Klio #05 (185) 2022

Aleshin P.A. (Moscow). Changes in the social status and self-consciousness of Renaissance artists on the example of a number of sources of the 14th–16th centuries

Candidate of Art History, Researcher of the Scientific and Editorial Department of the State Historical and Cultural Museum-Reserve “Moscow Kremlin”
103132 Russia, Moscow, Kremlin
E-mail: paleshin@bk.ru

Abstract. The article presents a translation of a number of sources of the 14th–16th centuries – from fragments of Filippo Villani’s treatise « On the Origin of the Florentine State and Its Famous Citizens» to Agnolo Bronzino’s sonnets about Michelangelo.
The sources are selected in accordance with two key aspects of one of the main problems of the social history of Italian Renaissance art – the problem of changing the artist’s status in society, in the eyes of the customer and the viewer, and in his own eyes. The first of them is the increased attention of humanists and writers to the figure of the artist, the gradual equalization of his rights with the poets’ rights (the approval of the new status of artists was largely due to their assimilation to poets) and, in the 16th century, the assertion of the divinity of the talent of the artist. The second is the peculiarities of the relationship between artists and customers.
On the basis of the presented texts, it is traced how the perception of artists not as artisans, but as free creators, equal in status to poets, was gradually formed in the Renaissance society, and how this influenced the character and evaluation criteria (historical and aesthetic) of the best masters and their achievements.
Keywords: Agnolo Bronziono; Angelo Decembrio; Bartolomeo Facio; Filippo Villani; Francesco del Cossa; Michelangelo; Renaissance; texts about artists

Schmidt W. (Regensburg, Germany). The Jewish periodical press of Austria about the Jewish pogroms in Ukraine during the Civil War

Magister of History,
University of Regensburg,
Humboldt street 48 a, 93053 Regensburg, Germany,
E-mail: wolodjaschmidt@gmx.de

Abstract. The article highlights the issues related to the formation of assessments of the German-speaking Jewish press in Austria on the problem of Jewish pogroms during the Civil War of 1918 – 1922 in Ukraine. During this period, articles, notes and statistics on the victims of pogroms, analytical materials on the assessment of this tragic phenomenon are published on the pages of the Jewish press. Publications in the Jewish press of Austria, as well as reports from correspondents of Jewish newspapers are a valuable source for the study of this topic.
Keywords:  Jews, Jewish pogroms, anti-Semitism, Civil War, Ukraine, periodical press

Andreev A.A., Kopaneva D.D. (St. Petersburg). The “involuntary” embassy of Sarukhan-bek in Moscow in 1641: reasons and circumstances

PhD in Historical sciences, Associate Professor, the Faculty of Political Science, St.Petersburg, Smolnii str. 1/3, entrance 7.
E-mail: a.a.andreev@spbu.ru

 PhD in Historical sciences. Senior Lecturer of St.-Petersburg State University. 199034. Mendeleevskaya line, 5. St. Petersburg, Russia.
E-mail: st036379@spbu.ru

Abstract. The article reveals the circumstances of the Persian embassy in Moscow in 1640-1641, sent from Shah Sefi I to Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich. The materials for the study were in the embassy book for 1640-1643, as well as the documents contained in the cases for 1640 and 1641. During this embassy, the Shah’s ambassador Hassan Bey died suddenly, as a result of which his brother Sarukhan bey was appointed the de facto deputy ambassador. The embassy was fraught with a number of difficulties, starting with the defiant behavior of the ambassador and later his brother, ending with a number of complex and conflicting issues that need to be resolved. The issues of the Persian side’s debt, nuances related to trade missions and their security were discussed. During the embassy itself, a conflict situation also arose among its participants, for the solution of which the Russian side was also involved. The difficult circumstances of the embassy became the reason for their reflection in the royal letter sent by Mikhail Fyodorovich to the Shah of Sefi. However, apparently, they did not have long-lasting negative consequences for Russian-Persian relations.
Keywords: Iran, Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich, Persia, XVII century, embassy books, foreign policy

