Klio #09 (189) 2022

Ippolitov G.M., Filatov T.V. (Samara). Object, subject, subject of historical research in the mirror of the methodology of historical science. Article two. The subject of historical research as a methodological problem

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Philosophy of the Povolzhskiy State University of Telecommunications and Informatics (Samara). 443010, Russian Federation, Samara, Leo Tolstoy St., 23.
Email: gippolitov@rambler.ru 

Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Philosophy of the Povolzhskiy State University of Telecommunications and Informatics (Samara). 443010, Russia, Samara, Leo Tolstoy St.
E-mail: tfilatoff1960@mail.ru 

Abstract. The elementary truth says: knowledge of history occurs mainly through historical research. The second elementary truth is expressed in the following judgment: historical research cannot claim the status of scientific research if its object and subject are not clearly indicated in it. Moreover, they must be necessarily reduced to a harmonious linear system. At the same time, it must be emphasized that the object and subject of historical research determines its subject. Thus, a complex dialectical link emerges: object – subject – subject of historical research. This article is a logical continuation of our article “Object, subject, subject of historical research in the mirror of the methodology of historical science. Article one. The object and subject of historical research as a methodological problem” (Klio. 2022. No. 1 (181) January, pp. 13-28). We have made an attempt to consider the role and place of the subject of historical research in the complex dialectical connection “object – subject – subject of historical research”, indicated above. In the analysis of everything connected with the subject of historical research, we relied in every possible way on the historiographic developments of our predecessors, and tried to ensure a careful and correct attitude towards them. But this does not exclude the critical aspect (not to be confused with criticism!). The work was done in a debatable, but not polemical manner.
Keywords: subject, historical research, past present, time, politicization of historiography, subject-object relations

Kasparov A.I. (St. Petersburg). Hagiographic texts about St. Austregisile as sources for the Merovingian period

applicant for the degree of the Department of Middle Ages Institute of History of St. Petersburg State University, Department of the Middle Ages
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5
e-mail: akdrama@mail.ru

Abstract. Interest in the Merovingian period sooner or later leads to an appeal to the hagiography of this period. This is primarily due to the scarcity of the source base for the period. And if the works of Gregory of Tours and Fredegar, the fundamental authors of their time, still attract the attention of researchers, then the same cannot be said about the huge corpus of hagiographic texts that are dedicated to saints who lived in the 6th-7th centuries. Such neglect is connected not only with the general lack of attention to the Merovingian period, but also with the specific nature of the hagiographic literature itself, which requires a special approach. This article will consider several texts dedicated to Bishop Austregisil, the subject of their dating and the purpose of creation. Until now, these texts have received little attention from scholars. For this reason, it is necessary to clarify their value for the history of the Merovingian period and, if possible, to include them in scientific circulation.
Keywords: Avstregizil; bishop; francs; church history, hagiographic sources; Merovingians

Mammadova N.V. (Baku, Azerbaijan). Secularism of the era of Shah Abbas I (based on materials of French researchers)

PhD (History), associate professor,
Lead researcher at the Institute of History named after A. A. Bakikhanov,
 National Academy Sciences of Azerbaijan.
115 H. Javid St., Baku, Azerbaijan, AZ1073.
E-mail: elchin.mammadov@gmail.com

Abstract. The article considers the period of the reign of the famous ruler from the Safavid dynasty – Shah Abbas I, known in history as Abbas the Great, and the period of his reign went down in history as the period of power and prosperity of the Safavid state. The main emphasis in the article is placed on the research of French-speaking historians, and the main issue of the article has become the subject of our study is the disclosure of the concept of the term “secularism” in relation to the era of Shah Abbas I. The relevance and novelty of the scientific article lies in the fact that for the first time in native historiography a critical analysis and comparative analysis of the works of French-speaking historians was made regarding the period mentioned. Equally, for the first time, non-foreign policy issues were considered, including the long Ottoman-Safavid wars, relations with the Mughal empire, the victory over the Sheibanids, as well as the Safavids’ relations with the Moscow state, and the leading Western European states, which constitute the main foreign policy of Shah Abbas I. The main content of the article is namely the spiritual and cultural life of the Safavid state during the reign of Shah Abbas I. It describes its internal transformations aimed at secularizing power and reducing the influence of the ulema in government. Unlike his predecessors, Shah Abbas I, embarked on the path of limiting the power and omnipotence of the Kyzylbash emirs and in contrast to the era of the early Safavids when the Sufi order was a real political force and movement, while remaining a devout Muslim, he tried to impart secularism to his rule, showed great tolerance to Christians and representatives of other religious denominations living on the territory of his state.
Keywords: Shah Abbas I, clergy, Isfahan, secularism, Safavids, French historiography

