Klio #05 (173) 2021




Akel YA.H. (St. Petersburg). Arabic medical treatise by Abu Sahl Isa b. Iahya al-Masihi "Hundred books on skills of medicine": a codicological description of the manuscript list


Annotation. The article provides a description of an arabographic manuscript of the 17th century from the collection of the Eastern Department of the M. Gorky library of St. Petersburg State University. The manuscript is a copy of the treatise Kitāb al-mi’a fi al-ṭibb (Hundred books on skills of medicine) by a physician and encyclopedic scholar of the 11th century Abu Sahl Isa b. Yahyi al-Masihi. The treatise was written in the genre of kunnash, or compendium, popular in the Middle Ages, and consists of one hundred “books” (chapters), each of which is devoted to a separate problem of theoretical, practical and preventive medicine. Abu Sahl al-Masihi was the teacher of the famous Arab physician and philosopher Ibn Sina, however, the treatise of Abu Sahl himself was never translated into Russian and was not studied by domestic historians. The article is the first to give a codicological characteristic of the Tractatus list. It contains an analysis of the owner’s inscriptions, their categorization and translation into Russian. Based on the analysis of handwriting and style, a conclusion is given on the number of scribes and their level of proficiency in the Arabic language. The fact that the abjadiya numbering system is used in this manuscript suggests that it is a list of the earliest version of the treatise among other manuscripts known to us today.

Keywords: Medical treatise, Arab-Muslim medieval medicine, Kunnash, history of medicine, Abu Sahl al-Masihi, Library of St. Petersburg State University.


Shorokhov V.A., Kopaneva D.D. (St. Petersburg). Excerpt on the History of the “Renegade” Cossacks of the Caspian Region in the first third of the 17th century: record of the interrogation of Gerasim Stepanov and Pronka Mikiforov


Annotation. The paper introduces into scholarly discourse a unique source on the history of the Cossacks of the first third of the XVII century – the record of the interrogation of the “renegade” Cossacks Gerasim Stepanov and Pronka Mikiforov from the fund 77 (“Relations of Russia with Persia”) of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts. The document was discovered in the file devoted to the embassy to Moscow of the Safavid ambassador Muhammad Salih-bek (1627-1630). The Cossacks were captured by the regime forces. On August 4, 1628, they were interrogated by the Astrakhan voivodes. The text of the document contains a lot of valuable information, revealing the biographies of two typical representatives of the Cossacks of that era. It mentions the names of famous historical figures (P. I. Mansurov, V. P. Morozov, etc.), Cossack atamans mostly unknown from other sources, as well as a number of extinct toponyms. In addition to the publication of the document itself, the paper provides a scientific commentary on the history of the “renegade” Cossacks ” who hovelled in the Caspian Sea, as well as its impact on the foreign policy of the Russian state.

Keywords: Cossacks, XVII century, Caspian region, record of the interrogation.


Mikheev D.V. (Pskov). Roads of the Russian borderland in the description of Patrick Gordon


Annotation. The article is devoted to the analysis of Patrick Gordon’s testimonies about the peculiarities of the traveler’s life when they going to the Russian state through its north-western borders. Diaries of a Scottish officer in Russian service was a valuable source about the history of the Russian state and Eastern Europe in general in the second half of the XVII century. Gordon used the land and river roads of the border region several times in 1661, 1666-1667 and 1686. Describes in detail all about the state of the road system on the border of Russian, Swedish and Polish possessions on the territory of Livonia, Pskov and Novgorod land. Gordon notes the peculiarities of the road infrastructure and the life of the border regions in both peacetime and time of war. The diaries focus on the peculiarities of the life of foreign travelers crossing the borders of the Russian state, relations with the local population associated with the road infrastructure, and officials responsible for the security of the country’s borders. The compare of Gordon’s information about the state of roads in the Swedish and Polish borderlands with the roads of the Pskov and Novgorod borderlands indicates a gradual improvement in the road infrastructure of the Russian state in comparison with its nearest neighbors.

