Klio #05 (209) 2024

Lezik E.V., Popov A.A., Popova D.V. (St. Petersburg). The political dispatch of the Politdepartment of the Naval Base Hanko of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet dated 10 September 1941

director of the State Memorial Museum of the Defense and Blockade of Leningrad,
191028, Solaynoy lane, 9, St. Peterburg,
e-mail: gmmobl@mail.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Peter the Great St Petersburg Polytechnic University,
195251, Politehnicheskaya street, 29, liter. B, St. Peterburg,
 researcher, The Institute of History of the Defence and the Blockade of Leningrad of the State Memorial Museum of the Defense and Blockade of Leningrad,
191028, Solaynoy lane, 9, St. Peterburg,
e-mail: artempopovspb@mail.ru

assistant of organizational sector of The Institute of History of the Defence and the Blockade of Leningrad of the State Memorial Museum of the Defense and Blockade of Leningrad,
191028, Solaynoy lane, 9, St. Peterburg,
e-mail: popovadianaspb@yandex.ru

Abstract. The political dispatch of the Politdepartment of the Naval Base Hanko of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet dated 10 September 1941, is the important source for studying of the battle for the Red Gangut, as the part of the Leningrad Battle. This source is stored in the Archive of Navy (Gatchina), which is the branch of the Central Archive of Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. This document was written during the dramatic moment when the Soviet troops and fleet left Tallinn and the ring around Leningrad closed down. The Hanko defenders continued the success aggressive actions on the islands which surrounded the peninsula. These actions diverted sizeable enemy forces from the attack of Leningrad. They binded enemy on the west direction. It reported about “politico-moral condition” of garrison in this dispatch: about heroic deeds, carelessness, cowardice and betrayal of some soldiers and commanders. The dates, which are in this dispatch, add the information reported in another archive documents, memoirs and periodical of those days. For this reason this source gives us the unique dates. The parts consecrated to work of the political department play the special role. They told about agitation work of soviet political instructors, which was directed to morale increase among the Hanko defenders and directed to enemy demoralization. In the end of this dispatch there are dates about garrison loss for the moment of writing the document, questions about paper provision of Hanko for more effective agitation work, request about post for the increase garrison morale because of getting the information about their relatives in rear area.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Battle for Leningrad, Battle of Hanko, the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, the Politdepartment of the Naval Base Hanko

Musina R.I. (Moscow). Trilobe facades in church architecture of the Venetian Republic (last third of 15th – first third of 16th centuries): the history of studies

PhD student (3rd year), Department of General History of Art, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University
119991, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1.
e-mail: musinarenata@mail.ru

Abstract. The article provides an overview of scientific works touching the issue of trilobe church facade, which was common in Northern Italy and the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea (mainly in Venice and the cities of Dalmatia) in the last third of the 15th – first third of the 16th centuries. The emergence of this type attracted the attention of researchers back in the late 19th – first half of the 20th centuries. This interest was largely due to the Cathedral of St. James in Sibenik (now in Croatia), which, thanks to its unique vaulted roof, following the curves of the facade, has long been considered the first Renaissance temple with a trilobe facade and a model for other churches in Dalmatia and Venice. In Venice, the most studied monument of this type is certainly the church of San Michele in Isola, built under the direction of Mauro Codussi. Among the possible sources of compositional solutions for both temples was named the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini, rebuilt according to the design of L. B. Alberti. The discovery by A. M. Romanini of the unpreserved trilobe facades of older Gothic churches (cathedrals in Milan and Mantua), associated with Venetian masters, made it possible to localize sources of this type in Venice and revise the existing hypotheses. R. Ivančević suggested ways to systematize and analyze the composition of facades with a three-lobed silhouette in his articles, although he limited himself only to Croatian monuments. Although in the 2010s the disputes about the primacy of Venetian buildings were almost completely resolved, many directions for further development still remain. The relevance of studying churches with a trilobe façade lies in the significant opportunities for discovering new cultural connections within the Venetian domain.
Keywords: Architecture of the Venetian Republic; Early Renaissance architecture; church architecture; Renaissance architecture in Istria and Dalmatia; churches with a trilobe façade

Beliaev A.Yu. (Moscow). Concept of spiritual salvation in «Livre de chevalerie» of Geoffroy de Charny

Belova N.R. (Moscow). The Cult of St. Wenceslaus and the post-White Mountain re-Catholicization of the Czech lands (based on the book by Jan Tanner and Felix Kadlinsky “The Life and Glory of St. Wenceslaus, Martyr, Prince, King and Saint Patron of the Czech lands”)

Postgraduate student of the Faculty of History,
Lomonosov Moscow State University
105484, Russian Federation, Moscow, 15 Parkovaja, 41/2
e-mail: nrbelovaa@yandex.ru

Abstract. Saint Wenceslaus is one of the most revered Czech saints, the saint patron of the Czech state. The peculiarities of the cult of Saint Wenceslaus were formed in the Middle Ages. This article is devoted to the study of the cult of Saint Wenceslaus in the post-White Mountain period in the context of the re-Catolization of the Czech lands. The article examines the image of the Saint Wenceslaus created in the book by Jan Tanner and Felix Kadlinsky, and its specificity. In this book Wenceslaus has a standard set of qualities inherent in a saint. Also he is portrayed as an ideal Christian ruler. The cult of Saint Wenceslaus, which gained political function in the Middle Ages, retained and even increased it in the early Modern period. The book by Tanner and Kadlinsky emphasizes the connection between Wenceslaus and the Habsburgs. His cult was used by the Habsburgs to legitimize their power. But the main specificity of the image of Wenceslaus in the post-White Mountain period is that the history of the saint is considered in the context of Tridentine Catholicism and Pietas Austriaca (the Austrian model of piety). The article concludes that the cult of Saint Wenceslaus could serve the Habsburg dynasty and the Catholic clergy as an instrument for the re-Catholization of the Czech lands, which involved deepening the religiosity of the population and spreading the doctrines enshrined by the Council of Trent.
Keywords: Saint Wenceslaus, re-Catholicization of the Czech lands, Counter-Reformation, post-White Mountain period, Catholic Church

Demicheva T.M. (St. Petersburg). Politics in the songs of Ancien Régime

PhD in History, Senior Lecturer of the Department of History of Modern and Contemporary History, Senior Researcher at the Institute of History of SPbSU
Russia, St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya nab. 7/9, 199034
e-mail: t.demicheva@spbu.ru

Abstracts. The purpose of this study is to analyze the song narrative of the second half of the eighteenth century and to identify the main political issues circulating in society. We used such sources as political songs of Ancien Régime from the Russian State Archive of Political History and the French National Archives in Paris.