Samoylov N.A. (St. Petersburg). The 10th Beijing Ecclesiastical Mission and its Role in Russian-Chinese Cultural Relations

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Head of the Department of Theory of Asian and African Social Development,
Saint Petersburg State University (Russia)
199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7-9.
e-mail.: n.samoylov@spbu.ru

Abstract. The article discusses activities of the 10th Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Beijing and the contribution of its members to the study of China and the formation of collections of Chinese books in Russian libraries. The article is the first comprehensive analysis of all the aspects of this Mission activities, which had unique personalities assigned to its staff. Its members not only preached Orthodoxy in China, but also did a great job translating liturgical books into Chinese and Manchu, while works on the history, culture and current situation in China were translated into Russian, along with this they taught the Russian language, and carried out important diplomatic missions.

As part of the 10th Mission, there worked a whole constellation of talented sinologists, and in this aspect it is unparalleled.  Among the nine staff members and students of the 10th Mission, apart from the Archimandrite himself, seven left a significant trace in Russian Sinology. The mission staff made a great contribution into the processes of socio-cultural interaction between Russia and China. The collections of ancient Chinese books, manuscripts and woodblock books collected by the members of the Mission and kept in Russian libraries are unique and of great interest to researchers in our time.

Keywords: The 10th Beijing Ecclesiastical Mission, Archimandrite Peter (Kamensky), Russian-Chinese relations, the Qing Empire, Sinology, collections of Chinese books in St. Petersburg libraries.

Simonenko E.S. (Ussuriysk). Colonial Conference of 1887 and the Problem of Defense Integration within the British Empire

PhD in History, Associate Professor, Inter-Institutional Department of Natural Sciences and Social and Humanitarian Disciplines, Primorskaya State Agricultural Academy (PSAA). 692500, Russia, Primorsky Krai, Ussuriysk, Blucher st. 44.
E-mail: eka-1982.82@mail.ru

Abstract. The article studies the issues of integration of the colonies into the defense system of the British Empire, which were considered at the meetings of the Colonial Conference in 1887. The chronological framework of the work covers the entire period of the conference (April 4 to May 9, 1887). It clarifies the reasons and circumstances of the convening of the colonial conference in 1887, and determines its status, composition and agenda of the meetings. It assesses the place and role of issues of defense integration between the Colonies and the mother-country within the British Empire on the Conference agenda. It studies the main provisions of the British plan to create a system of collective security within the Empire. It established the degree of readiness of the white settler Colonies of Britain (Australia, New Zealand, Canada) for military cooperation with the mother-country. It estimates how fruitful the work of the 1887 conference was. It limits the practical results of the Conference. The metropolis sought to ensure that the Colonies were fully involved in military cooperation, however, control over the imperial system of maritime and land defense was still to be centralized. The practical implementation of the new approach was also hampered by the lack of a common point of view among the colonies on the legitimacy of defense integration. While in 1887 Australia and New Zealand were ready to act jointly on the terms proposed by Britain, Canada showed an unwillingness to limit its autonomy by participating in any schemes of imperial military cooperation.
Keywords: British Empire, British colonies, colonial conference of 1887, imperial defense

Shlyakhovskii A.I. (Moscow). At the dawn of «the black wave»: the censorship in Yugoslav cinema in the first half of 1960s

postgraduate student of the Department of History of South and West Slavs
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119192, Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, bldg. 4
e-mail: andrew.schlyakhovsky@gmail.com

