Klio #10 (190) 2022

Soldatov A.V., Shevchenko M.M. (St. Petersburg). Evolution of management development in the context of the universal history of science

Doctor of philosophy, Professor, head of the Department of philosophy and sociology of Saint Petersburg state Maritime technical University.
3 Lotsmanskaya St., 190008, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
e-mail: soldatov2012@yandex.ru 

Doctor of historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of philosophy and sociology of the Saint Petersburg state Maritime technical University.
3 Lotsmanskaya St., 190008, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
e-mail: mixail.shevchenko.44@mail.ru

Abstract. The modern science of the history of organizational and managerial activity in general and at industrial enterprises in particular is still in the process of formation. Perhaps today we can talk about a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to the study of this problem. From the historical, philosophical, social positions, management is a system of forms and ways of people’s life in certain historical and socio–economic conditions, a set of ways and methods of managing people, a system of motivations. Management is the entrance to the management system.

A person’s attitude to work is a complex and dynamic phenomenon. Studying the life and work path of outstanding managers – organizers of industrial production, we came to the conclusion that the fundamental integrative need, the realization of which determines a person’s attitude to work, is the need for self-affirmation. The following fundamental essence can be distinguished in it: this is an objective social process aimed at satisfying the actualized material and spiritual needs of the subject, the approval of his social status in accordance with the level of development and realization of his social qualities and abilities.

Today we need leaders. They are needed because the quality of the leaders themselves has become worse, and because the problems facing the country have become more acute than ever. Consequently, the requirements for the manager are increasing. He should be able to provide motivation in his team to achieve a general positive result for people with a variety of qualities and abilities. A necessary property of a modern leader is self–demanding. He cannot avoid participating in the process of creating a value system at his enterprise. As a rule, subordinates read these values from his style of behavior, leadership of the team.
Keywords: management, stages of management evolution, modern management, self-assertion, requirements for the manager, values in the culture of modern enterprises

Karpunina A.A. (Moscow). Why do Mongolians spin prayer wheels (mong. mani khurd)?

Postgraduate student, Lomonosov Moscow State University
119991 Russian Federation, Moscow, st. Kolmogorova, 1
Research Assistant, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences 119991, Russian Federation Moscow Leninsky Ave., 32a
E-mail: anastasiia.karpunina@yandex.ru

Abstract. The Buddhist ritual object mani khurd (from mong. “prayer wheel/mani wheel”) has attracted the attention of researchers since the end of the 19th century. There are monographs devoted to the issues of understanding the meaning and origin of this ritual object. The prayer wheel was studied mainly by orientalists and philologists, and they were interested in the “correctness” of understanding practices with prayer wheels in accordance with Buddhist dogma and they ignored a number of practices and meanings with which a ritual object is used and how it is comprehended by ordinary people, and not by professional lamas and in sacred texts. This article is devoted to the analysis of the practice of spinning the mani khurd (prayer wheel) in Mongolia and Buryatia, and an attempt to look into the web of meanings that envelop this material object and some practices of interaction with it from the standpoint of social anthropology and ethnology, using modern methodological frameworks developed within these disciplines. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the application of these new approaches to the study of ritual object mani khurd. Materials for research were collected in Mongolia and republic of Buryatia (Russia) during regular expeditions in 2017-2019 by the method of in-depth interview. In total, about 30 interviews were conducted with representatives of the monastic community and ordinary believers.
Keywords: Buddhism of Mongolia, Buddhism of Buryatia, prayer wheel, maani khurd, Material Religion

Tribunsky S.A. (Samara). Some aspects of cultural and educational work in the Red Army in the 1920s-June 1941 in domestic monographic and dissertation research at the beginning of the 21st century

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of National History and Historiography, Samara National Research University named after Academician S.P. Koroleva,
443086, Volga Federal District, Samara Region, Samara, Moskovskoe shosse, 34,
E-mail: ser.6791@yandex.ru 

