Klio #08 (188) 2022

Orlova A.P. (St. Petersburg). Studies of first professors of the Ladies’ Medical institute on pages of the Botkin’s hospital newspaper: 1896-1897

Сand. of Sci. (Hist.), Associate Professor of the Department of National History, Pavlov University
Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zelenogorsk, 197720, Krivonosovskaya, 25b,
ORCID: 0000-0002-1935-8411,
e-mail: vorobieva2001@list.ru

Abstract. Clinical newspaper published by S.P. Botkin was continued by his sons and students as representative weekly edition based on clinical facts and medical studies. Specialists of the Ladies’ Medical institute in the years of foundation of modern Pavlov State Medical University mirrowed on pages the Newspaper results of their experiments, studies, discussions, based on deep analysis of each problem of therapy and surgery. About intra-peritoneal balance and mobility of the kidneys, spleen, a case of acute nephritis with bacteriuria after an infected arm wound, a case of streptococcal septicemia treated with anti-streptococcal serum, studies in memory of Jenner, added with the attempts of surgery in the treatment of tuberculous meningitis, new methods of treatment of diphtheria and scarlet fever, and method for studying hearing with the help of a continuous series of tones available to a normal human ear in general – are only few clinical studies among wide variety of acute problems of treatment of numerous contagious diseases along with heavy injuries with help of rather simple but already specified medicines and instruments, used by doctors of the late XIX c. as real specialists in the art of medicine.
Keywords: clinical experience, hospital newspaper, medicine, therapy, surgery, S.P.Botkin, professors of the Ladies’Medical institute

Ustyantsev Н.Yu. (Moscow), Mironova N.P. (Syktyvkar). Semiotic space of the Permian animal style. History of problem and modern interpretations

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Assistant of the Department of Ethnology,
History Faculty, Moscow State University ‘M. V. Lomonosov’
 27, building 4, Lomonosovsky Ave, Moscow, 119192, Russian Federation.
E-mail: ustyan-93@mail.ru, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0655-3127

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Researcher of the Institute of Language, Literature and History, Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Communist Street 24, room 311, Syktyvkar, 167000, Russian Federation.
E-mail: sidnap@mail.ru, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1432-7528

Abstract. The authors of the article analyze the representation of the Permian animal style (PAS) in the historiographic context and modern cultural practices of the Komi creators. The researchers give historiography of PAS studies, highlighting the main stages of the study in Russian and Soviet sciences from the end of the 19th century to the present. The authors inscribe PAS into existing ethnological discourse. The article highlights the main problems in the study of PAS presented in the works of historians, archaeologists and art critics, including classification, origin of PAS, etc. This paper devoted to the main concepts of the functional significance of the PAS and the semiotics of its symbols existed in Russian and Soviet historiographies. Thus, the work underlines the apotropaic, ritual, totemic interpretations of the PAS. Taking into account the peculiarities of modern mass culture, the authors of the article propose a new approach to the interpretation of the PAS in modern space of Komi culture. Based on graphic and digital art (painting, clothing, computer graphics, etc.), researchers identify the main models for rethinking and interpreting PAS in the national Komi art. Thus, the authors of the article consider the PAS as a phenomenon of modern Komi aesthetic values, emphasizing the connection between this trend in graphic art and the ideas of national and ethnic identities. It is proposed to consider the PAS as a symbolic expression of ethnic identity and an anti-globalization trend in the modern Komi art. PAS is also considered in the context of ethnofuturism, a recently formed trend in the art of the Finno-Ugric peoples, appealing to mythological images, artistic primitivism and some graphic elements of PAS.
Keywords: Perm animal style (PAS), Komi, semiotics, ethnofuturism, ethnic identity, Komi mythology, ethnic art
Information on the conflict of interests: authors declare no conflict of interest

Ryakov E.E. (Irkutsk). Review of Geraldine Heng’s Historical Study «The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages»