The songs were used as a powerful voice of public opinion. This article analyzes songs dedicated to the French court after the Peace of Paris in 1763, songs written for the return of parliaments in 1774, and songs from the 1780s depicting the financial problems of the Ancien Régime on the eve of the French Revolution. The scholarly problem our paper seeks to address aims at studying everyday practices of the Modern history, namely what society thought, how it reacted to significant political-financial changes in the state, and what historical memory it eventually constructed. Methodologically, we are close to the approaches of the American historian Robert Darnton, who applied the model of analyzing song and verse narrative to a number of problematic aspects of the Ancien Régime.

In conclusion, it will be shown that political song narratives could represent a caustic satire on the political structure — the king’s entourage was attacked, the political struggle for important state positions was characterized, the possibilities of favorites and their influence on appointments, the problems of adequate implementation of financial reforms (reforming the tax base) were noted, which constructed a special historical memory of the French society.
Keywords: information society, narratives, Ancien Régime, songs, political satire, France

Kononenko A.M. (St. Petersburg). International contacts between the Irish Republican Army and the Comintern during the War of Independence and the Civil War 1919-1923

postgraduate student at the Faculty of International Relations, SPbSU,
191124, St. Petersburg, Smolny St. 1/3 (Smolny Campus, SPbSU)
 e-mail: st098974@student.spbu.ru

Abstract. The paper analyzes some aspects of international cooperation between the units of the Irish Republican Army and Comintern structures in the era of cardinal political changes in Europe after the First World War. It is noted that the RSFSR and the Irish Republic, being at that time in the same position of unrecognized states, had good opportunities for official political rapprochement. Unfortunately, a number of circumstances prevented this, and Soviet-Irish diplomatic relations became a fact of world politics half a century later. 

The author argues that the main reason for this foreign policy failure was the Bolsheviks’ original intention to use Irish republicans exclusively for anti-British purposes. Issues of economic, commercial, scientific and cultural cooperation paled against the background of the Comintern’s messianic ideas of world revolution. In addition, the fact that Soviet Russia, having started negotiations on mutual recognition and establishment of diplomatic relations in 1919, abandoned them in 1921 in favor of a much more favorable trade agreement with England did not help to strengthen confidence in Lenin’s emissaries. Such unexpected largesse, expressed in the neglect of a small nation in favor of acquiring political benefits from its age-old oppressor, severely damaged the reputation of the Bolsheviks in the ruling circles of the Irish Republic. Nevertheless, the Bolshevikized part of the IRA found it possible to continue tacit contacts with the Comintern, counting on the fact that cooperation with Moscow would allow them to accumulate strength and experience for the next round of struggle against the British Empire. The left-wing nationalist forces of Irish society did not (and apparently still do not) consider this struggle to be over until the six counties of Ulster (better known by the administrative name “Northern Ireland”) returned, figuratively speaking, to their home harbor. The presented material is supported by references to primary sources, normative-legislative base and representative literature.
Keywords: Irish Republican Army, Comintern, War of Irish Independence, Civil War of 1922-1923, Roderick Connolly, Mikhail Borodin

Terentiev V.O. (St. Petersburg). Consequences of the assassination attempt on Hitler on July 20, 1944 for the internal politics of the Third Reich

Bachelor’s student at the Institute of History and Social Sciences of the Russian State Pedagogical University. A.I. Herzen
191186, Russia, St. Petersburg, emb. Moika River, 48,
Email: valentin.terenne@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article examines the political consequences of the assassination attempt on Hitler on 20 July 1944. The relevance of the article is determined by the systematisation of all the main consequences of the assassination attempt for further research in this field. The analysis identifies three key areas of consequences, among which the author notes the repression and increased control over the population, the increased role of the party nomenclature in the political system of the Third Reich, including the transfer of some institutions and state bodies under the control of the SS and the official proclamation of ‘total war’. As a result, the author concludes that the failure of the assassination attempt on Hitler led to a complete radicalisation of the regime. This was expressed in the active use of punitive methods, including repression, in order to preserve the state and the loyalty of the population, tighten control over the population and centralise power around the ruling party.
Keywords: Third Reich, Operation Valkyrie, repression, NSDAP, total war

Skatov D.R. (Blagoveshchensk). China’s soft power policy: 50 years of transformation

Lecturer at the Department of General History, Philosophy and Cultural Studies, 1st year postgraduate student
“Blagoveshchensk State Pedagogical University”
675000, Russia, Blagoveshchensk, Lenina street, 104
e-mail: daniilskatov@bk.ru

Abstract. At the present stage of its development, China is a country playing an important role in the international political arena. As one of the centers of power, China has a high potential to influence ongoing international events using various instruments. One of these tools is “soft power” – a fairly new concept in foreign policy. The article examines the history of the use of “soft power”, and also analyzes the use of “soft” strategy over the last 50 years of China’s development: from Deng Xiaoping to Xi Jinping. Each of China’s political leaders introduced new elements into the specifics of using “soft power,” one way or another changing the approach to building foreign policy ties. We took the end of the 70s of the 20th century as the starting point in the article, when Deng Xiaoping began to lead the state. Next, the main aspects of the “soft” strategies of Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao and Xi Jinping are discussed. All of them were chairmen of the Military Council of the CPC Central Committee, but de facto they were and are the leaders of the country. An analysis of the policies of each leader will reveal the characteristic features and peculiarities of the transformation in the PRC’s use of the “soft power” tool.
Keywords: PRC, “soft power”, CPC, foreign policy, international relations

Kurbatova A.G. (Moscow). Contribution of historical scientific societies of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia to the development of national historical education (1993-2023)

applicant for the Department of Countries
Near Abroad Faculty of History
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119991, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, bldg. 4
E-mail: kurbatova_anastasiya@mail.ru

Abstract. The development of scientific and educational potential is one of the key aspects of the national security of a sovereign state. In the context of the formation of new subjects of the scientific community, forms of scientific and academic communication and the production of scientific knowledge the state faces the task of updating relevant national strategies and regulations. It is also associated with the definition of a balanced approach to the development of scientific and educational cooperation with specialized foreign structures, the formation of partnerships with them while maintaining one’s value-oriented identity, culture of historical memory and traditions.

