuev D.M. (Pushkin, St. Petersburg). Experience in the development and production of domestic tanks at the Bolshevik plant in 1920-1934

postgraduate student of the State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education “Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin”.
198328, Russia, St. Petersburg, Peterhof sh., 10
e-mail: zuich-rossi@mail.ru

Abstract. The article, based on documents from the Russian State Military Archive, reveals the details of the development of new tanks in the USSR, the production mechanisms of factories, the intricacies of using the experience of other countries, the issue of attracting new specialists, and the exchange of experience between specialists from different countries. The study describes the need to develop a combat vehicle with increased cross-country ability and a high degree of armor, provides requirements for newly designed tanks, reveals the features of testing, the performance characteristics of some tanks, as well as the specifics of the power unit designed by designer Mikulin. In addition, the vulnerabilities of produced tanks are considered. The author analyzed the indicators of tank production, compiled a schedule for the number of tanks produced. The article focuses on the scientists who played a significant role in the development of tank building – the designers of the AVO-5, as well as the chief designer of the design bureau of the Bolshevik plant.
Keywords: development of tanks, prototypes of tanks, production of tanks in 1920-1934, requirements for tanks of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army, aircraft engine department-5, Nikolai Vsevolodovich Barykov

Kalinin O.N. (Krasnoyarsk). The solution of the personnel issue in the organization of pre-conscription and initial military training in secondary educational institutions of the Krasnoyarsk Territory during the Second World War (1939-1945)

Deputy Head of the Department of the Military Training Center
Siberian Federal University,
660041, Svobodny Ave, 79, Krasnoyarsk
e-mail: OKalinin2006@yandex.ru

Abstract. With the outbreak of World War II, responding to the strengthening of Germany’s military potential, measures were taken in the Soviet Union to prepare mobilization resources in a timely manner. One of the directions of such activity was the introduction of new types of military training for young students: pre-conscription military training – for senior classes of secondary educational institutions and university students; initial military training – for students of incomplete secondary schools. The article considers the problems of staffing secondary educational institutions of the Krasnoyarsk Territory with qualified personnel for teaching primary and pre-conscription military training during the Second World War, as well as the measures taken to overcome them. The author provides statistical data on the quantitative and qualitative composition of military leaders of secondary educational institutions of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Based on the materials of the State Archive of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, it was concluded that the difficulties of the pre-war period, and then the period of the Great Patriotic War, had a significant negative impact on the personnel issue. During the war, the military leaders were overwhelmingly front-line soldiers who arrived from hospitals after treatment of wounds. They had weak pedagogical skills and insufficient general education level. Due to the high turnover of personnel, the work to improve the professional skills of military leaders had a short-term effect. At the same time, the strength of the front-line military instructors was their knowledge of military affairs and the presence of combat experience, which positively influenced the students when they assimilated the educational material.
Keywords: World War II, Krasnoyarsk Territory, secondary educational institutions, primary and pre-conscription military training of students, personnel problems

Grishina A.S. (Voronezh). How the Red Army liberated Romania: the fighting of the 33rd rifle corps to capture the city of Oradea Mare (September-October 1944)

Ph.D. in Historical Sciences,
Applicant of the Department of History of Russia,
Voronezh State Pedagogical University.
394043, Russian Federation, Voronezh, ul. Leninа, 86.
E-mail: vspihist@rambler.ru

Abstract. The article provides a historical reconstruction of the offensive, defensive and counter-offensive combat operations of the 33rd Rifle Corps to capture the city of Oradea Mare (Romania) during the Great Patriotic War (September-October 1944). The relevance of studying this topic is due to the fact that in the current difficult conditions of the international situation in Romania, as in many other EU and NATO countries, there are tendencies to falsify the history of the Great Patriotic War and its results. On the one hand, the fascist regime of I. Antonescu, who dragged Romania into the war against the USSR on the side of Nazi Germany, is apologised, on the other hand, the leading role of the Red Army in liberating the country from German and Hungarian invaders is distorted. In this regard, it seems necessary and timely to restore the true picture of what was happening. We have established that the Soviet and Romanian formations in the period of September-October 1944, in close cooperation, defeated the German and Hungarian troops, captured the city of Oradea Mare and opened an exit to the Danube plain. These events serve as a meaningful example of how the Red Army carried out its liberation mission in Europe.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Red Army, Romania, 33rd Rifle Corps, Oradea Mare