Abstract. The article is devoted to the consideration of a number of cases of censorship of films made in socialist Yugoslavia in the first half of the 1960s. These films belong to the so-called «black wave» — a new direction in the national cinema of, the characteristic features of whose works were an uncompromising and direct presentation of the darkest aspects of Yugoslav everyday life. This was the main reason for their rejection by the censorship authorities, which led to changes in the script and even a complete ban on the demonstration of films.
The article is devoted to the consideration of a number of cases of censorship of films made in socialist Yugoslavia in the first half of the 1960s. These films belong to the so-called “black wave” — a new direction at that time in the national cinema of the Yugoslavia, the characteristic features of whose works were an uncompromising and direct presentation of the darkest aspects of Yugoslav everyday life. This was the main reason for their rejection by the censorship authorities. A number of films made as part of the “black wave” were subjected to significant script changes after passing through censorship commissions, which called into question the ability of Yugoslav film lovers and professionals to speak out in their works about issues that worried the public. Particularly indicative was the ban on the film «The City» – the only Yugoslav film in the history that was banned from distribution according to an official court decision. In addition, a number of cinema figures who took an active part in the work on the films of the «black wave» attracted special attention from the Yugoslav law enforcement agencies, which became an obstacle to the continuation of their creative activity. However, in the end, these measures did not have a significant impact on attempts to stop the further development of the «black wave».
Keywords: Yugoslavia, cinema, socialism, culture, state cultural policy

Zhao Hongwei (Harbin, China). The influence of historical changes in world politics on the return of the PRC to the UN in 1971

Postgraduate Student, Department of History of International Relations and Foreign Policy
Saint-Petersburg State University. 199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
Location: Harbin, China
e-mail: st098024@student.spbu.ru

Abstract. Focusing on China’s return to the United Nations (UN), this article examines changes in the policies of countries around the world regarding the issue of China’s return to the UN. The study of this issue is necessary in order to analyze the development and changes in international relations in the 1970s, as well as to study the trends of the current world order and make a forecast about future international relations. The UN has been playing an increasingly important role, especially during the Cold War, in the development of world politics for more than 70 years. October 25 , 1971 The 26th UN General Assembly overwhelmingly adopted a proposal to restore all the legitimate rights of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) to the UN. Over the past 50 years, China’s position in global economic governance has undergone changes: from the so-called “adapter” to “participant” and “patron”. Today, China has become an important force in maintaining the status and role of the UN.
Keywords: UN, China, USSR, USA, foreign policy, third world country

Drobotushenko E.V. (Chita). Rent from Land Occupied by Places of Worship in the USSR in the early 1930s: Features of Collection

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
Dean of the Faculty of History and Philology
Transbaikal State University
Russian Federation, Chita
672030, st. Alexandro-Zavodskaya, 30
e-mail: DRZZ@yandex.ru

Abstract. In the article, based on the analysis of documents from the State Archives of the Russian Federation (SA RF), the features of collecting rent from lands occupied by religious buildings and from undeveloped lands associated with them are analyzed. This issue, today, has not become the subject of scientific analysis, which predetermined the use of sources. The issue of rent from land under religious buildings and empty land associated with them became particularly relevant at the turn of the early 1930s, when rent payments from religious organizations increased sharply. This happened after the appearance of a rather controversial circular of the People’s Commissariat of Finance. The leadership of the Permanent Central Commission on Cults took up the solution of the issue. It turned out that there is a serious gap in Soviet legislation – there is no normative regulation of this aspect. Correspondence between the authorities led to a partial solution of the issue, rent payments for 1929, 1930 and two quarters of 1931 were recalculated. However, there were no changes in the regulatory framework, and local authorities continued to act due to their own understanding of the situation. The result was the impossibility of paying rent payments and taxes by religious communities, which, in turn, was the reason for the seizure of land with a religious building. The analyzed problems require further study based on sources.
Keywords: land rent, prayer building, religious building, religion, normative act, Commission on Cults

Iputatov D.Yu. (Kolomna). Terms of employment and working hours at the enterprises of the Moscow province in the late XIX – early XX centuries

State Social and Humanitarian University, postgraduate student,
Russia, Moscow region, Kolomna, Zelenaya str., 30
e-mail: iputatov.denis@mail.ru 