master degree, Candidate’s Degree Applicant, Department “History and methods of PI ISU”, history teacher,
Irkutsk College of Economics and Law,
Pedagogical Institute of Irkutsk State University, Department of History and Methods,
664011, City of Irkutsk, Sukhe-Bator 9, 215
Email: ryakove@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of Geraldine Heng’s untranslated study “The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages” which tells about the emergence of racial views in the period of the European Middle Ages. Both positive and negative aspects of the work are highlighted, the degree of significance of the study for the study of racism and racial theories, the prospects for the search for racism in the Middle Ages are formulated. Heng’s research focuses on the phenomenon of racism, deriving the thesis of the existence of “cultural” racism. “Cultural” racism differs from biological racism in that it is slightly connected with the concept of race as such, it is based on discrimination of cultures and civilizations that are different from European ones. Therefore, Heng explores not only races, but also various ethnic groups that are formally included in one race, but have significant cultural differences. The study deals with a variety of issues, affecting both the political problems of individual states and the literary analysis of various works. The weak points of the work relate to the terminology and conceptual apparatus, the strong points are the relevance of the topic to the modern political agenda, the use of different sources, the formation of a new look at the genesis of racism and its root causes. “The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages” is important as a new stage in the discussion of racial problems, as it tries to argue with the established model of the emergence of racism in modern times. However, Heng’s position is no less controversial and has not yet been fully proven.
Keywords: Racism, Middle Ages, race, Geraldine Heng, racial theories

Gafar-zada L.R. (Baku, Azerbaijan). Anthony Jenkinson’s visit to the Safavid State: why did “greater moments” have not arisen from “small beginnings”?

PhD in History, Senior Fellow at the Middle Ages History Department of the A. A. Bakikhanov Institute of History, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Executive Secretary of the Academic Journal of “Social Sciences” of the Presidium of the ANAS. AZ1143, Azerbaijan, Baku city, Husain Javid ave., 115
E-mail: leo_558@mail.ru

Abstract. The main possible reasons of the failure of English diplomat Anthony Jenkinson’s visit to the Safavid State in 1562 are being studied in the present article. The main research object of the article is his audience with the Shah Tahmasp I that took place on November 20, 1562. So far, only one reason why Shah Tahmasp refused to establish either diplomatic or trade relations with England in 1562 was proposed in domestic historiography, namely, Shah’s policy aimed to preserve peaceful relations with the Ottoman Empire, with which the Safavids had signed the peace treaty of Amasiya in 1555, several years prior to Jenkinson’s visit. As the result of the study, seven main possible reasons were determined among which the afore mentioned one and suspicion of Jenkinson in spying for other States seem more real.
Keywords: Anthony Jenkinson’s mission, Anglo-Safavid relations, Shah Tahmasp I, Queen Elizabeth I Tudor

Yernazarov Zh.T. (Uralsk, Kazakhstan), Beknazarov R.A., Izbassarova G.B., Shalmanova A.B. (Aktobe, Kazakhstan). Stereotypes of perception of traditional culture and modernization processes in the rites and rituals of the life cycle of the Kazakhs

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Docent of Department of History and Law
West Kazakhstan Innovation and Technological University
090000, the Republic of Kazakhstan, Uralsk, Nazarbayev Prospect, 194,
E-mail: zhasern@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Vice-Rector for Science and Innovation
of the Aktobe Regional University named after. K. Zhubanov.
030000, the Republic of Kazakhstan, Aktobe, A.Moldagulova Prospect, 34,
E-mail: r.beknazarov@gmail.com 

Gulbanu B. IzbaSsarova
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
The head of the Department History and Religious Studies
of the Aktobe Regional University named after K. Zhubanov.
030000, the Republic of Kazakhstan, Aktobe, A.Moldagulova Prospect, 34,
E-mail: iz_gulbanu@mail.ru

Master of Humanities,
senior researcher of the Aktobe Regional University named after. K. Zhubanov.
030000, the Republic of Kazakhstan, Aktobe, A.Moldagulova Prospect, 34,
E-mail: aliya_sh83@mail.ru

Abstract. The article deals with modern ethno-cultural processes in the rites and rituals of the life cycle of the Kazakhs. Family rituals, being an organic part of the traditional Kazakh culture, are influenced by both external and internal modernization factors. The latter affects the preservation of cultural identity, national code, symbols and signs, through which one or another individual identifies himself with the ethnic community, concluded in rites and rituals, is perceived in Kazakhstani society as the preservation of historical and cultural continuity of the generation.
This research has been funded by the Science Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Grant No. AP08856108 “The role of family rites in the context of intangible heritage theory (on the example of West Kazakhstan)”.
Keywords: Rites and rituals of the life cycle of the Kazakhs, modernization processes, family rituals of the Kazakhs, traditional culture of the Kazakhs

Kasparov A.I. (St. Petersburg). Remigius of Reims. Myth and reality

applicant for the degree of the Department of Middle Ages Institute of History of St. Petersburg State University
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5
e-mail: akdrama@mail.ru

