Klio #10 (178) 2021



Pogodin S.N. (St. Petersburg). Soviet historiography of criticism of Eurasianism

Doctor of History, Professor,
Director of the Higher School of International Relations
of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University.
195251, Russia, Saint Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya str., 29
E-mail: pogodin56@mail.ru

Annotation. The emergence of the Eurasian movement caused a wide response in the Soviet Union. The first works devoted to Eurasianism appeared already in the 1920s and were mostly of a critical nature. They gave a sharply politicized assessment of the Eurasians. After such an assessment, the concept of Eurasianism practically disappeared from Soviet political and philosophical literature. In the 30s dedicated to Eurasianism, the following input can be made. Eurasianism was interpreted as an ideological trend that arose among the White emigres, which was aimed at undermining the USSR. In the forties – fifties of the twentieth century, the study of Eurasianism in the USSR was not carried out. An indirect appeal to the problem of Eurasianism arose in Soviet historical science in the 60s. However, the term Eurasianism was not officially mentioned in the literature. At the same time, the main concepts of Eurasianism, the works of its founders, received detailed coverage in the historical literature. A breakthrough in the articulation of Eurasianism occurred in the mid-1970s. But the theoretical views of the Eurasians, their approaches to the study of the history of Russia, their political orientation, were considered incorrect in Soviet historiography. the political changes that took place in the mid-80s in the USSR, aroused interest in the opposition-minded émigré movement.
Keywords: historiography, criticism, Soviet historiography, Eurasianism, ideology

Drozdov V.A. (St. Petersburg). The short mathnavī poems of Sanа̄’ī the Persian Sufi poet of XIIth century: the historiography

PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Iranian Philology, Faculty of Asian and African Studies, St. Petersburg
State University,
Russia, 199034, St.Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb, Build. 11.
E-mail: v.drozdov@spbu.ru

Annotation. One of the greatest Persian Sufi poets of the 12 th century Sanа̄’ī (d.535/1140 or 545/1150) is founder of the Sufi didactical mathnavī poem in Iran. His works exerted enormous influence upon many posterior authors in the Persian Sufi and secular poetry. However, the problem of the authorship of Sanа̄’ī concerning the short poems has been debated among the scientists during XX th century and right up to nowadays. The paper covers the history of studying of the short poems attributed to Sanа̄’ī and proposes the using of the latest computational methods in particular digital stylometry for the definition of the real authors of the short poems attributed to Sanа̄’ī.
Keywords: Mystical love, Sufi Persian Literature, Mystical Love, stylometry, Sanа̄’ī.

Schmidt W. (Regensburg, Germany). The Prussian policy of eviction and Eastern European Jews in 1885-1886

Magister of History,
University of Regensburg,
Humboldt street 48 a, 93053 Regensburg, Germany,
E-mail: wolodjaschmidt@gmx.de

Annotation. The article deals with issues related to the development of the policy of eviction carried out by Prussia in 1885-1886. The author, based on the materials of the periodical press, showed that this policy was largely anti-Semitic in nature and was aimed at evicting Eastern European Jews who emigrated to the territory of Prussia. In addition, the article touches on the problem of relations between Prussia and the Russian Empire, as well as Austria – Hungary on the issue of the eviction of Jewish emigrants from Eastern Europe. The author of the article tried to show various aspects of this historical fact.
Keywords. eviction policy, Russian Empire, German-Jewish press, Prussia, Eastern European Jews, anti-Semitism

Malysheva E.B., Mikaelyan L.A. (St. Petersburg). The process of regional development of Latin American states: relations in the historical and cultural context

Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU),
School of International Relations of the Humanities Institute, Senior Lecturer
195253, Russia, St. Petersburg, pr. Energetikov 52
E-mail: lyshma@mail.ru

Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU),
School of International Relations of the Humanities Institute, Senior Lecturer
197227, Russia, St. Petersburg, Komendantskaya square, 8
E-mail: laluz93@mail.ru