Abstract. The article discusses the conditions of hiring labor at the enterprises of the Moscow province in the period from 1882 to 1904. The author analyzes the normative legal acts underlying the labor contracts of the specified period, and, first of all, the “Charter on factory and factory industry”. Materials concerning the general rules and internal regulations of factories were studied, which sometimes contained specific requirements for workers on the part of manufacturers. Based on the reports of factory inspectors of the Moscow province, conclusions were drawn about the uneven distribution of rights and obligations between workers and manufacturers recorded in employment contracts. Based on the analysis of legislative acts and statistical data, the author notes a decrease in the length of the working day with an increase in the working year. The study of the data presented in the “Summary of reports of Factory inspectors” for 1901 and 1904 allows us to conclude that when considering complaints from both workers and owners of enterprises, the parties in most cases came to a “peaceful” agreement and very rarely the case reached court. In general, there was a systematic decrease in the number of detected violations, which was largely made possible thanks to the activities of factory inspectors.
Keywords: terms of employment, manufacturers, workers, factory inspection, factory legislation

Iusupova S.A. (Moscow). The electoral process to the city duma and the composition of its leaders in the Turkestan general government (1877 – 1917)

State Academic University for the Humanities,
Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History,
119049, Russia, Moscow, Maronovsky lane, 26
e-mail: siusupova@gaugn.ru

Abstract. In the work, the author touches on such an aspect as the election of vowels to the city Duma in the second half of the XIX – early XX century in the Turkestan governor-general. The analysis of the legislative framework, office documentation and materials of the periodical pre-revolutionary press allowed us to identify general trends and features of the elections to the Tashkent and Vernensky City Duma and its composition. Thus, the introduced electoral system did not allow for equal representation of the local and foreign «European» population. At the same time, the fact is established that the formation of a new city public administration body under the law of 1870 for the management of urban economy corresponded to the general course of the government on modernization and development of provincial cities in the second half of the XIX century.
Keywords: The Russian Empire, the Turkestan Governor-General, the «City situation» of 1870 and 1892, elections, the City Duma, vowels

Yakhimovich S.Yu. (Khabarovsk). The work of the Joint Conference of Organizations of the exclusion strip of the CER (1919 – 1921) based on the materials of the State Archive of the Khabarovsk Territory

Ph. D in History, Associate Professor,
Associate Professor of the Department of social and humanitarian
and economic disciplines
Far Eastern law Institute of the Ministry of interior Affairs of Russia.
680042, Russia, Khabarovsk, 15 Kazarmenny Lane.
E-mail: sergyahim-69@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to one of the little-studied episodes of the socio-political life of the Russian colony of the Chinese-Eastern Railway exclusion strip during the civil war raging on the territory of Russia. The political situation prevailing in the CER zone required the presence of an organization capable of performing representative functions to protect the interests of the local Russian population. In this regard, on the initiative of the Bolsheviks, a Joint Conference of trade union, public and political organizations of the exclusion strip of the CER was formed in Harbin. Based on the materials stored in the funds of the State Archive of the Khabarovsk Territory that were not introduced into scientific circulation earlier, the article examines the issues covering the activities of the Harbin Joint Conference in 1919 – 1921. The problems of the internal structure of the Conference, its tasks in the life of the Russian society of the exclusion zone of the CER, participation in the political events of the region, relations with the official authorities of China and the diplomatic missions of the great powers are revealed. The Conference emphasizes the reliance on trade unions, especially railway unions, as the most organized and significant Russian public associations in Northern Manchuria. The work of the Joint Conference was secretly actively directed by the Communists, and it itself became an effective tool in weakening the positions of the white movement on the CER. Having fulfilled its task at a certain historical stage, the Joint Conference was dissolved by the decision of the Bolshevik leadership.
Keywords: China-Eastern Railway (CER), Conference, political party, trade union

Stasyukevich S.M. (Blagoveshchensk). Peasant economy of the Far East as a subject of the agrarian market in the 1920s (on the materials of the Amur and Primorskaya countryside)