In this article, the author analyzes the activities of scientific societies in Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia, which specialize in the study and teaching of history, methods of understanding historical reality, and the development of educational, methodological and research materials. Examples of participation of Transcaucasian scientific societies in programs and projects of European relevant departments and non-governmental organizations in the field of history education are described, including the education of the principles of tolerance and democratic citizenship. The article pays special attention to supranational projects to create common approaches to the study of the history of the countries of the Transcaucasian region, attempts to create unified methods for studying regional conflicts, and the development of peaceful teaching practices.
Keywords: South Caucasus, historical scientific societies, EuroClio, historical education, reforms in the field of education, civil society, transformation of historical identity, peace education

Andreev A.A., Belova A.B., Krasutsky S.A. (St. Petersburg). “You were ordered to give free trade in your state, in which city it would be easier and more profitable for them to trade”: letter from the Czar Alexei Mikhailovich to Shah Abbas II

PhD in History, Saint Petersburg University
7/9 Universitetskaya nab., St Petersburg, Russia, 199034
e-mail: a.a.andreev@spbu.ru

Saint Petersburg University
7/9 Universitetskaya nab., St Petersburg, Russia, 199034
e-mail: beloniria@mail.ru

Saint Petersburg University
7/9 Universitetskaya nab., St Petersburg, Russia, 199034
e-mail: lgd1987@yandex.ru 

Abstract. The paper aims to publish the letter from Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich to Shah Abbas II, dating back to 1647. The document reflects the current state of Russian-Iranian relations at that time. In particular, the Safavid power, on the one hand, is considered by Moscow as a profitable trading partner (given the status of the merchant Anisim Gribov, whose activities the very appearance of the document was connected with), on the other (based on the text of the message), one can see the growing contradictions with Isfahan on the issue of influence in the South Caucasus. Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, directly addressing the Shah, asks him to reconsider Iran’s policy towards Georgia and allow the Russian ambassadors, «stolnik» Afanasy Fedorovich Boborykin and clerk Yakov Istomin, to visit King Teimuraz I of Kakheti. In addition to the question of a political nature, the letter confirms the new status of A. Gribov as a merchant and expresses gratitude for the Shah’s permission to trade freely.

The very appearance of the document is associated with the “Great Confusion,” as the merchant himself designated in his “Report List», the unfolding battle for Balkh. In this conflict, on the one hand, there was the former Balkhin ruler Nadir Muhammad Khan, supported by Shah Abbas II, on the other side, the Mughal army, and on the third side, the Bukhara (formerly Samarkand) ruler Abdulaziz Khan.
Keywords: Russian-Iranian relations, Safavids, Abbas II, Alexei Mikhailovich, publication of sources, official letter, Anisim Gribov

Gushchina D.V. (Moscow). Practical application of legislative norms in Russian cities: using the example of the conflict in the Rzhev magistrate in the mid-18th century

postgraduate student of the Department of History of Russia before the beginning of the 19th century
Moscow State University named after. M.V. Lomonosov
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4
e-mail: totedo@rambler.ru

Abstract. The article examines the conflict that arose during the elections in 1748-1761. in the Rzhev magistrate between the “true believers” of the townspeople and the Old Believers. As a result of his analysis, the practice of the actual implementation of legislative norms in the electoral process in Russian cities in the mid-18th century, as well as the factors influencing this process, was traced. The attempt of the Rzhev Old Believers to introduce “agents of their influence” into the magistrate caused resistance from another intra-posad group, as a result of which an election conflict flared up. The Rzhev “faithful” merchants also raised the question of whether the Old Believers had the right to participate in the secular council. At the same time, the Chief Magistrate was in no hurry to resolve the conflict and give clarifying explanations about how the legislative provisions should be applied in this case, since the financial interests of this institution were not affected in the conflict. This, however, did not stop the Rzhev “faithful” merchants, who on their own brought three more institutions into the conflict: the Raskolnik Cantor of the government Senate, the Salt Cantor, and the consistory of the Archbishop of Tver and Kashin Mitrofan. This changed the course of the conflict in a key way. However, the Chief Magistrate gave only ad hoc directions on how the issue of application of the laws should be resolved, avoiding any definitive conclusions. Using the example of the electoral conflict in Rzhev, one can see how the implementation of legislative norms is influenced by clashes of different state interests and different departments. At the same time, one of the key roles in the process of implementing the laws in this case was played by the townspeople: they showed not only unexpected activity, but also knowledge of the legislation and understanding of the interests of which institutions are affected in this conflict and how they can be involved in the confrontation.
Keywords: law, city magistrate, Chief Magistrate, elected city government, Rzhev, Old Believers

Bakanov A.V. (Makhachkala). Milestones of the Caucasian War: military events in Dido 1857-1859 (historical and ethnographic research)

Historian independent researcher
367030, Russia, Makhachkala,
e-mail: mr.bakanov85@mail.ru

