Klio #07 (187) 2022

Kondakov YU.E. (St. Petersburg). Documents on the activities of B.P. Mansurov on the creation of Russian Palestine in the archives of Russia

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Russian State Pedagogical University named after A.I. Herzen
Russian Federation, emb. river Moika, 48, St. Petersburg, 191186
e-mail: urakon@rambler.ru

Abstract. Boris Pavlovich Mansurov (1828-1910) in 1857-1882 was the most active participant in the construction of Russian Palestine. On his initiative, fundraising began to improve the situation of Russian pilgrims. This was followed by the allocation of public funding. At the suggestion of Mansurov, Alexander II established the Palestine Committee in 1859. In 1882, Mansurov became a founding member of the Imperial Orthodox Palestinian Society (IOPS). Mansurov throughout his life collected documents and letters relating to his activities in Russian Palestine. Today, his archive is located in the State Archives of the Russian Federation and the State Archives of the Tambov Region. Mansurov’s correspondence is concentrated in the first repository, copies of documents, reports, analytical notes, reports are in the second archive. Some cases contain dozens of diverse documents. Several archives of the Russian Federation store the original documents collected by Mansurov. The funds of the archive of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire are the least researched. Among his collections are the collections of the Palestinian Committee and the Palestinian Commission, as well as the IOPS. The Russian State Archive of the Navy stores documents related to Mansurov’s service in this department. Recently it was possible to identify Mansurov’s documents in the Russian State Historical Archive. The most important of them are in the funds of the Russian Society of Shipping and Trade, the Ministry of Finance and the Holy Synod. The introduction of materials from all these archives into scientific circulation allows us to hope that a monographic study will be written on Mansurov’s participation in the construction of Russian Palestine.
Keywords: Russian Palestine, pilgrims, archives, documents, Palestinian Committee, Russian State Historical Archive, Russian State Archive of the Navy, State Archive of the Tambov Region, State Archive of the Russian Federation

Rzaev E.E. (Nizhny Novgorod). The study was objective and comprehensive: Soviet researchers of the 1960s – 1970s. on the development of party education in the Nizhny Novgorod – Gorky region in the second half of the 1920s – 1930s.

postgraduate student of the Department of history and theory of state and law,
Nizhny Novgorod institute of management – branch of RANEPA,
Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration
603950, Russia, Gagarin Ave. 22, Nizhny Novgorod
E-mail: el.rzaev@yahoo.com

Abstract. The article is devoted to the historiographical analysis and comprehensive evaluation of the works of Soviet historians investigating the problems of party education in the Nizhny Novgorod–Gorky region in the first decades of Soviet power in the last third of the XX century. The significance of this topic in Russian historiography is revealed. The main directions and general features of the research of this period are determined, the source base used; the advantages and limitations of the scientific works under consideration are highlighted. These aspects are concretized within the framework of a historiographical analysis of complex studies on the history of regional party organization, dissertations and articles by Gorky historians of the 1960s – 1970s. Mostly Gorky researchers of that period paid more attention to the art schools and less to the Communist University and the Gorky Regional branch of the Institute of Mass Correspondence Education of the Party asset under the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) (IMZO). The conclusion is made, according to which the authors rightly noted both the successes in party education, expressed quantitatively, and the shortcomings, which had a qualitative character, a general assessment of the considered works is given.
Keywords: Nizhny Novgorod – Gorky region, UCP(b), party education, Soviet historiography, Gorky historians, Nizhny Novgorod local history

Schmidt W. (Regensburg, Germany). The Uprising of Bohdan Khmelnytsky: forgotten pages of the history of the bloody terror of the Jews

Magister of History,
University of Regensburg,
Humboldt street 48 a, 93053 Regensburg, Germany,
E-mail: wolodjaschmidt@gmx.de