Keywords: Anthropology of the road, travel, borderland, Livonia, Tsardom of Russia, Patrick Gordon.


Samoylov N.A. (St. Petersburg). Image of Peter I in the “Records” Written by the Qing Dynasty Diplomat Tulišen


Annotation. Peter the Great is one of the few foreign historical figures known to almost every Chinese. His image was widespread in China in the previous centuries and remains popular today.

The purpose of this study is to examine the appearance of the first mentions of Peter I and the occurrence of his image in China, to analyze the specifics of lifetime assessments of his activities and to study the process of sociocultural representation and adaptation of the image of the Russian emperor. For this purpose, the author of the article makes an attempt to comprehend and analyze the materials contained in the travel journals of Tulišen, a Qing diplomat, who in 1712-1715 crossed almost the whole Russia in order to visit the Kalmyk ruler Ayukа Khan. His journals present the first mention of Peter I in China. Of utmost importance is the fact that Tulišen describes and assesses many aspects of the political and military activities of the Russian tsar, which he learned about during his travel. He also gives a detailed description of the various aspects of Russia’s life at that time and the peculiarities of its state and administrative structure. Thanks to Tulišen’s “Records from the Mission to the Remote Borderlands” (Yiyu lu), the first true perception of Russia and Peter the Great emerged in China.

Keywords: Peter I, Tulišen, Kangxi, Russia and China, Qing Dynasty, image of Peter the Great.


Belevschuk G.P. (Vladivostok). Working question in the documents of the Provisional Siberian and Russian governments (may 1918 - January 1920)


Annotation. The period of the Russian Civil War is known for the fact that numerous anti-Bolshevik governments existed on the territory of the former Russian Empire. The aim of these governments was to win the sympathy of the majority of the population. This was necessary for guaranteed social stability. The labor issue was considered one of the most important areas of social policy. The article describes the labor policy pursued by the Provisional Siberian Government and the Russian Government. These governments had a stable system of government spread over a large area. The first action to regulate the labor question was the creation of a Labor Department. Further, the Labor Department was transformed into a ministry. The provisional Siberian government raised questions about the organization of reconciliation chambers and hospital cash registers. After the coup of November 18, 1918 and the coming to power of A.V. Kolchak, the approach to solving the labor question changed somewhat. The authorities began to pay more attention to unresolved issues. A new direction in the work issue was the development of the subsistence minimum. Thus, the working question, although not the main one in the policy of the Provisional Siberian Government and the Russian Government, occupied an important place in their activities.

Keywords: the civil war, working question, the provisional Siberian government, Russian governments, the Ministry of labor.


Bandurin S.G., Safarov YU.B. (Moscow). Soviet-British military operation «Consent» on the pages of the newspaper «Pravda»


Annotation. The article examines the events of August-September 1941 based on the analysis of publications in the Soviet newspaper Pravda, when the troops (forces) of the Soviet-British coalition entered Iran. The invasion took the Iranian state by surprise. The inability to organize active resistance on the part of the Iranians was facilitated by the deployment of military operations by the allies with operational and tactical surprise. Newspaper publications are evaluated from the position of information support by the mass media of the USSR and Great Britain for the military operation «Consent», which was aimed at neutralizing the German-Italian influence on Iran’s foreign and domestic policy, creating a transport corridor for the delivery of goods and military equipment to the USSR through Iran, and developing a favorable political and economic situation for the allies in the Iranian direction. The article focuses on the fact that one of the first allies of Moscow during the Great Patriotic War was London, which on June 22, 1941 declared support for the Soviet Union in the fight against Nazi Germany and its satellites. On July 12, 1941, the Soviet-British «Agreement between the governments of the USSR and Great Britain on joint actions in the war against Germany» was signed in Moscow. The first effective step in the implementation of the Agreement was Operation Consent, which was of a preventive nature. To this day, the joint military operation «Consent» occupies a special place in the history of relations between Russia and Great Britain.