Abstract. The Caucasian War (1828-1859 and 1817-1864), which lasted for several decades in a row, was and is a unique, but extremely poorly studied phenomenon in Russian history. Being the longest, and one of the most energy-intensive and expensive wars of pre-soviet Russia, it changed its strategic and tactical layouts, as well as its coverage area, several times. Having two global and in particular the perimeters of the North-Eastern and North-West Caucasus and many local theaters of action, as well as a rich plot and event line, this latter affected many Caucasian peoples, including the Didoi people and Dido. At the same time, we will indicate that the most important events of the Caucasian War in Dido took place in the late 50s XIX century.
Keywords: Russian Empire, Caucasus, Dagestan, Dido, Kituri, Caucasian War, aul (mountain settlement)

Shlomova A.I. (Krasnoyarsk). Land surveying questions in Siberian provinces illustrated by the example of Achinsk okrug in the middle of the XIX century

2nd year master’s student at the Department of History of Russia, World and Regional Civilizations, Humanitarian Institute, Siberian Federal University
660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodny Ave., 79
e-mail: kvant41@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the land surveying in Siberian provinces in the middle of the XIX century illustrated by the example of Achinsk okrug. Studying the past-life experience connected with land surveying questions could contribute to more effective solutions in the modern period when the borders of our country are being changed. The non-published materials from state Achinsk archive are researched in order to reveal the specifics in resolution of land lawsuits within the analyzed territory on the basis of local history approach. The territory of Achinsk okrug is characterized by multi-level land lawsuits including neighbouring settlements, volost and provinces. The object of the research is land surveying process as a territory ordering in the conditions of constant administrative and land changes. It is studied in the frame of frontier modernization concept. The subject is land lawsuits solution at the local level. The information about land surveying organization in Russia, peculiarities of Siberian territories, specifics of local surveyors’ activity is introduced in the article. As a result, certain reasons were discovered which explain the emergence of local land lawsuits and difficulties in land surveying process within Achinsk okrug. Data about Yenisei and Tomsk provinces officials, who took part in land surveying, are also presented in the research, involving the period without official state reference publications.
Keywords: Siberia, Achinskiy okrug, land surveying, surveyor, volost

Liu Xin (Beijing, China). Functioning of commercial advertising in Russian newspapers at the turn of XIX and XX centuries

Liu Xin
Ph.D. student of the Department of History
Beijing Normal University
100875, 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing
e-mail: liuxinace@yandex.com

Abstract. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, advertising in Russian newspapers became diverse in form and content, and its management became increasingly professionalised. Newspaper advertising became a new industry with social influence. At that time, commercial advertising in newspapers promoted the circulation of capital, penetrated deeply into the lives of urban dwellers and became the mainstay of publishers’ income, becoming an integral part of urban life in Russia. In the context of Russian society at the time, newspaper commercial advertising represented a new business model and organised commercial activity, reflecting the dynamics of capital development. The study of its functioning allows us to reflect the commercial dynamics of Russian society and to show the adaptive capacity of the Russian absolutist government to innovate.
Keywords: Russian newspapers; advertising in newspapers; commercial advertising; advertising business, рубеж XIX – XX в.

Sleptsov A.S. (Rostov-on-Don). Image of monarchical power: who and why was insulting in the Oblast Vojska Donskogo in the early 20th century?

Master’s Degree Student,
Institute of History and International Relations,
Southern Federal University
140 Pushkinskaya St., Rostov-on-Don, 344006,
e-mail: aslepcov@sfedu.ru. 

Abstract. The emergence of rumors and images around power is a reflection of social, economic, and political problems that exist in society. Often such communications were oral and were not recorded by written sources. In this respect, the most valuable source for the representation of imagery in the perception of power is the source of insulting the monarch’s power. In the article based on the materials of the Oblast Voiska Donskogo investigative cases on insulting the person of the sovereign emperor, the issue of transformation of the image of the monarch’s power is considered. This region is interesting from the point of view of its ethno-social and economic specificity. In the course of the work, a database was created. The main causes and subjects of insults were singled out. The most popular plots found in the source materials of cases of insulting the monarch were characterized. Using the method of data grouping, the social and territorial specificity is revealed. The analysis of the document gives grounds to assert that at the beginning of the 20th century, there was a process of desacralization of the monarch’s power, peculiar to both peasant and Cossack populations. Transformation of the monarch’s image is most actively taking place against the background of the events of the First Russian Revolution and the Russo-Japanese War.
Keywords: insult to the monarch, Oblast Voyska Donskogo, political culture, crimes against the imperial family, political crimes in the Oblast Voyska Donskogo, social conflicts, images of power, political rumors

Mankov S.A. (Pushkin, St. Petersburg). Thefts in St. Isaac’s Cathedral in St. Petersburg in the XVIII – XX centuries

Ph.D. in history, honorary member of the Russian Academy of Arts,
 Senior researcher of the Tsarskoe Selo State Museum and Heritage Site
196601, Sadovaya st., 7, Pushkin, Saint Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: mankov21@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the issue of criminal encroachment on the property of religious institutions using the example of thefts from St. Isaac’s Cathedral in St. Petersburg in the XVIIIth – early XXth centuries. For a long time, the giant cathedral was the architectural dominant of the northern capital, an expensive monument, in the work on which eminent foreign and Russian architects were involved. But in addition to the important spiritual, religious and cultural significance, the everyday life of the Cathedral of St. Isaac of Dalmatia included incidents, including those of a criminal nature. Sacrilege in relation to sacred or consecrated objects, as well as to temple property in general, was extremely condemned in the traditional religious society of Orthodox Russia. However, the condemnation of fellow citizens, internal moral restrictions brought up by family and society, fear of “Divine punishment”, legislative norms and persecution by government authorities have not always stopped individuals driven by the thirst for “easy” money and thieves’ selfish motives. Representative facts of theft from the main Orthodox church of the capital of the Russian Empire over several centuries are presented, identified when working with unpublished documents stored in the funds of Russian federal and regional archives. The process of detecting theft, informing secular and ecclesiastical authorities, inquiring, investigating and identifying the guilty criminal is described. Among those who committed torts one can find representatives of the peasantry, philistines and clergy. Materials from archival cases indicate that the thefts were probably committed for general mercenary reasons, without representing any political or anti-religious manifestation. This is confirmed by the specificity of the circumstances and composition of thefts, as well as the behavior of the persons who committed them.
Keywords: St. Isaac’s Cathedral, churches, sacrilege, theft, religious crimes, everyday life, anti-religious policy, St. Petersburg Diocese, history of St. Petersburg