Abstract. In the article, based on the research of pre-revolutionary historians about the life of Jews in Ukraine in the XVII century, the author tried to reveal the main reasons for the terror that developed against this group of the population of the region during the uprising of Bohdan Khmelnytsky (1648-1654). In addition to using the works of pre-revolutionary authors, the author of the article also used the Jewish chronicle of these events written by Nathan Hanover when writing the work. Historical testimonies about the Cossack war in Ukraine of 1648 – 1654 reveal those tragic pages of the history of the Jewish people that can be compared with the era of the Crusades or the activities of the Spanish Inquisition. Eyewitness accounts of these events characterize the terror against Jews by the Cossacks as a purposeful struggle against this people.
Keywords. Khmelnytsky’s uprising, Zaporozhye Cossacks, terror against Jews, Rzeczpospolita, Ukraine, haidamaki

Ryakov E.E. (Irkutsk). The influence of racism and slavery on the mentality and cultural attitudes of the society of the American South before the Civil War (1861-1865)

master degree, Candidate’s Degree Applicant, Department “History and methods of PI ISU”, history teacher,
Irkutsk College of Economics and Law,
Pedagogical Institute of Irkutsk State University, Department of History and Methods,
664011, City of Irkutsk, Sukhe-Bator 9, 215
Email: ryakove@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the genesis and evolution of cultural representations of the inhabitants of the American South before the Civil War (1861-1865). Particular attention is paid to the role of slavery and racism in the formation of the views of the inhabitants of the South, their influence on the character and mentality of various social groups of southerners. The article attempts to get rid of stereotyped thinking and demonization regarding the role of the American South in American history. Not only the negative aspects generated by racism and slavery are noted, but also the positive qualities of southerners brought up on the frontier of America. A characteristic is given to the concept of “paternalism” and its influence on the life of the American South. The novelty of the study lies in the revision of the classic view of the American South as an immoral, old community in which there were no positive qualities. The researcher comes to the conclusion that despite the obviously detrimental influence of slavery and racism, morally and morally, the resident of the South did not differ much from the resident of the North of the United States. From the point of view of morality, the South used the concept of “paternalism”, was a huge community resembling a family, while the institution of the family in the North was not so developed, society was built on selfish values. Also in the North, although there was no slavery, there was a racism comparable to the Southern states. The moral superiority of the North over the South is greatly overestimated in modern historiography and political agenda.
Keywords: Mentality, American South, racism, slavery, pre-Civil War Southern society

Vlasov N.A. (St. Petersburg). Otto von Bismarck and Austro-German alliance 1879: personal beliefs and political decision

Candidate of historical sciences, Associate professor,
St. Petersburg State University, Chair of Theory and History of International Relations
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9
e-mail: n.vlasov@spbu.ru

Abstract. The topic of this paper is the influence of beliefs of the German Imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) about Russia on his decision to conclude a military alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1879. The relevance of this problem is determined by the ongoing discussions both on the reasons for signing this alliance treaty and on the role of the politician’s personal beliefs in decision-making process. Bismarck’s texts from the period of 1850-70s that reflected his beliefs about Russia were main sources for studying this issue. From those texts we can conclude that Bismarck’s ideas about Russia and Russians were formed in an evolutionary way over a long time; they were systemic and coherent. These beliefs were based on stereotypes about the Slavic national character. Bismarck believed that since ethnic Germans were removed from Russian elite, the quality of political decisions made in Petersburg dropped dramatically. In his opinion, Russian domestic and foreign policy is becoming undigested, inconsistent and aggressive. At the same time, Bismarck observed with alarm the rise of nationalist sentiments in Russian society, which made Russian foreign policy more aggressive. Eastern Crisis 1875-78 confirmed Bismarck’s worst fears, and he quite sincerely believed that Russian Empire is an unreliable and dangerous partner. These views largely determined his choice in favor of an alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1879.
Keywords: Otto von Bismarck, Russian-German Relations, Austro-German alliance treaty 1879, Political decision making, Beliefs, Image of Russia

Ragimova P.F. (Moscow). Russian ethnic minorities in the system of interethnic relations in the Republic of Uzbekistan

PhD Candidate in History, Associate Professor,
Department of History of the Near Abroad Countries,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, 119234, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4.
E-mail: ragimova73@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the estate of the Russian national minority in post-Soviet Uzbekistan. The author consistently covers the linguistic, religious, ethnic policy towards the Russian national minority in Uzbekistan. The author pays special attention to ethnic and religious conflicts that took place not only in Uzbekistan, but also in the neighboring states of this region, which influenced the increase of population shift of Russians from Uzbekistan. In conclusion, the author draws attention to the rapprochement between Uzbekistan and Russia that has intensified in recent years, which has served as the basis for stabilization the position of Russians in the country.
Keywords: migration, Russians, conflicts, official status, religious institutions.