Ryakov E.E. (Irkutsk). Features of the slave economy of the American South before the Civil War (1861-1865)

master degree, Candidate’s Degree Applicant, Department “History and methods of PI ISU”, history teacher,
Irkutsk College of Economics and Law,
Pedagogical Institute of Irkutsk State University, Department of History and Methods,
664011, City of Irkutsk, Sukhe-Bator 9, 215
Email: ryakove@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of some aspects of the economy of the American South before the Civil War (1861-1865). The viability of the statement about the economic backwardness and failure of the South is analyzed in detail, economic indicators of various sectors of the slave industry are analyzed using examples, and the place of the South in the global economy is analyzed. Particular attention is drawn to the slave trade as a factor in changing the economy, the notion of an economic “chasm” between the North and the South is analyzed, general provisions are made linking the South and the North. The features of the plantation economy and agricultural crops characteristic of the South are noted, the social composition of the southerners and its influence on the general level of the economy are analyzed. The plantation and slave-owning differences between the states, the labor schedule and working conditions of slaves, the influence of the black population on the economic development of the South are studied. A conceptual assumption is made about the similarity of the Northern capitalist and Southern slave societies, the connection of plantation owners with business, it is studied how trade, capitalist relations modified racism and slavery. It also provides a brief history of the development of the economy of the South and analyzes the impact on it of the political and social conditions of the region. The American South is an important systemic part of the US economy, and without it, the extensive development of New England would be difficult. The position that the South hampered the development of the capitalist North in the light of the facts studied in the article is not entirely correct.
Keywords: slavery, racism, economy of the South, economy of the American South, plantation economy

Klykanova A.A. (Moscow). Biological crimes – the organic nature of Nazism! (The experience of textbook-analytical documentaries)

PhD, member of the Association of Historians of the Second World War named after O.A. Rzheshevsky, National Committee of Historians of Russia
117334, Moscow, Leninsky prospect, 32а
e-mail: Anna_123-84@mail.ru

Abstract. Biocrimes as a weapon of Nazism is an extremely reactionary component of fascism. Nowadays throughout the world the development and use of such effective and at the same time heinous means of weapons such as biological and bacteriological weapons is prohibited with respect to the conclusion of International Military Treaties. During the hostilities, civilized countries refused to use biological weapons of mass destruction due to considerations of humanity. However, research in the field of bacteriological means of attack is still being conducted in the laboratories of some states, according to numerous reports. That casts doubt on the effectiveness of previously concluded international agreements. Under these conditions, every citizen of his/her country who is not indifferent to his/her own, family and friends security must be aware of the potential threat, as well as have the required knowledge to prevent it. In 1925 the Geneva Convention was signed, prohibiting the use of biological weapons during hostilities. Japan and the United States have not acceded to this clause of the Convention. In 1939-1945, in order to develop bacteriological weapons, Japan created the Manchurian Detachment 731 with the purpose of developing and testing them in combat operations in China and Mongolia. In 1941-1945, biological weapons were used by the Nazis against humanity. Concentration camps were created everywhere, there people were subject of humiliation and torture. Biological weapons have a high ability damage, which leads to epidemics and environmental disasters, and in the future this may cause the development of chronic diseases. In a rather complex military-political situation in the modern world it is possible to use biological means in various ways.  The events in Ukraine, especially in 2004-2022, have shown the heinous face of “neo-Nazism”: 1) biological laboratories; 2) the destruction of the civilian population, both in the Donbass and in Ukraine; 3) destruction of the social structure; 4) mistreatment of prisoners of war; 5) fierce Nazi ideology 5) selling of young Ukrainian land.
Keywords: biological and bacteriological weapons, Biocrimes, mistreatment of prisoners, fascism