Dolgova A.V. (Moscow). Shadrinsky district and the city of Perm in the reports of the head of the People’s Militia N.A. Klyuchnikov during the period of power of the Supreme Ruler

 PhD in History,
 Associate professor of Department of Humanities, Faculty of Social Sciences and Mass Communications, FGIBU VO “Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation”
125167, Moscow, pr-kt Leningradsky, d. 49/2
e-mail: angela_dol@mail.ru

Abstract. In the era of revolutionary upheavals, the crimes committed also reflected the realities of everyday life. The peaceful way of life was completely rebuilt, as people realized that the coming day could be the last. Universal human values lost their significance, physical needs came to the fore, which led to an unprecedented surge in criminal crime and, as a consequence, changes within society.

The study is based on the reports of the most famous police chief in the Urals, N.A. Klyuchnikov, introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, who has established himself primarily as a specialist in the field of criminal investigation. The object of the study is his reporting documents as the head of the Shadrinsk district and Perm city police – reports and information to the Governor of the Perm province N. S. Chistoserdov, the subject is the data of reports on the socio-political situation in the Shadrinsk district and the city of Perm. This includes criminal offenses, including domestic crimes, as well as accidents, suicides, incidents in urban and rural environments, and political sentiments in society. The vocabulary and spelling of the cited archival documents have been preserved. The purpose of the work is to study the reports of N. A. Klyuchnikov to determine the general picture of incidents in the city of Perm and Shadrinsky district.
Keywords: People’s militia, Kolchak, Perm, Shadrinsky district, Civil war, N. A. Klyuchnikov, criminal offenses

Zhukova N.A., Zhukov S.A., Tikhomirov A.V. (St. Petersburg). Russian experience in organizing live chess games (to mark the 100th anniversary of the Live Chess party in Leningrad – July 20, 1924)

lecturer at the Department of Humanities and Socio-Economic Disciplines of the Military Academy of Communications
Russian Federation, 194064, St. Petersburg, Tikhoretsky Prospekt, 3
e-mail: natalja.naj2@yandex.ru

Candidate of Historical Scienceы, Assistant Professor, Assistant Professor at the Department of Humanities and Socio-Economic Disciplines of the Military Academy of Communications.
Russian Federation, 194064, St. Petersburg, Tikhoretsky Prospekt, 3
e-mail: stasevitsch@yandex.ru

Sc. (History), Assistant Professor, Professor at the Department of Humanities and Socio-Economic Disciplines of the Military Academy of Communications.
Russian Federation, 194064, St. Petersburg, Tikhoretsky Prospekt, 3
e-mail: at1782@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of the history of “live chess” in Russia and its functions in public life. In this article, “live chess” refers to chess games in which people and animals act as pieces. In their research, the authors relied on materials from periodicals, works on the history of chess and biographical literature. The main scientific methods used in this work include the dialectical method, with its principles of objectivity and historicism, methods of analysis and synthesis. The main private scientific method of research is chronological.

As a result of the study, the authors came to the conclusion that the history of “live chess” in Russia goes back more than 200 years. “Live chess” arose in Russia as a way of entertaining the upper strata of society and for a long time served a purely entertainment function; the competitive component of the game was almost invisible. Since the end of the 19th century, “live chess” has increasingly begun to be used to promote the game and increase its popularity among the general public. In the post-revolutionary period, the desire of the new government to occupy the population’s leisure time with “healthy” hobbies and improve their culture allowed “live chess” to reach a new level of development, to become a frequent and spectacular event, containing both the sports excitement of competition and theatrical performances. The apogee of their development should be considered the 1920s, when the number and scale of events were maximum. One of the most famous games of “live chess” was organized by the Leningrad House of the Red Army and Navy on Uritsky Square in Leningrad on July 20, 1924. Subsequently, the competitive component practically disappeared, making “live chess” a beautiful theatrical spectacle. The experience of organizing such events continues to be used and improved during the conduct of “live chess” at the present time.
Keywords: chess, “live chess”, July 20, 1924, Leningrad House of the Red Army and Navy, history of chess

Zdanovich A.A. (St. Petersburg). Counterintelligence support for the Red Army troops during the Iasi-Kishinev operation and the advance into the territory of the German satellite of Romania

 Doctor of Historical Sciences,
full member of the Academy of Military Sciences.
195220, St. Petersburg, Grazhdanskiy pr., 11, office 1N, lit. A
e-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the activities of the counterintelligence agencies of the 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian Fronts, SMERSH agencies in general in the fight against enemy agents in the process of preparing and conducting the Iasi-Kishinev offensive operation. The “contingent” of the opposing side is analyzed in detail – former officers of the tsarist and white armies, political emigrants, professional employees of the intelligence agencies of Romania and Germany. Particular attention is paid to the working methods of Soviet military counterintelligence officers, to the interaction of various structures of the NKVD. A detailed description is given of many heads of foreign intelligence services who tried to work to counter the Red Army in preparation for the offensive and in the process of its implementation. It is emphasized that the highly professional actions of Soviet military counterintelligence officers played a significant role in ensuring the implementation of combat missions to destroy the enemy during the Iasi-Chisinau operation.
Keywords: Iasi-Kishinev operation, Romania, 2nd Ukrainian Front, 3rd Ukrainian Front, counterintelligence, SMERSH

Mochalov D.P. (Orenburg). The entry of the concept of “decommunization” into the political rhetoric of the early 1990s

Applicant for a Degree Candidate of Historical Sciences
Orenburg State Pedagogical University
460014, Russian Federation, Orenburg, Sovetskaya St., 19
e-mail: dosoldschool@yandex.ru