Serbina A.S., Komarova D.S. (Novosibirsk). Comparative content analysis of China CELAC Joint Cooperation Plan in 2015, 2018, 2021

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of World Economy, International Relations and Law,
Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management “NSUEM”.
630099, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Kamenskaya, 52
E-mail: serbina.anna@mail.ru

2nd year postgraduate student, assistant of the Department of World Economy, International Relations and Law,
Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management “NSUEM “.
630099, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Kamenskaya, 52
E-mail: komarova.d.s@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the international cooperation between China and the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, in particular within the framework of the China-SELAC Forum. In the course of the study, the authors conducted a content analysis of the Joint Action Plans of China and The Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), developed as a result of Ministers’ Meetings in 2015, 2018 and 2021. The comparison of the Joint Action Plans made it possible to study the evolution of the international agenda within the framework of the Forum and determine the dynamics of China’s foreign policy interests in the region. The authors revealed a correlation between the main priorities of China’s foreign policy in the Latin Caribbean region and the categories that were identified by the authors for content analysis. In particular, these are: cooperation in the political, economic, social spheres, security, agriculture, education and culture, science and innovation, environmental protection. An increase in cooperation in these areas was found, which allows us to conclude that in the future we can only expect an expansion of space for the comprehensive development of Sino-Latin American relations.
Keywords: China, CELAC, Latin Caribbean America, One Belt One Road, content analysis, international cooperation, COVID-19

Mankov S.A., Mikhailov V.V. (St. Petersburg). Cases of arsons committed by women in the landlords estates of the St. Petersburg Governorate at the end of the XVIII century: the personal aspect of punishments

Ph.D. in history, honorary member of the Russian Academy of Arts,
Senior researcher of the State Museum «Tsarskoye Selo».
196601, Sadovaya st., 7, Pushkin, Saint Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: mankov21@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of the St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
190000, 15 Gastello St., St. Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: batukom@mail.ru

Abstract. The criminal legislation of the Russian Empire severely punished not only for the deliberate arson of real estate, but also for careless “ignition”, if it led to serious consequences. During the reign of Empress Catherine II, the legislation became not only more developed, but circumstances mitigating punishment were introduced into it. In particular, there was a differentiation of crimes committed by adult subjects and minors, for which a special institution of the Constituent Court was created. According to the archival materials of criminal cases on arson committed in the landowners’ estates of the St. mitigation of punishment. At the same time, the court verdicts did not directly indicate the personal aspect leading to a real mitigation of punishments, being guided only by the norms available in the legislation.
Keywords: Russia in the XVIII century, St. Petersburg Governorate, nobility, peasantry, serfdom, Russian criminal law, female crime, arson

Otto F.P. (Moscow). The image of the Church in the perception of K.P. Pobedonostsev (based on correspondence with S.A. Rachinsky for 1880–1881)

Master Student,
Department of Russian History of the
Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, 119234, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4.
E-mail: otto_fedor@bk.ru

Abstract. The article explores the views of the outstanding statesman and conservative thinker K.P. Pobedonostsev on the church and a wide range of issues related to church life. The material used to reconstruct Pobedonostsev’s views is his correspondence with one of his most trusted interlocutors, the public education enthusiast S.A. Rachinsky. For the study were selected letters from 1880–1881 – this time was marked by political instability in the empire and determined the circumstances in which Pobedonostsev took the post of Chief Procurator of the Holy Synod. Scientific novelty of the article lies in the fact that the views of Pobedonostsev are studied at an early stage of their emergence and crystallization, which allows us to draw conclusions about the underlying motivation for certain actions of the Chief Procurator. For this purpose, the analysis involves not only the letters of Pobedonostsev himself, but also the messages he received from his interlocutor, thus reproducing the dialogue as an informal source of expert evaluation and the space of formation of beliefs. The materials of correspondence allow the author to draw conclusions about such essential for the Chief Procurator ideas as overcoming the class and professional isolation of white clergy, the development and popularization of church art, the revival of parish life and overcoming the Raskol through the development of the Edinoverie movement.
Keywords: K.P. Pobedonostsev, S.A. Rachinsky, conservatism, Russian Orthodox Church.