Annotation. This article reviews the process of regional development of countries in South America in the XX-XXI. Getting independence from Spain at the beginning of the XIX century, the former colonies began to pursue an active policy aimed at strengthening the economy and international trade. Relations between Latin American countries and Spain improved only after the fall of the Franco regime in the 80s of the twentieth century, when Spain refused to conduct an imperial policy. However, this course had a negative effect on Madrid’s ability to influence domestic politics in a number of Latin American countries, including Argentina, Uruguay and Chile. Mutual cooperation has led to the fact that Spain has helped countries to reduce debts, acted as an intermediary in the development and strengthening of international relations with Western European and North American countries. Unification on the principle of a common language has led to the fact that the countries of the South American continent began to perceive themselves as a single community, they have a single television broadcast to all countries of the continent, assistance in case of crisis and cooperation in the field of economy. Spain initiated the creation of the Ibero – American Community, which included Portugal and Brazil. This allowed Spain to participate in joint projects in the field of medicine, education and socio-cultural activities. The slow integration of the regions hinders economic development, this is hindered by an unstable political situation, a high level of crime, drug trafficking and human rights violations.
Keywords: Ibero-American community, Hispanidad, Spain, Latin America.

Gekht A.B. (St. Petersburg). Financial and industrial group of the Wallenberg family in 2000–2020

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Head of the Department of History and Regional Studies
of the Bonch-Bruevich St. Petersburg State University of Telecommunications
193232, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Bolshevikov prospekt., 22/1
e-mail: a.geht@yandex.ru

Annotation. Since the middle of the XIX century the history of the Wallenberg family is inseparable from the history of Sweden. Representatives of the Wallenberg family – outstanding bankers, industrialists, diplomats and philanthropists – have influenced and continue to influence on the country’s foreign and domestic policy, in its economic development and on Swedish society. Even at the beginning of the XXI century the Wallenbergs were already ovners of the “Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken”, they were also directly involved in the management of a large Swedish industrial group and a number of large-scale “world-famous” concerns (“Electrolux”, “Ericsson”, “SKF”, “AstraZeneca”, “Stora Enso”). Currently, the Wallenberg industrial and financial group is the most influential in Swedish business. This article presents the main economic, political and social changes faced by the modern generation of the Wallenberg family. The article discusses the changes that affected the Wallenbergs in the process of the emergence of the Internet and technologies in the economic life of the country, as well as the impact of new socio-political trends (sustainable development policy, ensuring environmental safety). The article notes the influence of the modern generation of Wallenbergs on the foreign policy of Sweden, on the country’s success in the international relations, and on economic relations with other states.
Keywords: Wallenberg family, banking, finance, economics, Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken

Belousov A.S. (St. Petersburg). Conservative turn of the Polish policy of Alexander I

PhD, Research fellow, the Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University
Head of Publishing Department, The Peterhof State Museum-Reserve
Russia, St. Petersburg, 199034, Mendeleevskaya line, 5
SPIN-код: 6496-3730; ORCID: 0000-0003-2679-3910;
Researcher ID: I-7267-2015
E-mail: belousov1504@gmail.com

Annotation. The article examines the influence of the mythologeme of the pan-European conspiracy, created and existing among the Russian political elite of the first quarter of the 19th century, on the perception of what is happening in the Kingdom of Poland and the policy pursued there by the Russian autocracy. Letters from A.A. Arakcheev, Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich, I.V. Vasilvichkova, A.P. Eromolov about the involvement of the conspirators in the uprising of the Semyonovsky regiment only increased the pressure on the emperor and his perception of political reality. This fear of a pan-European revolution influenced the political discourse of the Russian Empire and became one of the reasons for Alexander I’s curtailment of support for constitutional reforms both in Europe and in the Kingdom of Poland. The emperor, although he wanted to continue his liberal policy, was limited by his fears of conspiracies, which were constantly exaggerated by representatives of the political elite. The analysis of the French mass media in this paper, which was the dominant Russian information field in the 19th century, shows, during the period under review, the fears of the emperor and the elite intensified even despite the absence in the European political discourse of reports of any impending conspiracies in Poland and even criticism of the emperor himself.
Keywords: Poland, Alexander I, France, mass media, reforms

Galkina S.Yu. (Kursk). Taking bribes in the first half of the XIX century

candidate of Historical Sciences
Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy, Socio-Legal and Natural Sciences
Kursk Academy of State and Municipal Service
305 040, Kursk, Kosukhina str., 1, sq. 73
E-mail: galkina1901@bk.ru

Annotation. In this article, the author, using archival material, as well as scientific literature, analyzes the reasons for receiving bribes. It is noted that the existing system of “feeding” allowed civil servants to provide their maintenance not so much by salary as by extortion. 

Feeding gave rise to a “bribe” – appeasing officials in the performance of their official duties, a kind of gratitude, honor. The police system in tsarist Russia was noted as a sphere affected by bribes. The role and significance of bribe-givers in the system of officials in the Russian Empire of the 19th century is considered. The very concept of a bribe and the history of its appearance are analyzed. 