Guriev E.P. (St. Petersburg). Tank troops of NATO and the Warsaw Pact in the years of Cold War

PhD in historical sciences, associate professor
St. Petersburg State Universitat of Architektur and Civil Engineering
Associate professor en department of history and philosophy
Russia, St. Petersburg
190005, Saint Petersburg, 2-ja Krasnoarmejskaja str., 4.
E-mail: geier@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the development and evolution of armored troops of NATO and ATS countries during the Cold War of 1946-1991. During this period, armored troops formed the basis of the ground forces of both military-political blocs and were considered as the main striking force in the war against a likely enemy. The article analyzes the qualitative composition of the armored forces of NATO and the ATS, that is, what types of tanks were in service during the main periods of the Cold War: in the 1940s, when the block confrontation began, the 50s, when the first tanks of post-war types appeared, the 60s, at which the peak of confrontation and a new type of tanks appears – the main battle tanks, the 70s, the period of defusing international tension, and the 80s, when the collapse of the ATS and the USSR takes place on a new round of confrontation. Much attention is paid to the comparison of the tactical and technical characteristics (TTX) of NATO and ATS tanks, the combat experience of using tanks in local conflicts of the second half of the XX century, such as the Korean War of 1950-53, the Vietnam War of 1964-73, the Arab-Israeli wars, the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-88 and Operation Desert Storm of 1991, is analyzed. hypothetical duels between NATO and ATS tanks are modeled. The correlation of forces, deployment and strategic objectives of the armored forces of the two blocs during a possible military conflict in Europe is also considered.
Keywords: tanks, main battle tank, Cold War, NATO, ATS, local conflicts of the XX century, armored troops, strategy, European Theater of Operations

Puzanova M.S. (St. Petersburg). Ensuring Food security in the USSR in the 1980 – 1990s and after the collapse of the USSR

Postgraduate student, School of International Relations,
Saint-Petersburg State University
199034, Universitetskaya Naberezhnaya, 7/9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: puzanovamari@rambler.ru

Abstract. The article explores the main root causes of the USSR’s transformation from a grain exporting country to the largest food importer. The political and economic conditions under which the USSR’s Food Programme was developed in the 1980s are analysed. Starting from the 1960s the USSR’s agro-industrial sector increasingly experienced a crisis as a result of extensive and conservative methods of state regulation and development of the industry, which led to a gradual increase in foreign food purchases and dependence on imports of key food products. The article analyses the measures proposed to intensify agro-industrial production, the progress made and the overall results of the implementation of the USSR’s Food Program for the period up to 1990.

The article also focuses on ensuring food security in Russia and the CIS countries since the collapse of the USSR, including the adoption of the Food Security Doctrines in 2010 and 2020. The Food Programme of the USSR and the Russian Food Security Doctrine were largely of political importance, emphasizing the attention of state authorities to problems in the agro-industrial sector and delineating the sphere of national interests.
Keywords: food security, agro-industrial complex, agriculture, The Food Programme of the USSR, The Russian Food Security Doctrine

Lapina I.Yu., Guriev E.P. (St. Petersburg). Youth patriotic education on the examples of the history of besieged Leningrad

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. The article raises the issue of the need to educate young people, in particular, students, on the heroic past of our country. Particular attention is drawn by the authors of the article to the need to educate young people on the example of the exploits of Leningraders who defended their native city in 1941-1944. It is noted that universities have enormous potential, qualified personnel who can effectively explain the lessons of history to young people, which can become necessary moral guidelines for student youth. The authors draw readers’ attention to the fact that publications on the history of the blockade of Leningrad, prepared by many historians, have not only important scientific, but also social significance, including educational. Among many scientists, the authors in the article rely on the works of M.I. Frolov, V.L. Pyankevich, M.V. Khodyakov, A.V. Losik, Yu.V. Tot, B.P. Belozerov, A.V. Zotova, S.N. Poltorak, E.I. Lelina, T.V. Burkova, L.L. Gazieva, E.L. Sotnikova, N.V. Chernysheva and many others.
Keywords: Siege of Leningrad, youth, patriotism, Great Patriotic War, national historiography

Pshenichnyi A.M. (Moscow). Jorneys of the Greek Catholic Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky to the Russian Empire

graduate student,
Moscow State University, Faculty of History
119234, Moscow, Leninskiye Gory, 1 building B
e-mail: pshenichniy-michail@mail.ru