Abstract. The purpose of this article is to study the level of penetration of the term “demomunization” into the Russian political lexicon and its relevance for modern research. Examples of the use of this concept in relation to the Russian political realities of the early 1990s in modern academic literature are analyzed. The process of the initial formation of the term is considered on the material of public speeches of B.N. Yeltsin and examples of the use of this word in the socio-political journalism of those years. It is shown that in many respects it was a populist move designed to discredit political opponents, since no clearly defined framework was set for the proclaimed course. It is concluded that discussions about the content of the anti-communist policy of that time need to be continued, however, the very use of the word “decommunization” at least does not contradict the characterization given to the process by contemporaries themselves, because for them this term could already have different content.
Keywords: decommunization, anti-communism, Yeltsin, CPSU, ideology, journalism

Volgin E.I. (Moscow). The fate of the OOPD “Russian National Unity” in the context of the state strategy for countering political extremism in the late 1990s

Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of the History of Social Movements and Political Parties, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4
e-mail: plytony@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article examines the political and legal conflict associated with the attempts of the socio-political movement “Russian National Unity” and its leader A. Barkashov to obtain federal state registration to take part in the elections to the Third Duma. Based on a wide range of sources (regulatory legal acts, periodical press materials, Internet resources), as well as the research literature, we provide a general description of RNU as the largest right-wing radical public organization in the Russian Federation in the 1990s. and reveals the specifics of the legal status of “Barkashov’s party”. Despite its wide popularity, RNU’s lack of registration as an all-Russian socio-political association did not allow it to take part in federal parliamentary elections. RNE’s attempt to obtain this registration led to a conflict between A. Barkashov, first with the capital (represented by Yu. Luzhkov), and then with the federal authorities. The result of this short confrontation was the liquidation of the RNU in the capital, as well as the removal of activists of this movement from the elections to the Third Duma. At the same time, the legal means that the state used in the fight against nationalists looked very dubious, and the anti-extremist campaign itself, under the auspices of which the authorities fought against RNU, had a clearly expressed political background.
Keywords: Russian National Unity, A. Barkashov, P. Krasheninnikov, Ministry of Justice, Yu. Chaika, Central Election Commission”, electoral association “Spas”, elections

Gordeeva A.V. (Moscow). The process of formation and institutionalization of the Kazakh community in the Omsk region

2nd year master’s student, Faculty of History, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119234, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Ave. 27/4.
e-mail: av.grd@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article describes the process of formation of the modern Kazakh community of the Omsk Irtysh region. Studies conducted by Soviet, Russian and Kazakh scholars suggest that settled villages of Kazakhs appeared on the territory of the modern Omsk region no earlier than the second half of the 18th century. Since that time, the Kazakhs began to actively settle the territory of the Omsk Irtysh region, while avoiding assimilation with the local population and preserving their original national culture to this day. At the end of the 20th century, with the adoption of Federal laws on public organizations and national cultural autonomies, the Kazakhs of the Omsk region began to actively institutionalize: in the period from 1989 to 2023, several dozen Kazakh public organizations were created, including regional and local national cultural autonomies. Kazakh language courses have been opened in Omsk and certain districts, national celebrations are regularly held, and since 2014 a regional Kazakh newspaper has been published monthly, which covers events, stories and personalities related to the Kazakh community. The study of the activities of the Kazakhs of the Omsk region allows us to conclude that the Kazakh ethnic group unconditionally preserves its national identity.
Keywords: Kazakhs of Omsk, Kazakhs of Omsk region, Kazakh community, Kazakh public organizations, peoples of Omsk region, ethnography of Omsk region

Sokirkin D.N. (St. Petersburg). The Mediterranean in the context of political and economic interests of modern Russia

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: sokirkin1976@mail.ru

Abstract. This study examines the prospects for the participation of modern Russia in the process of development of the Mediterranean region and interaction with countries geographically located in it. At the same time, the role played by the Mediterranean at the present stage of the history of international relations is revealed. The interconnection of a number of political, military-strategic and economic factors can be traced. The work analyzes the impact that the existing experience of contacts between Russia and individual states of the Mediterranean region has in the context of both political and civilizational interaction. The importance of the Mediterranean in the system of foreign policy relations of the Russian Federation at the present stage is emphasized. The features of the Mediterranean states are presented in the context of the development of their political systems and principles of relationships with each other. The influence of external forces on the political situation in the region is traced and its reasons are revealed. The factors associated with maintaining the required level of security in the region are identified. Attention is paid to both the political component of the interaction of the Russian Federation with the countries of the Mediterranean, and to the factors influencing the development of economic cooperation. Along with socio-political factors, the peculiarities of the geographical location of the region are considered. The influence of the features of historical interaction between them on the state of relations between Russia and the Mediterranean countries is presented. The influence of significant social processes on the political and economic situation in the Mediterranean is demonstrated.
Keywords: Russia, Mediterranean, interests, politics, economics, geography

Kostyunina E.D. (Moscow). The Internet as a tool for the electoral process in Moscow in 2000-2010

PhD Student
Chair of social movements and political parties history
History Department
Lomonosov Moscow State University
119192, Moscow, 27 Lomonosovsky avenue, 4
e-mail: kostiunina99@mail.ru

Abstract. The article covers the key specifics of the usage of the Internet in the election campaigns in Moscow city in 2000-2010: Moscow Mayor elections, Moscow Citi Council (Duma) elections, local elections. The author demonstrated the trends of technology and conceptual development of Internet utilization in electoral processes, spreading the information among voters, agitation, summarizing of the election results. The emphasis was made on the evolution of tech context of the issue and the novelties Moscow society was facing after this or that election cycle. The author pioneered the multi-aspect study of the role of Internet in the election campaigns of early 2000s and in local elections. Author studied wide range of written sources: media publications, laws, analytical reports, memoirs, printed messages of candidates, etc. The author explains her based conclusions about the role of Internet as the instrument of information, propaganda, and results publication, and so on.
Keywords: elections in Russia, Internet and elections, elections in Moscow, Moscow City Council (Duma), local deputy, Moscow City Mayor