The reasons for the theft of state property in the first half of the 19th century are considered. One of the reasons for the low efficiency of the state apparatus was the lack of staff rotation. The existing table of ranks supported the principle of seniority and an atmosphere of bureaucratic hibernation. The bureaucratic apparatus was in every possible way afraid of any change. Getting a “kickback” becomes a rule for the functioning of the state machine. 

It is concluded that the feeding system had a negative psychological impact on Russian society, the consequences of which are still preserved in the minds of people.
Keywords: Russian empire, official, bribes, feeding, banknotes, rank, bribe

Kostygov S.Yu. (Bezhetsk). «The Vengeful Legion» by A.S. Figner in the summer-autumn of 1813

Teacher of the Bezhetsk Industrial and Economic College,
171988, Russia, Tver region, Bezhetsk
Spasskaya st., 21/28, apt. 100

Annotation. This article examines a little-studied episode of the history of the war of the international coalition with Napoleonic France in Germany in 1813. This is the creation and activity of a special partisan formation “Vengeful Legion,” created by the famous Russian commander A.S. Figner from captured soldiers of the Great Army. The materials of the article are based on memoirs of contemporaries, memoirs of direct participants in events, archival documents.
Keywords: A. Figner, partisans, Napoleonic Wars, liberation of Germany 1813, foreign campaigns 1813-1814.

Brazhnikov I.N. (Moscow). Simulation model of the forecast of elections to the Second State Duma and voting on the land issue

Moscow City Pedagogical University (MSPU), 2nd Agricultural Proezd, 4, Moscow, 129226, Russia
Institute of Humanities
Postgraduate student of the University-wide Department of General and National History
e-mail: ivanbbb@mail.ru

Annotation. This article presents the results of the calculation of the simulation model for predicting the results of alternative elections held by universal direct voting (which in reality was not) to the Second State Duma in 1907 and the results of voting on the agrarian question, parties and factions.

Historical traditions are closely connected with the peculiarities of the electoral system of the state, as well as with the development of parliamentarism. The representation of the people in power can be represented in the form of a veche, a boyar, and then a noble and city duma, a Zemsky Sobor, a district council, and a parliament. The effectiveness of such a representation depends on a number of political, economic, social, psychological and other factors: ownership of property and the level of wages, the presence of a wealthy “middle class”, sedentariness, stability of family relations, a sense of collectivism, involvement in the affairs of society, the development of civil society with its structural institutions, a developed multiparty system, a well-established legislative framework. In other words, the specific conditions of the organization and activity of the country’s legislative bodies are formed under the influence of historically determined factors.
Keywords: State Duma, agrarian reform, simulation model, mathematical modeling, scientific forecasting.

Nazarenko I. S. (St. Petersburg). The impact of the USSR’s military-technical assistance to China in 1937-1941 on the development of the Red Army and the defense capability of the Soviet Union on the eve of the Great Patriotic War

Senior Lecturer of the Department of Combat Use of Artillery
 Reconnaissance Units of the Mikhailovsky Military Artillery Academy
of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.
195009, Russia, St. Petersburg, Komsomol str., 22.
E-mail: gocha.nazar@yandex.ru

Annotation. In the presented article, based on a wide range of sources, archival documents, the analysis of the impact of the military-technical assistance of the USSR to China in 1937-1941 during the national liberation struggle of the Chinese people against the Japanese invaders (1937-1945) on the construction of the Red Army, strengthening the defense capability of the USSR on the eve of the Great Patriotic War. The study shows the impact of military-technical assistance on:the development of military art (the experience of developing many operations by Soviet military advisers); improving the tactics of combat use of fighter and bomber aircraft, the system of movement (transfer) of troops (materiel) over long distances by air, sea and road routes; testing new models of weapons, equipment and ammunition in combat conditions; developing an operation management system (from the “Z” department to the 11th directorate of the General Staff, from military attaches to military advisers and specialists); improving the training of flight personnel and combat use of Air Force units. The author reveals a number of little-known events of the period of the hardest trials that fell to Soviet civilian and military specialists, who at the same time received the colossal combat experience in various areas of military activity. China became the main strategic partner of the USSR in the Far East. This colossal experience was later used during the Great Patriotic War in the organization of channels for the supply of military aid to the USSR under lend-lease along the Northern Sea route, the aviation route from Alaska to Siberia (ALSIB) and the automobile trans-Iranian route.
Keywords: military-technical assistance, China, combat experience, experience in operating equipment in a combat situation, control system, a new approach to crew training, ensuring strategic security.