Abstract. Remigius of Reims – Apostle of France. The man, according to historiography, who baptized the Frankish king Clovis (480–511), which predetermined the image of the Frankish kingdoms as Catholic states. Several hagiographic texts and reports of contemporaries have been preserved about Remigia. But if you carefully study the sources of the bishop’s contemporary life, you will find that they surprisingly provide little information about the life and work of Remigius. Even the correct transcription of his name still raises questions. At the same time, a later tradition gives us much more information about him. This article will examine in detail the texts of the lives of Remigius. Also will be made an attempt to clarify, on the basis of reliable sources, what can really be said about this person, and what is a later myth.
Keywords: Remigius, bishop, Clovis, Franks, church history, hagiographic sources

Sadomtseva A.R. (Moscow). Non-aligned policy of Sweden during the Suez crisis 1956

postgraduate student 2 years of study, Faculty of History
Moscow State University M. V. Lomonosov, Department of Modern and Contemporary History,
Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, bldg. 4, 119991
e-mail: sadomtzeva-ann@mail.ru

Abstract. In the mid-1950s, the Swedish leadership developed a new foreign policy doctrine formulated by Foreign Minister Östen Undén as “freedom from alliances in peacetime in order to maintain neutrality during war.” In 1956, the Suez crisis broke out, during which the new security doctrine proclaimed by Stockholm underwent a kind of strength test. In the conflict Sweden sought to take the position of a non-aligned state. The Suez crisis opened a unique opportunity for Stockholm to participate in the settlement of the conflict by sending volunteers as part of the UN mission to ensure world order in the region. Thus, the Swedish leadership simultaneously expressed support for both the United Nations and its compatriot Dag Hammarskjold, who headed the organization during this period. Sweden’s position on the Suez crisis has not been considered in detail before, but in connection with the dispatch of Swedish volunteers within the UN contingent, the decision-making process of the Swedish leadership, as well as the view of Swedish political circles on the Suez problem, is of some interest. The basis of the source base was made up of documents of meetings of the UN Security Council and the UN General Assembly and resolutions on the Suez problem. The author refers to the Swedish Riksdag, which allow determining the position of Swedish political circles on the Suez issue. The article uses documents from the Archive of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation, where letters from Swedish organizations to the Soviet leadership on the Suez conflict are stored. An important place is occupied by the memoirs of the Prime Minister of Sweden, Tage Erlander. These sources help to reveal Sweden’s position on the events of the Suez crisis of 1956.
Keywords: Sweden, Swedish foreign policy, Suez crisis, non-aligned policy, Swedish neutrality, Östen Undén, Dag Hammarskjöld, UN

Zhigulskaya D.V., Zolotukhina A.R. (Moscow). The Diaspora Aspect in Turkish Foreign Policy

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Assoc. Prof. Faculty of Global Studies
Lomonosov Moscow State University
119991, Moscow, Leninskiye Gory 1,
Senior Researcher, Institute of Oriental Studies RAS
12 Rozhdestvenka Street, Moscow, 107031
e-mail: dvzhigulskaya@gmail.com

Master Student, Faculty of Finance and Banking, RANEPA
119571, Moscow, Vernadsky Ave., 82
e-mail: zolotukhinaanastasya@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the current diaspora policy of the Turkish government in Europe on the example of relations with the Turkish diaspora in Germany, which Ankara rightly considers as a significant political actor. 

Particular attention is paid to the semantic limits of the term “Turkish diaspora”. The main approaches to its definition are identified, while taking into account comprehensive heterogeneity of this phenomenon. 

The article also describes the historical dynamics of the growth of immigration flows from Turkey to Germany, defines the main institutional mechanisms of interaction between the ruling regime and the Turkish diaspora in Europe. In particular, the activities of the Presidency for Turks Abroad and Related Communities (YTB) are described and he role of cooperation with the diaspora in the business sphere is also assessed.

Along with that, the reaction of the European authorities to the active actions of the Turkish government in relation to the diaspora, in particular, on the eve of the 2017 constitutional referendum, is being studied.