Abstract. The article deals with information about the trips of the Greek Catholic Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky to the Russian Empire. The first part of the article reviews the journey of the young Count Roman Sheptytsky in 1887, during which he became acquainted with the Romanov monarchy. It is stated that already during his first stay in Russia, the young aristocrat considered it, first of all, as an object of a future religious mission. It is noted that although during the trip Sheptytsky felt comfortable in the society of the local Poles, he was mainly interested in Orthodox shrines and monuments of Russian culture and architecture. The second part of the work is devoted to a comparison of various information about the secret trips of Metropolitan Andrei to Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. The conflicting information about the number of such trips, their dates, the legend used during the journey incognito, the meetings of the Metropolitan and his visits to various places is discussed. The views of contemporaries, both supporters of the metropolitan and his opponents, are given on the purpose of these trips. It is noted that the problem of the reaction of the Russian authorities to the crossing of the state border by Metropolitan Andrei under a false name requires further research. An increase in the role of Sheptytsky’s missionary identity in the public sphere is recorded.
Keywords: Andrey Sheptytsky, Uniatism, pilgrimage, missionary work, unification of Christians

Mankov S.A. (Pushkin, St. Petersburg). Poet and translator A.G. Shpigotsky (1809–1889): creative and life path

Ph.D. in history, honorary member of the Russian Academy of Arts,
Senior researcher of the State Museum «Tsarskoye Selo».
196601, Sadovaya st., 7, Pushkin, Saint Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: mankov21@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the biography and creative heritage of a member of the circle of Kharkov romantics, poet and folklorist Afanasy Grigoryevich Shpigotsky (1809 – 1889), in addition to writing his own works, known for his translations into Russian and Ukrainian of poems by A. Mickiewicz, A.S. Pushkin, Petrarch, A. de Lamartine, C. Delavigne and other authors. On the basis of previously unpublished materials from the Russian federal and regional archives, the circumstances of the state civil service and career achievements of A.G. Shpigotsky, the facts of inventive activity and unsuccessful attempts to strengthen the financial position of the noble family in the post-reform era are given. Separately, a place is given to the difficult personal life of the poet and translator, the influence of various departments on the conflicts that took place in a noble family, in a religious society, where the possibility of divorce was not allowed or significantly limited. The process of legalization of illegitimate (premarital) offspring of nobles in the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIXth century is traced, brief biographical and genealogical information about relatives, in-laws and descendants of the poet is given.
Keywords: Russian literature of the XIX century, Ukrainian literature, translators, folklorists, nobility, serfdom, illegitimate, underwater vehicle, Adam Mickiewicz, St. Petersburg governorate, Russia in the XIX century

Smirnov V.G. (St. Petersburg). Sailors and A.S. Pushkin (to the history of perpetuating the memory of the poet)

Doctor of Historical Sciences,
Director of the Russian State
Naval Archive
191186, Russia, St. Petersburg,
Millionnaya str., 36
e-mail: mail@rgavmf.ru

Abstract. In the article, for the first time, using the documents of the Russian State of the Navy Archive (RSNA), the question of the participation of seamen in perpetuating the memory of the great Russian poet A.S. Pushkin in 1860–1900. As a rule, they took part in collecting donations for the construction of monuments to the poet in St. Petersburg and Moscow, as well as to perpetuate the memory of A.S. Pushkin in the Pskov province. Pupils of the Naval Cadet Corps and the Naval Engineering School of Emperor Nicholas I during the period of naval practice were involved in holding commemorative events on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the birth of A.S. Pushkin. In addition, the best graduates of naval educational institutions were awarded a medal in memory of the 100th anniversary of the birth of A.S. Pushkin. Many pupils received as a gift the “Selected Works” of the poet, published on the initiative of the Minister of Finance S.Yu. Witte, as well as portraits of A.S. Pushkin. In the naval crews of the coastal cities of Russia, published in the Military Ministry, on the initiative of the Minister of War A.N. Kuropatkin, collections of selected works of the poet “To the Russian soldier in memory of Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin”.
Keywords: A.S. Pushkin, seamen, 100th anniversary, Alexander II, Nicholas II, N.I. Novosiltsev, S.Yu. Witte, A.N. Kuropatkin, P.P. Tyrtov