Vasina A.V. (Arkhangelsk). «Lyamtsa pilot settlement» in the cultural landscape of Onega Pomorie: archival and field research

Associate Researcher
Scientific Center of Traditional Culture & Museum Preservation
N. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research
of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Severnaya Dvina Emb., 23, Arkhangelsk 163000 Russia
E-mail: vasina@fciarctic.ru 
Website: www.fciarctic.ru/index.php?page=biog1

Annotation. The article is based on the results of field and archival research and is devoted to the study of the Lyamtsa pilot settlement in the cultural landscape of Onega Pomorie. The Lyamtsa settlement is considered as a part of the system of the rural cultural landscape, where the main importance is natural landscape, the planning structure of the settlement, its folk architecture, economic activities, spiritual culture, language and ethnos. The article contains excerpts from interviews with local citizens of Lyamtsa, as well as archival documents, which were obtained through research work in the State Archives of the Arkhangelsk Region.

The Lyamtsa has retained the special features of the Pomor culture; it is valuable that this settlement has long been known as a pilot settlement. As a result of the study, the following conclusions were made, which make it possible to assert that Lyamtsa was one of the first settlements of the White Sea, where the pilot service was born. And the information collected about old churches that have not survived to the present time, about historical and cultural monuments, as well as about the historical development of the Lyamtsa settlement, represents scientific novelty and uniqueness of research, allows you to look at the settlement through the prism of history.
Keywords: Lyamtsa, White Sea, Russian North, cultural landscape, Pomors, historical settlement

Zhilkibaeva R.R., Nasyrova L.G. (Yelabuga). Mentality and personal life of teachers in provincial provinces in the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries

Ph.D. in History, Assistant, Department of General and Russian History, Yelabuga Institute of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University
423600, Russian Federation, Yelabuga, Kazanskaya St., 89
e-mail: RRSajfullova@kpfu.ru

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of General and Russian History, Yelabuga Institute of Kazan
(Volga Region) Federal University
423600, Russian Federation, Yelabuga, Kazanskaya St., 89
e-mail: LGNasyrova@kpfu.ru 

Annotation. This article examines the peculiarities of the formation of the mentality of provincial teachers, who have been seriously influenced by modernization processes in Russian society. Marked changes that have occurred in the social sphere and their impact on the provincial teachers – a change of attitude toward faith, marriage and family relationships in general, the feminization of society, the transformation of social attitudes and the formation of a new system of values. The new system of values that emerged in this period undermined the authority of traditional patriarchal foundations, the conditions for the formation of a new demographic culture in which educated women became carriers of progress along with men. A new social attitude emerged, according to which social and professional status depended not on origin but on individual merit. In this context, attitudes toward education, which in this period was seen as a necessary means of social advancement, began to change. These phenomena are reflected in the development of teachers as a special socio-professional group. Forms a teacher mentality as a stable set of preferences, which are formed at the level of collective consciousness around the traditionally established socio-cultural norms.
Keywords: teaching, mentality, lifestyle, 19th century, Russian Empire

Yan Shengxue (Harbin, China). O. Slavnikova’s creative work in reception of the Chinese criticism

postgraduate, Heilongjiang University,
150080, China, Harbin, b. Nangang Ave, Xuefu, 74.
E-mail: yan.shengxue@yandex.ru

Annotation. The article provides an overview of the reception process and the state of research on the O. Slavnikova’s creative work in the literary studies of China. The study of this issue gradually became an urgent problem, due to the growing interest of Chinese literary critics in contemporary Russian literature in recent years. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that this work is the first to consider the process of perception of O. Slavnikova’s work in China and the state of the study of Slavnikova’s work by Chinese researchers over the past 20-odd years. It could be argued that considerable attention is paid in Chinese literary studies to the study of narrative techniques, characters’ images, the aesthetic direction of the O. Slavnikova’s works, which creates the prerequisites for further research of O. Slavnikova’s work in the literary studies of Russia and China.
Keywords: contemporary Russian literature, Olga Slavnikova, literary criticism, Chinese criticism

Samorodov D.P. (Sterlitamak). Orthodox philosopher and metaphysician of history. Sergey Nikolaevich Bulgakov