Keywords: Pravda newspaper, Red Army, Reuters, TASS, allies, geopolitics, USSR, Great Britain, Iran, Germany, Pahlavi.




Denisov A.O. (Moscow). Mapping History in the Middle Ages: Some Observations


Annotation. Medieval maps display spatially organized time. The place names and inscriptions depict all the history of the world and eschatological expectations of the future. The medieval conception of history is reflected in the cartographic image of the world based on the combination of the data from ancient sources, the Bible, Orosius’, Isidore’s and other texts. The representation of the world chronicle depended on the work that was illustrated, if it was not an independent map, as well as on political, social and cultural changes and events. Medieval mapmakers had their reasons, either religious or secular, to map history as modern cartographers have theirs to stop doing it.

Keywords: medieval maps, cartography, historiography, universal chronicle, medieval culture.




Volynkin D.G. (Moscow). Dalmatian cavalry during the crisis of the III century


Annotation. During the crisis of the third century, the role of cavalry in the Roman army began to grow significantly. That is why the so-called “Dalmatian horsemen” begin to play one of the leading roles on the battlefield. On the basis of epigraphic, narrative and numismatic data, the article examines the process of the emergence of Dalmatian horse units, the sources of their recruitment and the history of service in the 250s-270s.

Keywords: History, Antiquity, Ancient Rome, Military Affairs, Cavalry, Dalmatian Horsemen, Crisis of the III Century, Gallienus.


Ma Yifeng (Moscow). Ways to implement the strategic program “One Belt – One Road” within the framework of Kazakh-Chinese cooperation


Annotation. The Great Silk Road, linking East and West, greatly contributed to the development of ancient societies. In a new era, the project “One Belt – One Road” will again closely link all countries along the route, and its economic cooperation is aimed at strengthening the interconnectedness of economies between the EurAsEC countries and China. Kazakhstan, as the heart of the trade route, has important transport and energy channels, and its unique geopolitical position makes it a “bridge” between two economic giants, the European Union and China. The geo-economic effect from the participation of Kazakhstan and China in the joint project will be significant. Due to the evolving market mechanism, as well as the peaceful resolution of territorial disputes, and the acceleration of economic globalisation between Kazakhstan and China have close relations. In the article are examined the issues of Kazakhstan’s participation in China’s initiative for “One Belt – One Road” project. The study presents the history of trade between East and West across the Great Silk Road, outlines various aspects of the One Belt One Road strategy and the role of Kazakhstan’s unique political coordination, advantages of location and complementary economic structure in the construction of the Silk Road Economic Belt. The article reflects the significant role of Kazakhstan in the case of the practical implementation of the “Silk Road Economic Belt”. The implementation of this project can contribute to the fact that Kazakhstan will become a connecting link between China, CA countries, the Caucasus, Turkey and Iran. The influence of the conjugation of the projects of the Eurasian Economic Union and “One Belt – One Way” on the development of trade relations of Kazakhstan has been studied.

Keywords: Kazakhstan, China, economics, politics, infrastructure, economic belt, “One Belt – One Road”, Central Asia, EurAsEC, interrelation, EAEU.


Zotova A.V., Knyazeva A.A. (St. Petersburg). Japan and St. Petersburg: Historical Experience of International Cooperation


Annotation. For the third decade, the Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg has been purposefully building multilateral relations with parliamentarians, politicians, diplomats, businessmen and cultural figures from various cities and regions of Japan. In St. Petersburg, thanks to legislative support at the local level, more than 50 Japanese enterprises are successfully developing their activities. In recent years, there is a tendency to open small and medium businesses from various Japanese regions. This is largely facilitated by bilateral ties between the St. Petersburg parliament and Japanese colleagues, numerous meetings with delegations of politicians and businessmen of various levels. Thanks to bilateral cooperation, a comfortable creative atmosphere based on mutual sympathy and trust has developed. The solid economic base, high qualifications of scientific and engineering personnel, and the powerful cultural potential of the former imperial capital attract Japanese business. Many businessmen from Japan, making long-term plans for cooperation with St. Petersburg enterprises, come to the Northern capital with their families to successfully develop their business, as well as actively get acquainted with the experience of European culture reflected in urban architecture, in museum and exhibition activities. The article is based on documents from the funds of the Foreign Relations Department of the Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg, as well as on materials from Russian and Japanese periodicals.