The conclusion points to the need for more research into the impact of internal political changes in Turkey on the daily life of Turkish diaspora, the relationship between the existing diaspora and newly arrived immigrants, as well as the reactions of host countries to these important changes.
Keywords: Turkey, Turkish diaspora, transnationalism, migration, Justice and Development Party (AKP)

Mankov S.A. (St. Petersburg). Cases of arson of landlord property in the St. Petersburg province at the end of the XVIII century

Ph.D. in history, honorary member of the Russian Academy of Arts,
 Senior researcher of the State Museum «Tsarskoye Selo».
196601, Sadovaya st., 7, Pushkin, Saint Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: mankov21@mail.ru

Annotation. The article deals with controversial issues of investigative and judicial actions against arsonists of landlord property in the St. Petersburg province in the second half of the XVIII century. Despite the severity of arson as a criminal offence, investigations did not always lead to finding and punishing those responsible. The materials of court cases demonstrate that, both at the level of the investigation and when considering cases in courts, arsonists of landlord property sometimes shied away from responsibility. The problems of the qualification of employees of the investigating authorities and the subjectivity of judges are clearly manifested in the analysis of crimes at the end of the reign of Empress Catherine II. Investigative measures were sometimes not carried out at all, which did not contribute to the identification and punishment of arsonists. Nevertheless, the Catherine era led to an understanding of the need for humanity, both criminal law and the entire law enforcement system, which undoubtedly had a positive effect on further reforms to systematize and unify Russian legislation, primarily on the work of Mikhail Speransky’s commission at the beginning XIX century.
Keywords: Russia in the XVIII century, St. Petersburg Governorate, nobility, peasantry, serfdom, Russian criminal law, arson, firefighting, Code of Laws of the Russian Empire

Lapina I.Yu., Kargapoltsev S.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Decommunization of public consciousness as a necessary condition for the complementarity of civil-patriotic upbringing of young students at the present stage of domestic sociogenesis (part 2)

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. The publication analyzes one of the main problems of civil-patriotic education of young students in the current reality of domestic life: the continuing romanticization in the educational and methodological literature of the ideas and adherents of the revolutionary reorganization of the world (Jacobins, sans-culottes, Decembrists, Narodovol´tsy (People’s Will), Social Revolutionaries and Bolsheviks). This phenomenon hinders the formation of a full-fledged anti-terrorist ideology and the prevention of the popularization of extremist activities in the poly-ethnic student environment. Further ignoring of this problem can have severe socio-political consequences in the short term. The article draws attention of the readership to the achievements of the Russian Empire in recent years, which depended not only on the economic sphere, but also on the humanitarian field. The authors believe that this country had a high potential for development and was competitive in relation to other European powers. A clear vision by the Russian leadership of ways to implement domestic and foreign policy plans is noted. The authors express the opinion that the glorification and romanticization of the revolutionary past of the country slows down the process of modern development of Russian society. The presented material is supported by a set of quotations and statistical data with links to primary sources, regulatory framework and representative literature. This article is a continuation of a series of publications on the stated issues. The beginning was published in the journal Klio No. 7, 2022.
Keywords: Civil-patriotic upbringings, educational-methodical process, revolutionary violence, bolshevism, terrorism, extremism, repression

Stryapikhina А.А. (N.Novgorod). Seasonal work of peasants of Nizhny Novgorod province in the 1920s: reasons and features

candidate of Historical Scienses,
Associate Professor of Department of humanitarian sciences
Institute of Food Technology and Design
603062, Russia Federation, N.Novgorod, Mountain st., 13
E-mail: anna-stryapikhina@rambler.ru 

Abstract. In this article, the author explores the widespread departure from villages and villages in the peasant environment to work in the cities, which has been called seasonal work. The chronological framework of the study is the 1920s, which were the time of the most widespread withdrawal in the Soviet era. Relying on archive documents, periodicals and statistical materials, the author reveals both economic and social motives that prompted peasants to seek earnings in cities; provides data on the dynamics and features of the seasonal work in the Nizhny Novgorod province. The labor of seasonal workers was widely used in recruiting seasonal workers in river navigation along the Volga and in construction. The author comes to the conclusion that in the first half of the 1920s, waste management had a spontaneous character, but with the transition to industrialization, the government is making active attempts to manage the movement of seasonal workers due to the need for timely staffing of new industrial facilities. Seasonal workers often faced domestic inconveniences, difficult working conditions, were absent from home for a long time, but in general, earnings in the city contributed to the growth of the well-being of rural families. Seasonal work contributed to an increase in the pace of urbanization.
Keywords: seasonal work, peasants, work, city, village, industry

Barinov D.A., Lebedev V.A. (St. Petersburg). Youth and the problem of revolutionary generations in the CPSU discussion in 1923