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History of the Fatherland and Methods of Teaching History of the Sterlitamak Branch of the Bashkir State University
Russian Federation, Republic of Bashkortostan, Sterlitamak, Lenin Avenue, 49
E-mail: gnera@mail.ru

Annotation. The article attempts to trace the genesis of the process of establishing a new philosophical category “metahistory I n the religious and philosophical period of the creative life (1902-1925) of Sergei Nikolaevich Bulgakov, a major Russian cosmist philosopher, representative of the “new” Christianity and the philosophical movement of God-seeking. In the article is shown that in such an early work as “The main problems of the theory of progress” S. N. Bulgakov first used the term “metaphysics of history” and only in 1910 in the work “Apocalyptics and socialism” he obviously began to operate with the term” metahistory” for the first time. It is explained that in the understanding of S. N. Bulgakov, metahistory is the subject of the John Revelation, the Apocalypse, the events of which take place in the spiritual, subtle world and can be found in the empirical world, the earthly historical process. Attention is focused on the thesis that history is the realization of the original providential plan, it is finite and represents a historical aeon. Bulgakov’s thesis that history represents a great failure and a kind of tragic misunderstanding is also highlighted. Other features of his metahistorical system of views can be traced on the basis of a selective analysis of his main work “The Light of the Not Evening”.
Keywords: metaphysics of history, metahistory, historical process, philosopher S. Bulgakov, aeon, chiliasm, Bulgakov’s metahistorism.

Gessen V.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Life and work of St. Petersburg bookseller and publisher M.O. Wolf

Ph.D. in Economics
Home ad dress: Russian Federaion,
196233 Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya 11/ 2, 140
e-mail: geen27@mail.ru

Annotation. The article, on the basis of archival and literary materials, contains information about the life and work of M.O. Wolf, one of the most significant book publishers in Russia in the second half of the XIX century. It is indicated that he publishes a wide range of books related to educational, scientific, educational and children’s literature, with a variety of reference information. Attention is paid to the book publishing partnerships created by him: “Guttenberg” and his name, the introduction of advanced methods in printing, the use of his shop for communication of St. Petersburg writers. The difficulties that arose in its activities caused by censorship obstacles, the competition of many other publishing houses that arose in those years are noted. In a brief form, information is given about his entrepreneurial activities outside the publication of books, about his participation in a number of joint-stock companies of extractive industries, railways.
Keywords: St. Petersburg, Moscow, book, publishing house, merchant, entrepreneur, circulation, report, announcement, printing house, partnership

Rybak O.V. (Maloyaroslavets). The experience of forming an innovative model of social and professional development and adaptation of orphans on the basis of an Orthodox monastery and a social university

Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Humanities, Russian State Social University (RSSU), public relations specialist at the Center for Orthodox Media FKM RSSU,
249096, Russian Federation, Maloyaroslavets, Kaluzhskaya str. 4,
e-mail: olgarybak15@gmail.com

Annotation. Based on the historical experience of state-church interaction, the article examines the problem of creating favorable conditions for the harmonious development of orphans, their social adaptation and guaranteed employment. The work uses systemic and specific historical approaches, methods of generalizing information, comparative and content analysis. Some sources were introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The study found that the proposed model of social and professional development and adaptation of boarding school graduates on the basis of a monastery and a university is innovative and allows them to achieve reliable employment of graduates in their specialty, acquire skills, experience and achievements on international projects, as well as develop the traditions of the institution of the family. The most expedient algorithm for the application of the model is: determination of the vector of development of orphans within the framework of education in a boarding school; the formation of a trajectory of development during training in a boarding house, taking into account the external social environment and after graduation from the boarding house; development of a mechanism for a comfortable transition from the semi-closed social environment of the monastery to an open secular life through the definition of a leading university in the social environment, its partners in the business environment in the direction of training orphans; formation of a system of interaction between the heads of educational and spiritual institutions; the formation of a multidisciplinary spiritual and secular environment on the basis of the interaction of the teaching staff of the university and teachers, mentors of the monastery. The results obtained can be used in the system of social service within the framework of state-church interaction.
Keywords: social service of monasteries, social and professional development and adaptation, socialization of orphans, social university

Shevchenko M.M., Voronina M.M. (St. Petersburg). Historical traditions of the formation of modern mass consciousness in China and Russia

Doctor of historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of philosophy and sociology of the Saint Petersburg state Maritime technical University.
Kovalevskaya, 12, 195043, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
e-mail: mixail.shevchenko.44@mail.ru

Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Higher Mathematics of the Emperor Alexander I of the St. Petersburg State University of Railway Transport. Russia, Saint Petersburg, 196135, Tipanova str., 3,
e-mail: voronina.pgups@gmail.com

Annotation. With the development of society, ideological dominants are formed, which express the cardinal provisions of the following semantic content: a person’s understanding of the essence of social consciousness, the goals, and the purpose of human activity. In Russia and China, much attention is paid to domestic culture, traditions, achievements in literature and art, including in the educational sphere. On March 16, 2018, a regular meeting of the Russian-Chinese interuniversity “round table” was held on the topic: “Russian and Eastern culture: higher education, science, and technology in Russia and China”. The interuniversity Center for Education in the field of history and philosophy leading scientists of 12 universities of St. Petersburg and other cities of the Russian Federation, as well as students of SPbGMTU. All the reports and speeches in the discussion touched on acute, controversial issues of humanitarian education in technical universities in China and Russia. The existing problems are similar. An appeal to the historical traditions of the formation of modern mass consciousness, both in China and in Russia, will help in their resolution.
Keywords: ideological dominants, societies of human destinies, universal human values, quality of education and upbringing, moral, professional qualities of specialists.

Dmitriev V.A. (St. Petersburg). Review for the monograph of Ozova Fatima Anatolyevna “Institute of amanity in Circassian-Russian relations: 1552-1829”, St. Petersburg: Nestor-History, 2020. – 632 p. – ISBN 978-5-4469-1473-9

Doctor of History,
Russian Ethnographic Museum, the Chief Researcher of the Department of the Caucasus and Central Asia,
191198, St. Petersburg, Enginernaja st. 4/1.
E-mail dmitriev_home @ mail.ru

Annotation. The review analyzes the content of the monograph of Ozova Fatima Anatolyevna “Institute of amanity in Circassian-Russian relations: 1552-1829” and evaluates its significance for the national historical science and Caucasian studies. The monograph is recognized as a great contribution to the study of the history of the formation of the Russian multinational state and the local history of the North Caucasus. The book provides an assessment of the political structure of Circassia / Kabarda at the noted time, the nature of hostage taking as one of the instruments of interstate relations between Russia and Circassia and the evolution of this institution, which led to the inclusion of Kabarda in the Russian Empire.
Keywords: Russian state, Circassia, hostages, evolution of interstate relations

Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg), Shabelnikova N.A. (Vladivostok). “To be useful to the Fatherland”: Professor A.M. Plekhanov is 90 years old!

Editor-in-chief of the journal “Klio”
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honorary Worker
of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation,
consulting professor of the “Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin”.
196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10.
E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Full Professor, honored employee
of the internal Affairs bodie of the Russian Federation,
Department of Humanitarian Disciplines
Vladivostok branch of Far Eastern
Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs of the Russian Federation
690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikova st., 21,
E-mail: nhistorik@mail.ru

Annotation. The article is dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the scientist-researcher, scientist-teacher, a man of unusual destiny, a living witness of the military and peaceful history of our country, Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor, retired Colonel Alexander Mikhailovich Plekhanov. A.M. Plekhanov’s significant contribution to the study of the history of domestic state security bodies is noted, who is the author of more than 200 articles, monographs, collections of documents, albums. The talent of Alexander Mikhailovich, as a researcher and a deep connoisseur of the areas he studied, was revealed during his work on such problems as the history of cadet corps and Suvorov schools from pre-revolutionary times; a separate corps of the border guard of the Russian Empire; Cossacks on the borders of the Fatherland; the USSR Border Troops; the activities of the Cheka–OGPU bodies in the first half of the 1920s; the work of security officers in the regions of our country (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Karelia, Omsk); cadres of the Cheka–OGPU bodies and others. Attention is focused on the fact that for several decades the subject of deep scientific study and professional interest of A.M. Plekhanov is the phenomenon of such an extraordinary personality as F.E. Dzerzhinsky, his life and multifaceted activities. Alexander Mikhailovich is one of the founders of the “Historical Readings on the Lubyanka” and the founders of the Society for the Study of the History of Domestic Special Services. Honorary member of the Union of State Security Veterans, full member of the International Academy of Informatization. He has 17 government and departmental awards, the Badge “3a service in counterintelligence” of the II degree, winner of the FSB of Russia Award.
Keywords: A.M. Plekhanov, scientific and pedagogical activity, history of domestic state security agencies, F.E. Dzerzhinsky, Society for the Study of the History of Domestic Special Services.