Keywords. Japan, St. Petersburg, international relations, cultural ties, Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg.




Kukil N.V. (Moscow). Evolution of Russian-German relations at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries as a multifactorial process


Annotation. The article identifies the main factors in the evolution of relations between Russia and Germany before the First World War. The relevance of the article is due to the fact that Germany remains an important economic and political partner of Russia. The study revealed that protectionist policies had a significant impact on the Russian and German leaderships and their decisions. Particular attention is paid to such factors as the legal power and status of Russian diplomats, international law, Polish separatism, personal communication between Nikolai II and Wilhelm II. The formation of ideas about Germany and the Germans in the public mind and at the professional level depended on these factors. Communication between the Russian and German emperors was of particular importance, since it neutralized a number of foreign policy problems. The Polish question was equally relevant for Russia and Germany, so both empires were looking for ways to resolve it. This aspect is covered in the article. The Russian-German relations during this period developed in a complex and contradictory faction. The problem-chronological method allows us to consider certain aspects of Russian-German interaction and their change over time. The comparative historical method makes it possible to find similarities and differences in the political systems of Russia and Germany.

Keywords: Russian-German relations, history of Russia, German Empire, foreign policy, Polish Question, diplomacy, tariff war.


Vasina A.V. (Arkhangelsk). Ethno-social policy of Finland and the USSR in relation to the Sami during the Cold War


Annotation. This article examines the ethnosocial policy towards the Sami in Finland and the USSR during the period of tense confrontation between the world powers, which is called the Cold War. Throughout the 20th century, relations between Finland and the USSR were an interesting phenomenon on the world stage, as Finland pursued a policy of neutrality, but at the same time was closly cooperated with the USSR. For a long time Finland was also a part of the Russian Empire, namely, they were connected by sociocultural affiliation and territorial community, and the areas of settlement of the Sami of the Kola Peninsula and the Lapland Sami in northern Finland are extremely close. During period from 1917 to 1990, there were noticeable changes in the political course towards the Sami, both on the part of Finland and on the part of the USSR. The foreign policy of these countries in the XX century, one way or another, was reflected in the domestic one. According to the results of the study, problems were identified in the ethnosocial policy of both Finland and the USSR. Repression, collectivization, resettlement of the Sami, the threat to their culture and religion in the USSR, and the problems of legal regulation of land ownership, and the assimilation of the Sami in Finland. The important role of the Saami Union and its influence on the ethno-social policy of these countries was also emphasized. His activities throughout the 20th century had a significant impact on the change in the legal situation in favor of the Sami both in Finland and in the USSR.

Keywords: Sami, ethnosocial politics, Arctic, Finland, USSR, indigenous peoples




Travkin S.N. (St. Petersburg). Materials of numismatic thesaurations and chronology of coin circulation in the Early Middle Ages on the territory of the Dniester-Prut region


Annotation. Numismatic materials are an important chronological indicator in archaeological research. The article examines the chronology of coin circulation in the territory between the Dniester and Prut rivers in the early Middle Ages. The basis for this was the coin hoards. In recent decades, new coin finds have been made. They allow you to specify the time of circulation of coins in the region. The history of coins in the region can be divided into several periods. Most often there were treasures with coins of the Byzantine Empire. In the X century, they were accompanied by kufic dirhems. In the XIII century, there were coins of Christian Europe. In the VI and XXI centuries, there was a rapid formation of treasures. In the XII and XIII centuries, the accumulation of treasures often took a long time. The composition of the hoards indicates the general dynamics of the use of coins, which did not depend on their origin.