Grinёv A.V. (St. Petersburg). Crimes and punishments in Russian America

Doctor in Historical Sciences and
Professor of the Humanities Institute
at the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University.
195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29.
E-mail: agrinev1960@mail.ru

Abstract. This article is written mainly on the basis of archival materials and contains an analysis of the crimes and punishments in the Russian colonies in America from the middle of the 18th century until their sale to the United States in 1867. In the first stages of colonization, crimes were committed mainly by Russians against local natives (robberies, rapes, murders), while violations of the law against other Russian subjects or the state were relatively rare. After the formation of the Russian-American Company and the transfer of governance of the colonies to it, attempts to establish judicial bodies there were unsuccessful. Individuals who committed serious crimes were sent to Russia for trial, while the perpetrators of minor offenses were punished by the local administration. Since 1818, when naval officers came to power in the colonies, the number of various types of crimes in Russian America sharply decreased and remained at a relatively low level, with an absolute predominance of administrative and domestic offenses.
Keywords: crimes, laws, punishments, Russian America, Russian-American company

Shaipov T.K. (Moscow). New data of the Venetian embassy of I. Chemodanov and A. Posnikov, 1656–1657 (based on RGADA materials)

post-graduate student of the department of the History of Russia before the beginning of the XIX century, History faculty,
Lomonosov Moscow State University.
119991, Russia, Moscow, Leninskie gory, d. 1.
e-mail: sandwraith1104@gmail.com 

Abstract. The article bases on the materials from fund №41 of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts and focuses on three problems related with the embassy of I. Chemodanov and A. Posnikov in Venice. 

The embassy’s interpreter was originally to be a Danish foreigner in Russian service Ivan Adamov, who already had experience interacting with the Venetian envoy Alberto Vimina. Shortly before the embassy departed he was replaced by the interpreter Timofey Toporovsky. This may have been due to changes in the Russian-Polish war and the threat of Swedish entry. 

The maintenance of the ambassadors in Venice was organized at the expense of the Venetian government: first in the form of food and then cash. This finds parallels with the maintenance of Turkish ambassadors and allows us to reflect on the perception of Russians in seventeenth-century Europe. 

The list of goods and gifts brought by the ambassadors from Italy includes expensive fabrics traditionally valued in Russia, but also jewellery, relics and “curiosities” like mechanical toys and feathers of paradise birds. The list also testifies to the cultural peculiarities of the Russian 17th century with its intertwining of tradition and innovation.
Keywords: Russia, Venice, embassy, the Ambassadorial Chacellery, Aleksey Mikhaylovich, Ivan Chemodanov, archival documents

Kondakov Yu. E. (St. Petersburg). Organization of steamship communication between Russia and Athos in 1857-1863

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Russian State Pedagogical University named after A.I. Herzen
Russian Federation, emb. river Moika, 48, St. Petersburg, 191186
e-mail: urakon@rambler.ru

assistant of the department of history of the institute of history and social sciences, The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia,
191186, Russia, St. Petersburg, Moika river embankment, 48
e-mail: dfedotiev@herzen.spb.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the activities of the official of the Maritime Ministry B.P. Mansurov on the organization of shipping communication between Odessa and Athos in the early years of the existence of the Russian Society of Shipping and Trade. The relevance of the study is due to Mansurov’s significant contribution to the organization of the transportation of Russian pilgrims in the Eastern Mediterranean. An attempt to organize flights to Athos became a separate area of Mansurov’s activity. The material for the study is Mansurov’s letters and reports. It is shown that from the very beginning, the establishment of regular flights to Athos was prevented by the lack of commercial interest on the part of ROPiT. Particular attention is paid to the fact that Mansurov at the turn of the 1850s-1860s, being involved in the interdepartmental struggle around Russian Palestine, began to pay little attention to Athos. Mansurov entrusts this direction to Archimandrite Porfiry, who faced obstacles from the abbots of the monasteries and the Athos authorities. The establishment of a permanent steamship line ROPiT in 1863 was finally abandoned. But some commercial flights continued to operate.
Keywords: Russian Society of Shipping and Trade; Athos; pilgrims; Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Maritime Ministry