Yu Jie (Moscow). Memorialization of Members of the Society of Zealots of the Russian Historical Enlightenment in Memory of Emperor Alexander III at the Late 19th – Early 20th Century

Senior Lecturer,
Department of Chinese Philology,
Institute of Asian and African Studies,
Lomonosov Moscow State University.
125009, Russian Federation, Moscow,
Mokhovaya Street, 11.
e-mail: kaqusha686@yahoo.com

Abstract. The article examines one of the areas of activity of the cultural and educational organization of conservative orientation, the Society of Zealots of the Russian Historical Enlightenment in Memory of Emperor Alexander III, that was created at the end of the 19th century in Russia. This direction was to preserve the memory of members of society who passed away. Such activity was determined not only by considerations of moral duty to former comrades in the organization, but also by the general commemorative nature of the activities of the entire society. Memories of the deceased were linked to the implementation of the general main goal of the Society of Zealots – updating the memory of the era of the reign of Emperor Alexander III as a kind of moral and political standard that must be followed even after the death of this monarch. Even private commemorations at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, that is during the most intensive activity of society, invariably had a political connotation.
Keywords: commemoration, politics of memory, Society of Zealots of the Russian Historical Enlightenment in Memory of Emperor Alexander III, Alexander III, S.D. Sheremetev, D.S. Sipyagin, S.A. Rachinsky, Russian conservatism

Danilov D.M., Yurenkov A.K., Okroshidze L.G. (Moscow). The Portrait of the Emperor Paul I (1797) by Andrei Filippovich Mitrokhin (1765-1845) and the issue of identification of the orders depicted on it

Head of the Department of
the General Director’s Office,
LLC «Chernogorskaya GRK»
119002, Moscow, Vet., Khamovniki municipal
district, Sivtsev Vrazhek Lane, 39
e-mail: dmitry.m.danilov@yandex.ru

Government Executive Office
103274, Moscow, Krasnopresnenskaya nab.2.
e-mail: Ak.gov@yandex.ru  

Art Historian, Faculty of History,
Lomonosov Moscow State University
119234, Lomonosovsky pr-t 27/4

Abstract. Andrey Filippovich Mitrokhin, the first restorer of paintings in Russia, who worked at the Hermitage between 1801 and 1845, was not only an acknowledged specialist in mechanical restoration but also one of the country’s pioneers in this field. His method for transferring the color layer of a painting from one substrate to another, most often canvas, was truly innovative. In addition to preserving the art collection of the Hermitage, Mitrokhin’s legacy also includes his work as a painter. His only known work so far is «Portrait of Emperor Paul I», which testifies to his exceptional artistic talent. He was able to capture the majestic image of Paul I with accuracy, combining it with an external appearance that was unattractive and even ugly, without losing the depth and character of the emperor’s features. However, there are some aspects of his work that warrant further investigation, and these will form the focus of our study.
Keywords: Andrey Mitrokhin, restoration, Hermitage, portrait, Emperor Paul I, Order of St. Andrew the Apostle the First-Called, Order of Saint Anna, Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky, Order of Saint Prince Vladimir, Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, orders and medals

Kaleda G.K. (Moscow). The formation of Rasputin’s image in the context of his relationship with church leaders in 1910-1916

postgraduate student of the Department of History of Russia of the 19th century – early 20th century, Faculty of History
Moscow State University
119991, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1.
e-mail: kaledageorge97@gmail.com

Abstract. In the article, the author examines the process of forming the image of Grigory Rasputin in the context of his relationship with representatives of the Russian Church and analyzes the reasons why the image of Rasputin began to form, how its development took place and who was interested in it. The “elder” Gregory became well known in the high society of the capital shortly after his appearance in St. Petersburg in 1904. The growth of his popularity was facilitated by the church hierarchs. A year later, he met the royal family. Initially, Rasputin had the image of a “man of God.” The general public learned about him from newspaper articles. Over time, Rasputin’s behavior changed, his “holiness” began to cause more and more doubts. Now many church leaders have tried to expose him to the royal family and society. The first negative publications about the “elder” Gregory appeared in 1910. Their ideological inspirers and authors are sincerely religious people who are concerned that Rasputin’s behavior is damaging the reputation of the Church. At the end of 1911, a conflict occurred between the “elder” Gregory and Bishop Hermogenes (Dolganev), after which the hierarch was dismissed from the Synod. This was the reason for the launch of a newspaper campaign against Rasputin. At the beginning of 1912, the name of Grigory Efimovich was first pronounced from the rostrum of the State Duma. After that, Rasputin became a political figure. The deputies were sure that the “elder” Gregory exerted influence on the church administration and tried in every possible way to publicly expose Rasputin so that he would not undermine the reputation of the Church. As a result, the campaign to discredit Rasputin caused enormous damage to the authority of the supreme power and the Holy Synod.
Keywords: Grigory Rasputin, church, royal family, State Duma, image, reputation

Kozhevnikov S.V. (Krasnoyarsk). Luka’s (Voyno-Yasenetsky) ecclesiastical and archpastoral work in Yeniseisk in 1924 during the first exile period

Candidate of economic sciences
Siberian Federal University
Institute for the Humanities
Department of History of Russia, world and regional civilizations
Svobodny prosp. 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia.
e-mail: semenk2011@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the archpastoral activity of St Luka (Voyno-Yasenetsky) in Yeniseisk during the first Siberian exile in 1924. It shows in detail the selfless work of Bishop Luka in unequal confrontation with the Bolshevik power, which actively pursued an anti-religious policy in the 1920s, in the struggle against the Renewal movement, and in overcoming of humiliating and dangerous conditions in which the clergy and laity lived (confiscation of church valuables, closing of churches and monasteries, arrests of clergymen, youth activists’ mockery of faith, etc.). The results of V.F. Voyno-Yasenetsky’s work to increase the number of clergy and monks in Yeniseisk and the area close to it, are highlighted. The support given to Bishop Luka by Tikhon (Belavin), the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, and by faithful peasants was noted amid the rapidly developing crisis of faith among the citizens. In addition, the article contains testimonies of witnesses and participants of the events in Yeniseisk in the 1920s, including V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky. The examples of the selfless service of bishops and priests are given. The article will be of use to those interested in St Luka’s (Voyno-Yasenetsky) life and work, to historians, local historians and the clergy.
Keywords: bishop Luka, V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky, Yeniseisk, Orthodoxy, church, Renovationism