Keywords: archeology, Byzantium, Dniester, dirhem, Danube, Islam, treasure, numismatics, prut, Roman Empire, Middle Ages.


Abdulina B.M. (St. Petersburg). The Sacred Guards and St. Petersburg students (1881-1882)


Annotation. The article looked at the activities of the Sacred Guards, connected with St. Petersburg students. Sacred Guards was the secret aristocratic organization which aroused in the Russian Empire after the assassination of emperor Alexander II by the People’s will’ members. Right wing circles was disturbed by the rise of nihilism among students. The supporters of the autocracy undertook the attempt to prevent the students’ radicalization using creation of secret circles associated with the Sacred Guards. The author considered the organizational foundations of the secret circles, their activities and students’ reaction of them, and also made conclusions about the reasons for the ineffectiveness of the methods of secret agents in the high school. Poorly placed surveillance, which secret guards practiced, irritated the students. Radicals groups of students spread rumors of the agents, which leaded to their rejection in the high school. Thus, the refusal to fight for the sympathy of young people, in favor of prohibitions and punishments, quickly showed that it is futility. In the annex to the present article there are sources that illustrate the structure and methods of funding the anti-terrorist student secret circles.

Keywords: The Sacred Guards, monarchist organizations, public thought, students, St. Petersburg university, nihilism, student movement, student circles.


Pestovskaia D.A. (St. Petersburg). The situation of Muslims in the Kars region within the Russian Empire (1878-1917)


Annotation. This article discusses lifestyle and rights of the Muslim population on the territory of the Kars region and main aspects providing their survival needs during its stay in the Russian Empire from 1878 to 1917. The Tsar authorities of the Russian Empire made all sorts of attempts to unite the peoples who inhabited the Kars region and the region as a whole. Aware of the complexity of the situation, the Tsar authorities, together with the local administration of the Russian Empire were gradually trying to introduce their own type of management of this region and establish their own rules in the field of education. They attempted to unite the peoples by organizing various events aimed at getting acquainted with each other’s cultures and traditions; founded schools with instruction mainly in Russian, but did not strictly restrict foreign-speaking peoples in receiving education in their native languages; they created religious centers in the region, including churches, mosques and various houses of worship, while respecting their traditions and trying not to interfere with the way of life and order of Muslims who have dominated these territories for many centuries.

Keywords: the Kars region, the Russian Empire, Muslims, education, health, medicine, holidays, religion.


Kashevarov A.N. (St. Petersburg). Monasteries in the European North of Russia on the eve and during the period of revolutionary upheavals and Civil war


Annotation. In total, there were 66 monasteries in the European North of Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century. Despite the fact that only a few of them united a large fraternity, there was some spiritual and economic growth in the life of the northern monasteries. The largest and most famous as the Solovetsky and Valaam monasteries were examples of economic prosperity. The peculiarity of those years was the increase in the number of female monasteries to 14, which in the previous centuries was not typical for the North. Despite the fact that the Soviet government did not adopt a special decree on the abolition of monasteries, with the beginning of the campaign to open the relics, which unfolded in the autumn of 1918, some county and provincial Councils in the North sought to close almost all the monasteries on their territory, to requisition their premises and all property. The Basic Law on the Socialization of the Land of February 19, 1918, opened up opportunities for monks to partially preserve the monastic economy by switching to the charters of agricultural artels and communes. Since the spring of 1918, a spontaneous process of reorganization of monasteries into labor artels and communes began. However, on October 30, 1919, the People’s Commissariats of Justice and Agriculture issued a circular prohibiting the registration of religious organizations as economic associations. After these decisions, many monastic artels and communes were liquidated. Some of them managed to survive. Deprived not only of real estate, but often of all property, the monasteries of the North were put on the verge of survival by the authorities.

Keywords: The European North of Russia, the northern monasteries, the Soviet government, the campaign to open the holy relics, the closure of monasteries, the requisition of monastic property, the law on the socialization of land, monastic artels and communes.