Strebkova L.I. (Uzlovaya). Anniversary of the Battle of Kulikovo in 1880 in the reflection of the era

Postgraduate student of Tula State University
301607, Russia, Tula region, Uzlovaya, st. Magistralnaya, 49, apt. 41.
e-mail: Larisauzl@mail.ru

Abstract. The article discusses the issue of reflecting the events of the second XIX century in the celebration of the anniversary of the Battle of Kulikovo in 1880. On the basis of the testimonies of the participants in the organization of the celebrations and their eyewitnesses, the connection between the anniversary celebrations dedicated to the 500th anniversary of the Battle of Kulikovo and such historical events as the Great Reforms and the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878 is traced. The question is raised about what significance this celebration should have had for Russian society, what role it was assigned to in the system of festivities of the Russian Empire in the IXI – XX centuries., аs it was estimated by contemporaries. An analysis of the speeches of the participants in the anniversary celebrations, as well as journalism and works of art published in the 80s of the XIX century, show that the authors updated the past, comparing the event of the distant past with modern events of the external (Russian-Turkish war, movement to Central Asia) and internal politics (abolition of serfdom, changing the role of estates). The theme of the Battle of Kulikovo caused a whole series of discussions on the historical mission of the Russian people. The idea of an all-class society, renewed by the reforms of Alexander II, turned out to be consonant with the idea of the Kulikovo victory won by the Russian people.
Keywords: Great reforms, Alexander II, Battle of Kulikovo, anniversary, D. I. Ilovaisky, Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878, historical memory, commemoration

Borduchenko Yu.L., Zuev A.V. (St. Petersburg). Nautical classes and skipper training courses of the Russian Empire (1898 ‒ 1905)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Senior Researcher, Institute of Transport Problems named after N.S. Solomenko of the Russian Academy of Sciences
199178, Russia, St. Petersburg, 12th line of Vasilyevsky Island, 13
E-mail: yu-borduchenko@yandex.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Private Law, St. State University of Sea and River Fleet named after Admiral S. O. Makarov
198035, St. Petersburg, st. Dvinskaya, 5/7
E-mail: univerandrey@mail.ru

Abstract. The activity of nautical classes and skipper training courses in the Russian Empire in 1898-1905 is considered. At the end of the 19th century, legislative and administrative measures were taken on the issues of merchant shipping. Nautical classes and skipper training courses could no longer provide the domestic navy with certified navigators and captains. A reform of nautical education was needed, as a result of which educational institutions of a new type were created instead of these educational institutions. On May 6, 1902, Emperor Nicholas II approved two opinions of the State Council, representing the “Regulations on nautical educational institutions of the department of the Ministry of Finance” and the law “On changing the existing rules on navigators on seaworthy ships of the merchant fleet”. “The law established new navigational titles, and the Regulations on Nautical Educational Institutions provided for the creation of new types of educational institutions – long-distance navigation schools and small navigation schools – to prepare for examinations for navigational titles.” Skipper training courses were closed. Of the pre-reform educational institutions, only the Riga Navigation School continued to operate, which was under the jurisdiction of the local exchange committee.
Keywords: training; nautical educational institutions; nautical classes, skipper training courses General Directorate of Merchant Shipping and Ports; Merchant Shipping Department; Russian empire

Zotova A.V., Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg). Studying the climate and nature of St. Petersburg (To the history of the issue)

Anastasiya Valeryevna Zotova
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Docent, Saint-Petersburg State University. 199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
e-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

Sergey Nikolayevich Poltorak
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin.
196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10.
e-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Abstract. This publication explores the history of observing changes in weather of St. Petersburg from the foundation of the city to present times. One thing that should be considered is the irregularity of obtaining data on changes in climate, urban landscape, flora and fauna, as well as land use within the city limits. The material was prepared in its historical context. It allows not only to trace the dynamics of weather and natural phenomena, but also makes it possible to understand the logic of our ancestors who carried out spatial socialization within the current locality of St. Petersburg.