PhD in History, Full Professor,
Head of the Humanitarian Disciplines Chair
of the Far Eastern State Agrarian University
Polytechnic st., 86, Blagoveshchensk, Amur region, 675005
e-mail: svetasms@inbox.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the topical problem of the functioning of the peasant economy as an economic entity under the conditions of the new economic policy, which has been little studied on regional materials. The article is written on the basis of published and unpublished sources, some of which are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. Based on an analysis of the economic situation in the countryside of the Far East main producing regions in 1918-1922, the ways of new markets searching by the Amur and Primorye peasantry for their products during the Civil War are shown, and it is concluded that by the time of the region sovietization, the agrarian crisis had not reached its maximum values. The aggravation of the agrarian crisis in producing regions of the Amur and Primorye took place in the first years of the region sovietization – 1923-1925. A complex of factors is revealed: economic, socio-political, agrotechnological, natural and climatic, which caused such a development of events. It has been proved that the agricultural production restoration began in the Far East producing regions only in 1925 and the restoration process proceeded asynchronously. Based on the analysis of peasant budgets of the 1920s, the modifications in peasant economy organization under the influence of external conditions changes and the high sensitivity of the peasantry to market signals are shown.
Keywords: Far East, new economic policy, Soviet regime, peasantry, peasant economy, agrarian market

Kapyatets D.P. (Nizhny Novgorod). Fuel and Energy Problems of Defense Enterprises of the USSR in the First Period of the Great Patriotic War (On the Materials of the Gorky Automobile Plant)

Applicant for the scientific degree of candidate of Historical Sciences, Department of Russian History and Politics, Institute of International Relations and World History, N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod
603005, Nizhny Novgorod, Ulyanov St., 2

Abstract. The article is devoted to one of the poorly studied pages of the national and regional history of the Gorky region during the Great Patriotic War: the problem of saving fuel and energy resources at industrial enterprises. From the very beginning of the war the management of Gorky Automobile Plant took a number of measures to limit the consumption of liquid fuel, especially gasoline, within the enterprise. Orders of GAZ director concerned almost all spheres of life of the collective, including production and everyday life. The management of the automobile plant simultaneously conducted mass-political work aimed at ensuring the policy of economy of fuel and energy resources.
In the summer and fall of 1942 there was a crisis in the supply of enterprises with oil products. This led to emergency measures to replace fuel oil in the power plant with local fuel (peat). The conversion of the plant’s vehicles to gas-generator equipment was continued. The rationalizers were encouraged to save fuel and electricity. Monthly work on economy of resources, competitions of innovators and inventors justified itself. The greatest effect was produced by the party technical conferences, which were firmly integrated into the practice of the enterprises’ management. In general, the fuel and energy saving policy at the industrial enterprises had a limited effect in 1941-1942, including the lack of reconstruction of the plant management and personnel in a military way.
Keywords: war, events, organization, production, resources, economy, automobile plant

Mankov S.A. (Pushkin). The savagery of the Luga landlord Semyon Putilov

Ph.D. in history, honorary member of the Russian Academy of Arts,
Senior researcher of the State Museum «Tsarskoye Selo».
196601, Sadovaya st., 7, Pushkin, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
e-mail: mankov21@mail.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the circumstances of a largely unique trial of the beginning of the XIXth century on charges of a landowner of the Luga uyezd, St. Petersburg governorate, a retired praporshchik S.K. Putilov in cruel treatment of his serfs. Applying despotic methods in managing the peasants, many nobles sincerely considered violence “their right”, and by no means “not a sin”. As a result, they were not afraid of prosecution, administrative restrictions or public censure. Having been convicted of torturing a peasant woman Kristina Fedorova with a whip, which led to her death, the landlord Putilov tried to get rid of the evidence. Possessing clear support from the local nobles, praporshchik Putilov did not expect his real condemnation and exile to Siberia. The finale of the criminal case was, on the whole, atypical for the law enforcement practice of the Russian Empire of that period, but in many respects it is a reflection of the “spirit of the era”, i.e. the initial period of the reign of the “August liberal” – Emperor Alexander Pavlovich. The trial and the verdict became possible thanks to the principled nature of a part of the judiciary, both at the county and all-Russian level.
Keywords: nobility, peasantry, serfdom, murders of peasants, orthodox clergy, St. Petersburg Governorate, Luga Uyezd, Russia in the XIXth century