Gessen V.YU. (St. Petersburg). Purchases by Soviet organizations of private libraries and archives of Petrograd residents in 1918-1926 years


Annotation. This article addresses issues related to the acquisition of the population of Petrograd for cash in the first years after the October coup of book collections and archival materials. The state organizations created for this purpose are specified, the role of each of them is shown, the desire to understate the monetary valuation of the books and historical documents purchased. The difficulties of making monetary calculations in the conditions of constant change in the value of the ruble are emphasized. The conclusion that this sale was mainly related to representatives of various layers of the capital’s intelligentsia is fully substantiated. It was forced, as they were put in dire living conditions due to the deprivation of the usual work, restrictions on the size of housing, the amount of pensions owed in the past.

Keywords: libraries, arhives, books, bibliographer, procurement, intellectual, Stat book fund, Petrograd, Narcompros.


Zhuravlev D.A. (St. Petersburg). Psychiatry during the siege of Leningrad


Annotation. During the siege of Leningrad in the city, which was in the conditions of hostilities, there was an increase in psychiatric patients, both among the military and the civilian population. Circumstances determined new forms of diseases, manifestations of pathological conditions, and, as a result, new methods of treatment. The activities of the psychiatric service took place in the context of a reduction in the network of medical institutions, personnel, and deterioration of the material base. At the same time, the scientific generalization of the work carried out was an important condition for the activity that determined the organization of psychiatric care in Leningrad as a whole. The details of the work of psychiatrists in different medical institutions in 1941-1944 reveal recently discovered sources of personal origin, in particular, the memories of Sofia Alexandrovna Sokolskaya (1885-1972), a psychiatrist who worked during the entire period of the blockade in various city psychiatric hospitals.

Keywords: medical service, military medicine, psychiatry, the Great Patriotic War, the siege of Leningrad




Chekmarev S.A. (Moscow). Plan of General Dohturov as the basis for practical planning of the Russian Bosphorus expedition


Annotation. The article discusses a plan for the seizure and holding of the Bosphorus Strait composed by the General of the Odessa Military District D.P. Dohturov at the end of the XIX century. The main tasks of the Odessa Military District were the preparation of a large-scale landing expedition and military exercises with the involvement of both land and sea forces. Based on the plan, large-scale maneuvers were conducted in 1902 in the Odessa Military District. In the exercises, the personnel of the district and the Black Sea Fleet participated. The plan accumulated the experience and failures of all other plans, the development of which was carried out since the end of the Crimean War, and is the most detailed source for the study of the Bosphorus expedition in this chronological segment. The plan presents direct actions of the landing forces, binding actions to accurate dates and detailed hourly daily instructions.

Keywords: Bosphorian expedition, landing operation, Odessa Military District, General Dohturov, Black Sea Fleet, Constantinople.


Kislitsyn A.V. (St. Petersburg). The organization of the production of turret mounts for 10-inch (254-mm) cannons of the Russian fleet at the turn on the cusp of the XIX - XX centuries


Annotation. The article discusses issues related to the production of turret mounts for 10-inch cannons of battleships and coastal defense battleships of the Russian Imperial Navy on the cusp of the 19th – 20th centuries and the organization of this process by the Naval Ministry. On the basis of new archival sources, the author analyzes the joint actions of the subdivisions of the Naval Ministry and the leading Russian industrial enterprises to create new weapons for the Russian Navy. The author shows the main problems that arose during the creation and the main reasons for their appearance. The author’s conclusion is that, due to the efforts of the Naval Ministry and the country’s advanced industrial enterprises, the turret mounts for 10-inch cannons found themselves to be a quite good design. The ministry tried to apply all the main technical innovations that were considered the most promising at the end of the 19th century, and, moreover, 10-inch cannons’ turret mounts had enough good potential for further development. At the same time, a significant number of problems that arose during the creation of cannons and turret mounts for the Russian fleet battleships mainly weren’t the result of technical complexity, but the inability of the Naval Ministry to properly organize the production of large-caliber naval artillery.