The city on the Neva river is the world’s largest city located 800 kilometers away from the Arctic Circle. It is argued that changes in microclimate, landscape, flora and fauna, as well as land use played an important role in the process of urbanization, agricultural experiments, bold attempts to resist natural disasters and, in first of all, floods in the city.

In the modern competition between the pragmatics of urbanization and humanism of nature management, the first of these two components, sadly, prevails noticeably, causing damage to the physical and moral state of Petersburgers.
Keywords: St. Petersburg, the weather of St. Petersburg, changes in climate, floods, development of St. Petersburg

Lapina I.Yu., Kargapoltsev S.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Decommunization of public consciousness as a necessary condition for the complementarity of civil-patriotic upbringing of young students at the present stage of domestic sociogenesis (part 3)

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. The publication analyzes one of the main problems of civil-patriotic education of young students in the current reality of domestic life: the continuing romanticization in the educational and methodological literature of the ideas and adherents of the revolutionary reorganization of the world (Jacobins, sans-culottes, Decembrists, Narodovol´tsy (People’s Will), Social Revolutionaries and Bolsheviks). This phenomenon hinders the formation of a full-fledged anti-terrorist ideology and the prevention of the popularization of extremist activities in the poly-ethnic student environment. Further ignoring of this problem can have severe socio-political consequences in the short term. The article draws attention of the readership to the achievements of the Russian Empire in recent years, which depended not only on the economic sphere, but also on the humanitarian field. The authors believe that this country had a high potential for development and was competitive in relation to other European powers. A clear vision by the Russian leadership of ways to implement domestic and foreign policy plans is noted. The authors express the opinion that the glorification and romanticization of the revolutionary past of the country slows down the process of modern development of Russian society. The presented material is supported by a set of quotations and statistical data with links to primary sources, regulatory framework and representative literature.
The beginning was published in the journal Klio No. 7, 2022, pp. 98-111; the 2nd part – Klio No. 8, 2022, pp. 73-87.
Keywords: Civil-patriotic upbringings, educational-methodical process, revolutionary violence, bolshevism, terrorism, extremism, repression

Baranov A.V. (Krasnodar). Debating Aspects of National Policy in the Crimean ASSR (1921–1929)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Kuban State University, Professor of the Department of Political Science and Political Management,
Russia, Krasnodar, Stavropolskaya str., 149, room 237,
e-mail: baranovandrew@mail.ru

Abstract. The topic of the article is relevant not only for clarifying the features of the national policy of the RCP(b)–VKP(b) in Crimea in the 1920s, but also for understanding the historical causes of current ethnopolitical and confessional conflicts in the region. The purpose of the article is to argue the author’s point of view on the essence and main directions of national policy in the Crimean ASSR (1921–1929). The author’s attention is focused on such aspects of the topic as the typology of autonomy in Crimea in the 1920s, features of land and migration policy in relation to various peoples, policy towards Muslims, representation of the peoples of Crimea in government, reasons for repressions in 1928. The work is done in line with the actor-activity approach. The author substantiates the poliethnic, territorial nature of the Crimean ASSR. Dispersed residence of peoples, a complex type of land use, a low level of socio-economic and cultural development of ethnic minorities are proved, which made it difficult to create national districts. The geopolitical motives for the creation of the Crimean ASSR (the possibility of exporting the revolution to Turkey and the Middle East) are emphasized. The policy of the RCP(b) towards Islam in the Crimea remained relatively moderate. A significant representation of the Crimean Tatars in the bodies of representative and executive power is ensured, which cannot be said about a number of other ethnic minorities. The conflict of national policy is manifested in the formation of latent institutions of ethnic protectionism within the party and state bodies, in competing projects for the resettlement of Tatar repatriates and Jews in Crimea. These processes, superimposed on the general trends of the political course – collectivization and centralization of power, caused repressions in Crimea in 1928, which put the region under strict control.
Keywords: national policy, “korenization”, Crimean ASSR, features, debatable aspects, 1921–1929

Osipov Yu.A. (St. Petersburg). Moral and psychological state of submariners of the Baltic Fleet in the battles of August-October 1941

3rd year postgraduate student of Leningrad State University
Department of Russian History
196605, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg,
Pushkin, Peterburgskoe sh., 10
E-mail: yuriiosipov@gmail.com

Abstract. The article is devoted to the issue of the level of moral and psychological state of submariners of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet in one of the most difficult periods in the history of the Great Patriotic War – August – October 1941.