Ph. D. (History), Researcher,
St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Petrozavodskaya St., 7, St. Petersburg 197110, Russian Federation,
E-mail: barinovdima1990@yandex.ru

St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Petrozavodskaya St., 7, St. Petersburg 197110, Russian Federation,
E-mail: vlebedev@eu.spb.ru

Abstract. In Soviet historiography, plots related to the party discussion of 1923-1924 were presented exclusively as the opposition of the Bolsheviks to the “Menshevik” deviations of L.D. Trotsky, who led with his activity the RCP(b) to a split. In recent decades, historians have been revising this distorted picture of the political history of the early USSR, presenting more objective assessments of the activities of the opposition. Another cliché of Soviet historiography is the accusation of Trotsky and his followers of flirting with the party youth, which was assigned the role of an ally of the opposition in the factional struggle. In this article, we will determine the place of youth in the 1923 discussion around the “new policy”, and pay attention to who exactly was considered as youth for the opposition: whether it was about university students or young workers. To complete our analysis, we take into account not only the well-known texts of Trotsky, but the views on the youth and party generations supported by his opponents. At the end of the article, we will consider the position on these issues of some lower rank opposition groups (“Rabochaya Pravda”, the “Enchmenists”). This makes it possible to assess whether the discussion about democracy and the renewal / rejuvenation of the RCP(b) was imposed from above or whether it reflected the real demand of the party masses.
Keywords: youth, revolution, party discussion, RCP(b), L.D. Trotsky

Chi Yuchao (Russky Island, Vladivostok). How legal education began in the Russian Far East

Postgraduate Student, Far Eastern Federal University:
Department of History and Archeology, School of Arts and Humanities,
690922, Russia, Vladivostok,
Russky Island, Ajax 10, FEFU campus, building F, Room 427;
 Email: 88002978@qq.com

Abstract. The article is devoted to the centenary of legal university education in the Russian Far East. The article analyzes the reasons for the creation of a higher school in the Russian Far East, provides a brief review of the literature (the most important source is the journal “Legal Review” – found in the USA). The training of lawyers began at the Private Faculty of History and Philology (Private Law Faculty was established in 1919). State Far Eastern University (GDU / FEGU / FEFU) in Vladivostok and at the Faculty of Law in Harbin (1920). As a result, for the first time, a legal and comprehensive education was created for Russia and China. The first professors were well-known lawyers and scientists who ended up in the Far East during the Civil War (N.V. Kokhanovsky, S.P. Nikonov, V.A. Ryazanovsky, etc.), biographies of the founders of the law school in the Far East are briefly given. They founded a unique school of jurisprudence, which has economic and regional characteristics, with knowledge of oriental languages, geography and politics of the countries of the Asia-Pacific region (China, Korea and Japan). The first lawyers from Vladivostok worked in Russia, China, the USA and other countries. The article was written using materials from foreign archives and libraries.
Keywords: Far Eastern lawyers, history of FENU / FEFU, Faculty of Law in Harbin, Russian lawyers in China, higher education in the Far East

Sidorchuk I.V. (St. Petersburg). Houses of culture as leisure spaces in the late 1920s – 1st half of the 1930s (on the example of Leningrad)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Higher School of International Relations, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University.
Russia, St. Petersburg, 195251, Politekhnicheskaya st., 29.
e-mail: sidorchuk_iv@spbstu.ru

Abstract. One of the most important components of the cultural policy of the Soviet government in the 1920s-1930s was the creation of new leisure spaces, which should provide cultural recreation to the broad strata of the of the city workers. Initially, it’s role should play clubs, but for a number of reasons, there was a request for an alternative to them, which led to the organization of cultural centers of a new type – houses or palaces of culture. Leningrad became the city in which these projects were actively developed, and this study is devoted to the peculiarities of the work of this recreation centers in the first years of its existence. The source base consisted of published and archived regulatory documents, work plans and activity reports, correspondence on organizational issues. Printed publications of houses of culture, city, trade union and factory press, which covered their activities, were also studied. As a result of the research, it was concluded that the political realities of the period – accelerated industrialization and the intensification of political struggle – had a serious impact on the work of the houses of culture. This led to an extreme degree of politicization of leisure, rejection of the idea of providing rest to the worker as the main task in favor of political and educational work. As a result, cultural centers became less attractive to visitors, although they offered a wide range of leisure practices. The situation began to change only by the mid-1930s, when recreation regained its rightful place in them.
Keywords: politicization of leisure, Leningrad, houses of culture, history of leisure, Vyborg House of Culture, cultural and educational work
Acknowledgements: The study was implemented with the financial support of the RSF, project No. 22-28-20225, project No. 22-28-20225, and a grant from the St. Petersburg Science Foundation in accordance with Agreement No. 63/2022 dated April 15, 2022.