Bobrovnikov V.V. (Pushkin). Sanitary and hygienic state of Petrograd in February-October 1917

Postgraduate student
Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin
Russian Federation, 196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10 lit. A
E-mail: vladimirbobrovnikov94@mail.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the features of the sanitary and hygienic state of Petrograd in February-October 1917. The publications of the capital’s press, memoirs of contemporaries and archival materials are analyzed. Emphasis is placed on changes in the sanitary condition of the city that occurred during the revolutionary period. It is shown how these changes affected the city dwellers.
Socio-political upheavals in society in 1917 led to a significant breakdown in the work of the municipal urban economy, which resulted in the unsanitary condition of streets and yards, as well as a problem with the removal of sewage from the city. The general sanitary crisis in the city has led to an increase in the incidence of acute infectious diseases. In the summer of 1917, the city experienced an increase in the incidence of dysentery and catarrh of the gastrointestinal tract. The incidence of syphilis among the population of Petrograd was also associated with the general epidemiological situation in the city.
During this period, there is a deterioration in the hygiene of the body of city dwellers, which negatively affected the health of the population.
Keywords: sewage; daily live; Petrograd; The Revolution of 1917; sanitary; epidemic

Shtyrbul A.A. (Omsk). The Soviets or a “buffer”? The Left Opposition in the Far Eastern Republic (1920-1922)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Department of World History, Sociology and Politic Science,
Omsk State Pedagogical University,
664099, nab. Tukhachevskogo-14, Omsk, OSPU,
e-mail: shtyrbu_97@omgpu.ru

Abstract. The article, which was prepared for the 100-th date anniversary of the dramatic and heroic epic of the Far Eastern Republic (DVR), is devoted to one of the aspects of its difficulty history, so far understudied: political (sometimes on the brink of military) resistance to the idea and practice of the buffer bourgeois-democratic state, which the DVR was, from left-wing radical and leftist elements – left-wing communists, esers [socialists-revolutionists]-maximalists, anarchists, who stood for the immediate reconstruction of the power of the Soviets in unfavorable foreign policy conditions. Besides, these article is touching to the problem of political concessions and political compromises, their conditions and limits in the model of Far Eastern Republic as of buffer democratic state. It is shown that, despite the sincere adherence to the Soviet rule of these left-radical elements, on the whole, their policy in that period had objectively an ill-considered and non-constructive character. At the same time these valuable political experience of creation and functionality of the Far Eastern Republic and the experience of the political compromises, which was be tested will be, in the different, was used in the future in the practice of foreign communists, socialists, left social-democrats and revolutionary democrats in the political struggle for social and national liberation of number states and colonial regions of the world.
Keywords: Russian Far East; Civil War; Intervention; Political compromises; Left opposition; Leftism

Burnasheva N.I., Kovlekov I.I. (Yakutsk). The formation of mining industry as the basis for the industrial development of Yakutia during the 1920s

doctor of historical sciences, associate professor,
Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies
of the North of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Department of History and Arctic Research,
Leading Researcher.
677020, Russia, Yakutsk, st. Petrovsky, 1.
e-mail: n_burnasheva@mail.ru