The study analyzes the strategic situation in the North-Western direction, including the Baltic Sea, examines the impact of the rapid advance of the enemy on the land front on the operational activities of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and its submarine forces in particular, as well as its impact on the moral and psychological state of the Baltic submariners.

Based on unpublished sources, the author analyzes the most common manifestations of the moral and psychological state of the personnel of the submarine forces of the Baltic Fleet, determines the cause-and-effect relationships of their occurrence, reveals the issue of organizing the party-political work of the command to stop the spread of negative phenomena.

The research is based on a set of methods of historical research. The psychohistorical method makes it possible to form a complex of psychological attitudes of the studied social groups in the context of a historical event. The historical-comparative method makes it possible to compare the general processes in the context of various factors of external influence on the Baltic submariners in the conditions of the decisive events of the defense of Leningrad. An important role is also played by the quantitative method, which makes it possible to assess the real spread of negative manifestations of the moral and psychological state relative to the total number of Baltic submariners.

As a result, a conclusion was made about maintaining the necessary level of moral and psychological state of the personnel of the submarine forces of the Baltic Fleet in the conditions of a critical situation on the approaches to Leningrad, ensuring further mobilization of internal resources of military personnel to solve combat tasks set by the command.
Keywords: moral and psychological state, party and political work, morale, the Great Patriotic War, the Baltic Fleet

Kalmykov I.A. (Nizhny Novgorod), Podrepny E.I. (Sochi). The regional press of the USSR in the first period of the Great Patriotic War (June 22, 1941 – November 1942) (based on the materials of newspapers of defense factories of the Gorky region)

Cand. Sc. in History, Head of the Corporate Culture Development Department
603005 Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Pochainskaya str., 17 KK1.
e-mail: i-kalmykov@yandex.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of General History of the Faculty of History and Philology of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Sochi Institute.
354340 Russia, Sochi, Kuibyshev str., 5. E-mail: podrepnyy@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to one of the poorly studied pages of the national and regional history of the Gorky region during the Great Patriotic War: the activities of the regional press. The periodical press is an important source for the study of the modern history of Russia. Being a sufficiently studied type of source today, the press, nevertheless, is of considerable interest from the point of view of reconstructing the moral and psychological atmosphere of the formation of labor motivation. The publications of factory newspapers give us pictures of the activities of the Soviet defense industry during the most difficult period of the Great Patriotic War – June 1941 – November 1942.

During the first period of the Great Patriotic War, the leadership of the Communist Party paid due attention to the development of a large-circulation press of the country’s defense enterprises. These newspapers have become an influential factor in mass-political work with home front workers to mobilize them to carry out front tasks.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, periodicals, propaganda, military industry, Gorky region

Syasnev V.A. (Astrakhan). The role of the Regional social service for youth implementation in the main interests of the state youth policy in the Astrakhan region in 1992-1994

postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History
Astrakhan State University
20a Tatischev Street, Astrakhan, 414056 Russia
phone: 8967-823-2619
e-mail: henleys2013@mail.ru

Abstract. The article chronologically reflects the main directions of work of the Regional Social Service of Youth of the Astrakhan region, and also reflects the role of its priority areas in the formation of a comprehensive system of youth policy implementation in the 90s.

The purpose of the work is to reveal the role of the Regional Youth Social Service in the implementation of the main directions of the state youth policy in the Astrakhan region in 1992-1994.

Based on the tasks facing the social service, the priority areas of work were socio-pedagogical activities among students and pupils of the city of Astrakhan and the region, medical, socio-psychological assistance to adolescents, youth and their parents, social protection of students. The Youth Social Service proceeded from the ideas of mutual assistance and was focused on such services and such an order of their provision to a person in need (family, group of persons), which contributed to the activation of his internal reserves, including psychological and moral, to overcome a difficult life situation.
Keywords: state youth policy, regional youth social service, youth, Youth Affairs Committee of the Astrakhan Region administration, social work, social support