Pu Jiang (St. Petersburg). Some Features of USSR Assistance in the Training of Skilled Workers for China in the 1950s

Post-graduate student of the Department
of the Newest History of Russia
Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University.
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5.
e-mail: pujiang2012@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article provides an overview of the situation with the training of skilled workers in the PRC in the first five-year plan (1953-1957), in view of the inclusion of this element in the system of Soviet assistance to China in industrial construction. It is concluded that there are two types of assistance at the same time – direct and indirect. Direct assistance was expressed in the transfer of documentation on the organization of FZO schools and vocational schools, as well as in the assistance of Soviet specialists directly in China. Indirect assistance is the experience of Chinese workers gained during their stay in the USSR under individual labor contracts signed on the basis of the Agreement between the USSR and the PRC dated October 12, 1954 on sending labor from China to the Soviet Union to participate in communist construction and labor training. The face of both direct and indirect assistance in the mid-1950s was Vlasov Grigory Ilyich, who simultaneously served as a specialist adviser on the training of skilled workers at the Ministry of Labor of the PRC and head of the Soviet part of the Permanent Soviet-Chinese Commission for the recruitment of Chinese workers to participate in communist construction and labor training in the USSR. It is concluded that, despite the usefulness of direct assistance in the training of skilled workers in the PRC, the need for unskilled personnel for the USSR could to some extent become an obstacle to an effective transition from traditional unorganized individual apprenticeship at Chinese enterprises to full-fledged technical training in schools.
Keywords: Chinese workers in the USSR, training of workers in the PRC, USSR assistance to the PRC, 1950s, Main Directorate of Labor Reserves under the USSR Council of Ministers

Pishchuk M.D. (Moscow). Positions of the leaders of the Minnats of Russia on the issue of settling the Chechen conflict in 1991-1994

postgraduate student
Department of History of State Institutions
and Public Organizations
Faculty of History
Historical and Archival Institute
Russian State University for the Humanities
125047, Russian Federation, Moscow, Miusskaya sq. 6
E-mail: pishuk.mat@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article analyzes the positions of the leaders of the Minnats of Russia in 1991-1994 on the settlement of the Chechen conflict. Particular attention is paid to the nature of the relationship between the leaders of the Minnats of Russia with other government authorities and senior officials in the conditions of the political crisis of 1992-1993 and the subsequent struggle of the «doves» and «hawks» groups in 1993-1994. The main material of the article was archival documents stored in the funds of the State Archives of the Russian Federation.

Based on the study, we can say that despite the fact that each new head of the Minnats of Russia in 1991-1994 had their own positions on the issue of settling the Chechen conflict, the activities of each of them became part of general «cascade scenario», in which the determining process was the demolition of the «perestroika» principles of national policy. In 1992-1994 the leaders of the Minnats of Russia consistently refused (or tried to refuse) the ethnic factor in the Chechen conflict because it impeded its settlement. Due to the fact that this conflict was an important «indicator» of the state of interethnic relations, failures in its settlement created a crisis of confidence in the «perestroika» principles of national policy as a whole. As a result, in 1993-1994 the popularity of the «hawks» who favor the «power scenario» of settling the Chechen conflict has increased. In May 1994 the «hawk» N.D. Yegorov was appointed the new head of the Minnats of Russia, who became one of the initiators of the start of the first Chechen war in December 1994. However, the start of the war and its subsequent failures allowed the Russian leadership to realize the need to update the principles of national policy, which was done in 1995-1998 by Minnats of Russia under the leadership of V.A. Mikhailov.
Keywords: L.P. Prokopiev, V.A. Tishkov, S.M. Shakhrai, N.D. Egorov, Minnats of Russia, Chechen conflict, first Chechen war, settlement of the conflict

Pokhilyuk A.V. (St. Petersburg), Bakuradze A.B. (Moscow). Patriotic and orthodox value orientations of the Cossacks

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin, Professor of the Department of History;
Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 196605, Saint Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10 lit. A
E-mail: viktorovich_1948@mail.ru

Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of Technology and Management (First Cossack University),
Head of the Department of History, Philosophy, Literature and Continuing Cossack Education;
Russian Federation, Moscow. 73 Zemlyanoy Val str., Moscow, 109004;
E-mail: bondovich@mail.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes such axiological foundations of the existence and consciousness of the Cossacks as patriotism and Orthodoxy. Having conducted a brief excursion into the history of the Cossacks as a frontier social community focused on the protection and expansion of the borders of the Moscow, and later, the Russian state, the authors prove that the patriotism of the Cossacks is based on their love for their Homeland, the Cossacks, their own kind and their land, which act as values-goals of the Cossacks. The presented material analyzes the structure of the patriotic consciousness of the Cossacks, which includes emotional, intellectual and volitional components, characterizes the role of patriotic relations and patriotic activity of the Cossacks in the process of strengthening and protecting Russian statehood.

The authors note that the patriotism of the Cossacks, based on traditional values, was of an Orthodox nature and had a clear orientation towards the spread of Orthodoxy and the support of the Church. This was manifested in the Cossacks’ adherence to the evangelical military commandments and other Orthodox traditions. The article concludes that the combination of recognition of patriotic and Orthodox value orientations with a value orientation to free development, which has always been characteristic of the Cossack community, can become one of the factors that Russia overcomes the risks of global turbulence characteristic of the modern world.
Keywords: Cossacks, value, value orientation, axiology, patriotism, patriotic consciousness, Orthodoxy

Wang Yue (Russky Island, Vladivostok). Factors for the development of university Sinology studies: since the 1920s to the beginning of the 1930s

PhD student, Far Eastern Federal University:
Department of history and archaeology, School of Arts and Humanities,
690922, Russia, Vladivostok,
Russky Island, Ajax 10, FEFU campus, building F, Room 427;
E-mail: 3172084817@qq.com

Abstract: The article discusses the development factors of Sinology studies at the Far Eastern University in the Soviet period. The Far Eastern region assigned a special role in ensuring the export and foreign exchange resources of the Soviet state. In Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, there were foreign trade organizations and enterprises in Kamchatka, which conducted active foreign trade with China. One of the important areas of socialist transformations in the field of culture and education in the socialist state was the training of specialists with knowledge of language, including Chinese. Considering that the international situation in the region required an immediate and decisive strengthening of oriental education in the Soviet Far East. For successful preparation, the Chinese, teachers at the department of the Chinese department of the GDU and DVGU made a great contribution.
Keywords: history of university Sinology studies, Far Eastern University, development factors, the Geopolitical significance of the region, the Far East of Russia, the preparation of sinologist.

Liang Ying (Russky Island, Vladivostok). Sergei Polevoy, his teaching in China and compiling dictionaries

Postgraduate Student, Far Eastern Federal University:
Department of History and Archeology, School of Arts and Humanities,
690922, Russia, VladivostokPrimorsky Krai,
Russky Island, Ajax 10, FEFU campus, building F, Room 427;
 E-mail: 1074821681@qq.com

Abstract. The article is devoted to the sinologist Sergei Alexandrovich Polevoy (1886, Ukraine -– 1971, USA), a figure in Russian-Chinese cultural relations. A graduate of the Oriental Institute in Vladivostok, he compiled Russian-Chinese dictionaries and participated in the social and political life of China. The publication reflects the unknown facts of his teaching at Nankai University in Tianjin (since 1918) and Peking University (since 1921), publications of textbooks and methods of teaching the Russian language and culture are noted. Using classical Russian literature as a new teaching method, he trained a generation of Chinese writers and translators. Having emigrated to the USA, S.A. Polevoi began compiling a Russian-Chinese-English dictionary at Harvard University. The article uses materials in Chinese and Russian, as well as documents from the personal archive of the Polev family, as well as the case of student S.A. Field, stored in the State Archives of Primorsky Krai.
Keywords: S.A. Field, Russian language in China, Sinology, Russians in Beijing, history of Oriental studies, compiling dictionaries

Popravko E.A. (St. Petersburg). Andrei Vasilievich Khrulev as Chief of Military Finance Department (1930–1936)

Elena Alexandrovna Popravko
Doctor of History, Professor,
Army General A.V. Khrulev Military Academy of Logistics
8, MakarovaNaberezhnaya, Saint-Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation
E-mail: elena_popravko@mail.ru