Keywords: the Russian Imperial Navy history, naval artillery, turret mounts for large-caliber cannons, the Ministry of Navy of the Russian Empire, military production.


Temchuk E.I. (Moscow). The problem of interaction of Russian fronts in the summer campaign of 1916


Annotation. The purpose of the article is to analyze in detail the complex of factors that influenced the organization of the all-front offensive of the Russian Imperial Army in the summer of 1916, its conduct and, as a consequence, the final result for the entire campaign as a whole. In his publication, the author tries to give a more objective assessment of the designated events, moving away from the old superficial judgments and established interpretations. In the article, the author substantiates the actions of the infantry general A.E. Evert, who some military leaders and military historians, including A.A. Brusilov, were considered infidels. Attention is also drawn to a number of mistakes made by cavalry general A.A. Brusilov, although Aleksey Alekseevich himself claimed in his memoirs that he acted effectively and expediently during the 1916 campaign. It is concluded that a significant contribution of the Russian army in 1916 was made to the success of the Entente.

Keywords. Campaign of 1916, Russia, Central Powers, Southwestern Front, Western Front, offensive operation.




Kozlov A.P. (St. Petersburg). To the centenary of Kazakhstan’s Statehood restoration: experience, lessons


Annotation. The article is dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the Kazakhstan’s statehood restoration in Soviet times. The article, written on the archival materials basis, many of which are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, analyzes the history of the Kazakh autonomy formation within the RSFSR. According to the author, during the autonomy formation, the Bolsheviks, who sought to expand their social base on the national outskirts, were guided, first of all, by political considerations. As a result, the administrative boundaries of the new state entity, initiated by the Kazakh national intelligentsia, were determined very conditionally without due regard for historical and ethnic realities and included lands with a predominant Russian population, which became a hostage to the national policy pursued here. The article concludes that during the implementation of political and social transformations in Kazakhstan, as well as in a number of other Union republics of the USSR, an ethnocratic model of statehood was created, the evolution of which became one of the main reasons for the collapse of a single state in 1991.

Keywords: Alash-Orda, autonomy, Bolsheviks, geopolitical catastrophe, Kazakhstan, Cossacks, Kirrevkom, post-Soviet space, sovereignty, ethnocracy.




Pilishvili G.D. (Kursk). The history of the implementation of public administration in the sphere of culture in the Russian Federation at the stage of transformation of Russian society from 1991 to 2013


Annotation. In the article, the author, drawing on a large layer of normative legal documents, reveals the state policy on the part of state bodies in the field of culture. The transition from the Soviet model of management from the sphere of culture to the modern, Russian one for the period 1991 to 2013 is shown.

The article deals with the problems of financing cultural institutions, as well as ways out of the current situation in Russia in the 1990s. The role of privatization with its influence on cultural organs in the Russian Federation is also revealed. Since 2000, there has been a tendency towards a decrease in the level of economic independence of state cultural institutions. The status of funds received by institutions from extrabudgetary sources has changed.

It is concluded that the cultural sphere has remained in the perception as an industry, the functioning of which is burdensome and unprofitable for the state budget. The financial and economic departments made persistent attempts to evaluate culture solely from the point of view of economic efficiency.

Keywords: Russian Federation, cultural policy, Russian society, public administration, financing of the cultural sphere, privatization.




Zolotarev V.A. (Moscow). To the 70th birthday of Alexander Antonovich Kolesnikov


Annotation. The article is dedicated to the anniversary of the famous historian-orientalist, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Alexander Antonovich Kolesnikov. His contribution to the development of Russian oriental studies is noted. The article contains a list of the scientist’s publications over the forty-year period of his scientific activity.

Keywords. Alexander Antonovich Kolesnikov, oriental studies, Middle East, Central Asia, Kazakhstan.