Doctor of Technical Sciences,
North-Eastern Federal University
named after M.K. Ammosov, Mining Institute, Professor
677013, Russia, Yakutsk, st. Belinsky, 58.
e-mail: Kovlekov@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the history of the formation of the mining industry in Yakutia, the origins of which were laid even before the revolution of 1917 in the form of artisanal mining of the mineral resources. With the establishment of Soviet power, their management from private property was transferred to the centralized and structured management of state institutes. The resolution in the USSR of a course towards industrialization introduced a planned character into the development of industry and brought to the foreground the goal of creating a mining industry in the Yakut ASSR, on the basis of which it was supposed to raise the entire economy of the region. It was from that moment that the republican authorities increased their attention to the issues of studying the conditions and prospects for the development of mining production, significantly expanded geological prospecting, and began to search for ways to optimize the management system of industrial enterprises. In the developed General Plan for the Development of the Republic (1927), mining was supposed to be developed as the leading branch of the national economy of the Yakut ASSR. As a result, the transition to solving the problems of industrialization became a turning point for the economy of the Yakut ASSR, allowing in a short time to switch to a planned economic system and start creating mining production as the leading industry of the region.
Keywords: Industrialization, Mining Industry, Mineral Deposits, Soviet Five-Year Plans, Production Management, Yakut ASSR

Eremeeva A.N. (Krasnodar). Soviet avant-garde architecture in a museum context

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher, Southern branch of Russian Research Institute for Cultural and Natural Heritage named after D.S. Likhachov. 350063, Russia, Krasnodar, Krasnaya, 28.
E-mail: erana@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines the modern museum representation of the Soviet architectural avant-garde heritage of the 1920s – early 1930s. Its creators – the architects – were far ahead of their time. The role of the Schusev Museum of Architecture and other museum institutions in popularization of the Soviet architectural avant-garde is noted. Individual initiatives (including expeditions of Richard Pare) which have allowed drawing attention to metropolitan and provincial examples of avant-garde architecture have been considered. The author characterizes the main exhibition and their distinctive features in Russian and foreign museums: “The Lost Avant-garde: Soviet Modernist Architecture, 1922-32” “Life in the monuments of modernism” “Imagine Moscow: Architecture, Propaganda, Revolution”, “Architectural Avant-garde – World Heritage? Preservation of constructivist buildings in Russia and Germany” “VKHUTEMAS — 100. School of the avant-garde”, etc. It is noted that scientific conferences, lectures, the publication of photo albums and monographs were the part of the implementation of museum projects. All of that contribute to a deeper understanding of the role and place of Soviet avant-garde in the history of world architecture, and in a broad socio-cultural context, pay attention to the current condition, problems of preservation, restoration, and popularization the architectural heritage of Soviet avant-garde through tourism activities.
Keywords: Soviet architecture, avant-garde, heritage, museums, Schusev Museum of Architecture, international projects, foreign exhibitions, regional initiatives

Lapina I.Yu., Kargapoltsev S.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Decommunization of public consciousness as a necessary condition for the complementarity of civil-patriotic upbringing of young students at the present stage of domestic sociogenesis (part 1)

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. The publication analyzes one of the main problems of civil-patriotic education of young students in the current reality of domestic life: the continuing romanticization in the educational and methodological literature of the ideas and adherents of the revolutionary reorganization of the world (Jacobins, sans-culottes, Decembrists, Narodovol´tsy (People’s Will), Social Revolutionaries and Bolsheviks). This phenomenon hinders the formation of a full-fledged anti-terrorist ideology and the prevention of the popularization of extremist activities in the poly-ethnic student environment. Further ignoring of this problem can have severe socio-political consequences in the short term. The article draws attention of the readership to the achievements of the Russian Empire in recent years, which depended not only on the economic sphere, but also on the humanitarian field. The authors believe that this country had a high potential for development and was competitive in relation to other European powers. A clear vision by the Russian leadership of ways to implement domestic and foreign policy plans is noted. The authors express the opinion that the glorification and romanticization of the revolutionary past of the country slows down the process of modern development of Russian society. The presented material is supported by a set of quotations and statistical data with links to primary sources, regulatory framework and representative literature.
Keywords: Civil-patriotic upbringings, educational-methodical process, revolutionary violence, bolshevism, terrorism, extremism, repression