Abstract. It was researched activity of A. V. Khrulev as the Chief of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service of the People’s Commissariat for Military and Naval Affairs (since 1934 – the People’s Commissariat of Defense). Military-financial activities of the People’s Commissariat for Military and Naval Affairs was researched against the backdrop of the «Great Leap» and the events of the first five-year plans. Author characterized the influence of the ideological underpinnings of the time, for example, «6 Historical Conditions of Comrade Stalin». It was analyzed the organizational add structural, normative changes in the system of the military finance and accounting. Author investigated of the actions aimed at increasing the efficiency of combat and financial activities in the Red Army in 1930–1936, increasing the cash allowance of military men, creating a system of the Red Army soldiers’ and commanders’ family members payments and pensions, changing in wages of the defense department civilian staff. Also, it was considered a military-political work in the military finance and accounting authorities, the passing and results of the party «purges» of this time. Due appointment to the chief financier of the Red Army A. V. Khrulev returned to economic activity, updated the skills that he acquired as the accountant at the Okhta Powder Plant. He was combining these characteristics with the experience that he was acquired as Commandant of the Revolutionary Guard at the Porokhovskoy district of the Petrograd, and then with combat and service experience in the Red Army, A. V. Khrulev grew significantly as economic executive and administrator. This stage of service supplemented and developed those skills that formed the «general, without whom there would be no Victory».
Keywords: A. V. Khrulev, Defense Finance and Accounting Service, People’s Commissariat for Military and Naval Affairs, defense budget, cash allowance

Sirota N.M., Mokhorov G.A. (St. Petersburg). World order: concept and modern realities

Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor,
Professor of History and Philosophy Department,
Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation.
190000, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Bolshaya Morskaya St., 67A.
E-mail: sirotanm@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Professor of philosophy and history department of St. Petersburg
Institute of International Economic Links, Economics and Law.
191014, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Liteiniy avenue, 42
E-mail: g.mohorov@gmail.com

Abstract. The theoretical and practical significance of the problems of the world order for the formation of a stable international environment is shown. The content of the main interpretations of the definition of “World Order” and their conditionality by the transitional state of modern international relations are revealed. The tendency towards the formation of an integrative interpretation of the phenomenon of the world order is stated. The existing approaches to the question of the correlation of the concepts of “World Order”, “International Order”, “world system” are analyzed. The differences in approaches to the world order from the theoretical schools of political realism and liberalism are highlighted. Based on the normative and institutional paradigms, the author’s understanding of the category “world order” is proposed. 

The main research positions on the current state of the international environment and the prospects for its transformation are considered. It is assessed as an unstable world order, capable of evolving according to two main scenarios – in the direction of one or another kind of world order and the increase of uncontrollability, chaotic. The dynamics of changes in the balance of power between global players and its impact on the stability of the world system are analyzed.
Keywords: world order, international system, global turbulence, polycentrism, non-polarity, balance of power

Polovetsky S.D. (Moscow). Dedicated to the military elite of the Soviet state … (review of the book by Marchenkov V.I., Rubtsov Yu.V., Filippov D.N. “They were sung in songs and cast in bronze. Marshals of the Soviet Union and Admirals of the Fleet of the Soviet Union”. Moscow: VU, 2021. 532 p.)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of History of the Prince Alexander Nevsky Military University of the Ministry of Defense of Russia; Professor of the Department of Modern Russian History at the Institute of History and Politics of the Moscow Pedagogical State University.
115191, Russia, Moscow, Tatishcheva str., 13, 28.
E-mail: polovez@mail.ru

Abstract. The review analyzes the book “They were sung in songs and cast in bronze. Marshals of the Soviet Union and Admirals of the Fleet of the Soviet Union”, in which, based on significant documentary, archival material, extensive involvement of scientific literature and memoirs, for the first time in Russian historiography, detailed essays about all Marshals of the Soviet Union and Admirals of the Fleet of the Soviet Union are presented. The description of the life path and military activity of Soviet military leaders is organically connected with the main events of Soviet history, primarily with two wars – the Civil and the Great Patriotic War. The originality of this work lies in the fact that the authors managed to show the peculiarities of the military and naval art of military leaders, their “signature” handwriting, style in the leadership of the Soviet Armed Forces, in planning, organizing and conducting the most important strategic operations. Quite reasonably, the authors address their rich in content, vividly and interestingly written book not only to specialists in the field of military history, veterans of the armed forces, but also to young officers, cadets – those who will continue the glorious traditions of the elite of the national officer corps.
Keywords: Marchenkov V.I., Rubtsov Yu.V., Filippov D.N., Great Patriotic War, Marshal of the Soviet Union, Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union

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