Gerasimov R.M. (St. Petersburg). New сonstruction in a historic environment: principles and practice in Petersburg

St. Petersburg Academy of Arts named after Ilya Repin,
Department of History and Theory of Architecture,
Russia, 199034 St. Petersburg, University emb. 17
E-mail: roman16grm@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article discusses various concepts of the combination of “old”, historical buildings and “new”, modern architecture. The approaches and opinions of architects and architectural historians from Russia and some foreign colleagues are given in the article. This issue is actual for historical cities where buildings of different periods are adjacent. There is still no single approach, for example, different European cities live with different methods. In Rome, they try to preserve everything that is possible and there can be no new construction in the historical center and in London, on the contrary, there are many contrasting modern buildings in the very center. The article presents options for classifying new construction and its impact on the historical environment. Referring to St. Petersburg, some legislative documents regulating the process of urban planning are given. Examples of such a combination of buildings in St. Petersburg are also analyzed, which serve as an illustration of the approaches described in the article.
Keywords: historical buildings, new architecture, the historical center of St. Petersburg, a combination of old and new architecture, foreign development experience

Makhlina S.T. (St. Petersburg). Immersiveness in modern art culture

Doctor of Philosophy, Professor,
St. Petersburg State Institute of Culture
191186, St. Petersburg, Palace embankment, building 2,
E-mail: dp@spbgik.ru

Abstract. Immersiveness today is increasingly capturing the sphere of culture. The concept of immersiveness comes from the English “immersive”. First of all, the meaning of this word is immersion. The appearance of immersiveness is connected with the development of technological techniques. Initially, immersiveness was used in computer games, in military-strategic areas. But gradually, immersiveness is increasingly capturing the field of artistic culture. Today it is most often used in the theater. Even immersive theaters have appeared. Immersiveness is used in cinema and television, not only journalistic, documentary, but also artistic. Undoubtedly, immersiveness manifests itself in photography and video. However, these are all fine arts, where the image is dominant. But in the expressive arts, where the dominance of emotions occurs, immersiveness can only be applied in part. For co-authorship in such art requires professionalism. It is even more difficult to apply immersiveness in literature. Immersiveness is also widely used in exhibition activities.
Keywords: Immersiveness, immersion, art, painting, co-creation, co-authorship

Lavkhaeva D.N. (St. Petersburg). Challenges and opportunities for Global Britain in the context of the armed conflict in Ukraine


PhD student, Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of European Studies at School of International Relations, 191060, Russia, Saint- Petersburg, Smol’nogo 1/3, entrance 8.
E-mail: daria5611@yandex.ru

Abstract. The armed conflict in Ukraine considered by liberal democracies as an enormous threat to the regional security. Before Brexit the UK  used to deliver international politics together with EU’s allies, and today it opens new window of opportunities associated with demonstrating independence and globality of its foreign policy. Events in Eastern Europe would probably bring changes in world order and London’s searching for a new role in it as one of the main leaders, standing closely with the USA. It is highly important for the British politicians to protect the ideas of Global Britain, which have found an embodiment under the leadership of Boris Johnson and which  have previously been criticized by various socio-political groups. The author analyze parliamentary debates and officials’ statements. It allows to assume, that the unfolding crisis may become an opportunity for the country’s leadership outside the EU, dispelling skepticism around new foreign policy doctrine and strengthening country’s position as a main North Atlantic security outpost in Europe.
Keywords: Global Britain, Ukraine, Russia, parliament, Brexit, JEF, Boris Johnson, Liz Truss