Popravko E.A. (St. Petersburg). M. P. Milovskiy as an organizer of activities of the red army rear headquarters for the support of troops during the strategic operation of 1943–1944

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Army General A. V. Khrulev Military Academy of Logistics, Professor of Chair of Humanities, Social and Economic Disciplines
8, Makarova Naberezhnaya, Saint-Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation
e-mail: elena_popravko@mail.ru

Abstract. It was researched the activities of the Red Army Rear Headquarters to material support troops during the strategic offensive operations in 1943–1944 and the role of Lieutenant General M. P. Milovskiy as the organizer of this work. It was necessary to be supplied the combat operations of 12–13 fronts from the start «Radical Turning Point» to the ending of «Ten Stalinist Strikes». Personnel reached 10–11 million people. Also, it was investigated the organizational changes in the Rear Headquarters associated with the general transformation of the structure of the Red Army Rear in the 1943, summer. Analysis of the activities of Lieutenant General M. P. Milovskiy’s as the Chief of the Red Army Rear Headquarters at 1943–1944 indicates that he managed to make the Headquarters to the key central military administration structure, on whose actions the supply of troops depended. The main forms of interaction between the Red Army Rear Headquarters and the rear institutions of the active army were working trips to the front, scheduled and unscheduled inspections. They were being undertaken not only to identify shortcomings and punish those responsible, but in order to strengthen a rear of fronts and armies, to solve emerging problems promptly and based on the situation.

The documents developed of the Rear Headquarters in 1943–1944 by leadership of Lieutenant General M. P. Milovskiy required of subordinate units and institutions to be more independent at all stages of material support. The rear institutions were aimed to approaching the troops, ensuring maneuverability and mobility of the Rear in all levels. The data collection from rear’s structures of fronts, armies for the first time provided wide materials, the generalization of which significantly advanced the Soviet theory and practice of logistics.
Keywords: M. P. Milovskiy, Red Army Rear Headquarters, Great Patriotic War, Radical Turning Point, Ten Stalinist Strikes

Kopeleva G.V. (St. Petersburg). Along the Roads of Italy and Ancient Rome: Emperor Hadrian through the eyes of a historical writer

PhD, Associated Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics,
St-Petersburg State Institute of Culture,
191186, St. Petersburg, Dvortsovaya embankment, 2-4
e-mail: gallia777kopeleff@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is focuses on the Roman Emperor Hadrian, the main character of the historical work of the classic of French literature of the 20th century, Marguerite Yourcenar (1903 – 1987). The author dwells in detail on the genesis of the novel «Memoirs of Adrian», the evolution of the plan over several decades: more than half a century passed between the first thoughts about this plot and the publication of the book.

The writer’s immersion in the world of ancient culture and her scrupulous study of historical sources preceded the creation of the artistic image of Adrian. Works of fine art also played an equally important role. The first meeting with the future hero occurred in 1914, when young Yourcenar saw a statue of Emperor Hadrian in the British Museum. Then she began to study Latin and Ancient Greek, and the world of antiquity fascinated her.

Ten years later, in 1924, after visiting Villa Adriana near Rome and becoming acquainted with the engravings of Piranesi, this person completely captured her attention. Artistic associations influenced her image of an esthete monarch, patron of the arts. These first versions, like the drafts of 1934-1937, will remain unfinished.

In 1948, Yourcenar will resume work on the novel. The theme «Hadrian the Patron of the Muses» will be complemented by the theme «Hadrian the Politician»: she will see an overlap with the present in the events of the past of distant Rome. The problem of humanism and the idea of a “philosopher on the throne” become central to her. Yourcenar continues the humanistic French tradition, which began with Fenelon and his theory of enlightened absolutism, which Voltaire would later develop.

The article shows how, under the influence of current events of the mid-20th century, the writer idealizes the Roman emperor, portraying him as a wise, humane ruler who perfectly comprehended the «sacred science of power». In the novel, Adrian revises previous legal provisions taking into account their compliance with common sense and the interests of humanity. Thus, the central image of the emperor-philosopher, emperor-poet, emperor-servant of the Muses acquired a modern perspective.
Keywords: antiquity, Ancient Rome, Emperor Hadrian, «Memoirs of Hadrian», ancient culture, history of French literature, historical novel, memoir genre, problem of humanism

Lapina I.Yu., Kargapoltsev S.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Civilization challenges and systemic problems of domestic sociogenesis. Part 3

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya stree t, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. The article continues a series of publications by the authors in the Klio journal, devoted to understanding the process of Russia’s confrontation with civilizational challenges based on an analysis of the theory and practice of historical development. The publication of this issue evaluates the ideas of historians, writers, scientists, politicians, and businessmen who, in the relatively recent past and today, sought to predict the optimal paths for the development of world civilization. The views of the American historian and writer Ralph Epperson, the French socialist politician, banker and writer Jacques Attali, the American sociologist and economist Jeremy Rifkin, the French philosopher and sociologist Jean Baudrillard, the American science fiction writer Dean Koontz, the British intelligence officer John Coleman and many others are assessed. The ideas of our compatriots – a graduate of the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute, writer Evgeny Zamyatin and self-taught scientist K.E. Tsialkovsky, who questioned the ideas of the great Einstein, were not ignored either. The authors also focused on cinematic stories from the world film industry, including the Soviet masterpiece by G.N. Danelia “Kin-dza-dza”. A special place in the authors’ thoughts is occupied by the plot related to the pandemic and its consequences.
Keywords: new world order, hyper-conflicts, world resources, world domination, rabid environmentalism, globalist totalitarianism, virtual cyber-economy