Vinogradov A.M. (Vladivostok). The activities of internal affairs agencies in decriminalizing the economy at the turn of the XX–XXI century: regional dimension

docent of the Department
of operational investigative and administrative activities
of the Vladivostok branch of the Far Eastern
Judicial Institute of Russian Ministry of the Interior
690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikova st., 21,
E-mail: philosophyworld@inbox.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the activities of law-enforcement bodies on decriminalization of economy in the Far East of Russia at the turn of XX–XXI centuries. A concept of “decriminalization” is given and its peculiarities in the Far Eastern region are described. Activity of internal affairs bodies on counteraction to the organized crime is analyzed. The directions of decriminalization of economy of the Far East, as a whole, and Primorsky Krai, in particular, are highlighted. The main attention is given to the analysis of the struggle against organized crime and corruption in the system branches of economy – fishing and forestry. The conclusion is made that in the period under consideration the criminal situation in the Far Eastern region was acute and tense, which required the adoption of systemic measures to combat crime in the economic sphere. Decriminalization was carried out on the basis of interdepartmental cooperation, which allowed uniting efforts in the most priority directions.
Keywords: decriminalization economy, Far East of Russia, organized criminal groups, Primorsky Krai, system of economic crime counteraction

Perekrestova S.V. (St. Petersburg). A.S. Lappo-Danilevskii and his private library (scholar’s inscriptions on the example of his personal copies of N. I. Kareev’s books)

Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Librarian
Russia, 199034, St. Petersburg, Birzhevaja line, 1
e-mail: perekrestova_sofya@mail.ru

Abstract. The paper is devoted to the fragment of A. S. Lappo-Danilevskii’s private library, i. e. his personal copies of N. I. Kareev’s books. On the example of these editions it makes an attempt to characterize A. S. Lappo-Danilevskii as thoughtful reader with practical approach to studying literature, to analyze his personal style of working with it and to define the marks and notes in the books the most typical for him. Reconstructing his private library in full and getting the opportunity to make general conclusions are the goals that are yet to be attained. This paper is focused on analyzing his private library’s books of N. I. Kareev as his colleague and scholar with partly same research interests. Looking at his library from this point of view, we can draw a range of more specific findings and conclusions on the way A. S. Lappo-Danilevskii worked with the literature necessary for his research. These findings can be used by researchers interested in the history of his own books and papers and, to a certain extent, his position in St. Petersburg scholar corporation and relationships with his colleagues.
Keywords: A. S. Lappo-Danilevskii, N. I. Kareev, Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences, private libraries, inscriptions, marginalia, dedications, ownership marks

Sinin E.Yu. (Moscow). The rhetoric of Grigory Zinoviev’s speech at the XVII Congress of the VKP(b) as a method of political legitimization of Joseph Stalin

postgraduate student of the Department of National History,
Institute of Humanities, Moscow City Teacher Trainig University
129226, Russia, Moscow, 2nd Agricultural Lane, 4, bldg. 1
E-mail: e.sinin@yandex.ru

Abstract. The public repentance of the former leaders of the internal party oppositions in VKP(b) was an important element in the political legitimation of Joseph Stalin in the first half of the 1930s. The article devoted to analysis of rhetoric of the speech at the XVII Congress of the VKP(b) (1934) by Grigori Zinoviev, who was one of the leaders of the internal party opposition. The main elements of the rhetoric of this speech were reduced to several positions: the recognition of Joseph Stalin as the only legitimate successor of Vladimir Lenin, the recognition of his own political and ideological wrong; identification of party politics with the name of Joseph Stalin; apologetics of unanimity in the party, criticism of any anti-Stalinist opposition. The meaning of Grigori Zinoviev’s speech at the 17th Congress of the VKP(b) was the legitimization of Joseph Stalin’s autocracy, as well as building his personality cult. The initiator of the “repentant” speech was Grigori Zinoviev. He proceeded from the desire to return to active political activity at any cost, as well as from a deep psychological breakdown. The initiative of Grigori Zinoviev was used by Joseph Stalin, who considered the former oppositionists politically harmless and demoralized, and the 17th Congress was a suitable platform for demonstrating the unity of the party ranks and constructing the Stalinist cult. Grigori Zinoviev’s speech corresponded to the emerging practice of publicly “disarming” opponents of the party leadership before congresses.
Keywords: rhetoric, political legitimation, internal party struggle in the 1920s-1930s, VKP(b), Joseph Stalin, Grigori Zinoviev, a personality cult

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