Abstract. It is known that cultural and educational work was an integral part (moreover, with a relative degree of independence) of a unique military historical phenomenon – party political work. That military-historical phenomenon that successfully functioned in the Armed Forces of the Soviet state in 1918-1991. In Russian historiography of the beginning of the 21st century, a historiographic trend of increased attention to the problem of cultural and educational work in the Red Army (RKKA) in the 1920s – June 1941 took shape. As a result, the appearance of a certain array of relevant historiographic sources, including number of monographic and dissertation research. The author of this article subjects them to a brief analysis, carried out in the key of problem-thematic historiography. The composition of the historiographical sources involved in the study included only those monographs that were published from 2001 to the present, and also defended the corresponding dissertations during this period. The historiographical analysis takes full account of the conditions under which modern Russian historical science is developing. Among these conditions, special attention is paid to the following circumstance: a distinctive feature of modern Russian historiography is its exceptionally dynamic and unfinished character. And this circumstance left a serious imprint, including on monographic and dissertation research, which highlights (only to a certain extent) a number of aspects of the problem of cultural and educational work in the Red Army in the 1920s – June 1941. The same can be said about the process of overcoming the methodological crisis and establishing new theoretical and methodological approaches in Russian historical science at the present stage of its development. At the same time, it should be emphasized that the researcher has no claims to the completeness of the analysis of the problem mentioned above.
Keywords: Red Army; cultural and educational work; party political work; modern historiography; new theoretical-co-methodological approaches; conditional historiographic period; 1920s – June 1941; monographic and dissertation research

Sulimov S.I. (Voronezh), Cherenkov R.A. (Moscow). Specifics of ancient Greek and Roman philosophy of history: comparative analysis

Cand Sci in Philosophy, associate-professor,
associate-professor of Department of history philosophy and culture
Voronezh state university
394000, Russian Federation, Voronezh, Revolutsii Avenue, 24
E-mail: sta-sulimov@ya.ru

Cand Sci in History, associate-professor,
associate-professor of Department of history
National Research Nuclear University
«Moscow Engineering Physics Institute»
115409, Russian Federation, Moscow, Kashirskoe Road, 31
E-mail: marselles2006@mail.ru

Abstract. This work is devoted to the comparative analysis of ancient Greek and Roman philosophical and historical thought. The authors review and compare Hesiod’s basic ideas. Herodotus, Thucydides, Polybius, Titus Livius and Plutarch. The Greek philosophy of history was born as stories about distant lands and their inherent curiosities, so it is characterized by interest in all famous countries and the political processes taking place in them. The Roman tradition of historiography and analysis of historical events originates in the annals of a single city and therefore any events are important to it only in the context of the history of Rome. At the same time, both philosophical and historical traditions perceive the historical process as a repeated cycle of events.
Keywords: philosophy of history, cyclism, logographer, annals, cosmopolitanism

Lisitsyna E.N. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Features of Russia’s Energy Policy in the Far East in the late XIX – early XX centuries

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor,
professor of the department
Russian and world history
Sakhalin State University
693008, Russian Federation, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Lenin, 290
E-mail: Lisitsina1997@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to identifying the features of Russia’s energy policy conducted in the Far East in the late XIX – early XX century. It’s noted that the large and accessible coal reserves of good quality discovered in the middle of the nineteenth century in the region were extremely in demand by ships of the Siberian Military Flotilla, ships of the Voluntary Fleet, power plants and industrial enterprises of the Far East. As a result, the coal industry quickly turned into one of the key sectors of the economic development of this region in the late XIX – early XX century.

Unlike the coal industry, oil discovered at the end of the XIX century in the Far East did not receive an impulse for its development. Neither the state’s excise policy in the field of oil production, nor the “Regulation on the Voluntary Fleet” regulating the amount and procedure for paying freight for the transportation of kerosene, nor the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which made the Far East the most important transit point for the delivery of kerosene to the countries of Southeast Asia, contributed to its development. Also, the work of private entrepreneurs was hindered by the weak geological study of the territory and the need for huge financial costs associated with the import of equipment and organization of work and restrictive measures associated with the introduction of a 100-mile exclusion zone.

Based on the identified features in the implementation of energy policy in the Far East and the development of the region as a whole, the author concludes that the priority in the development of the coal and oil industry in the Far East during this period does not coincide with the all-Russian.
Keywords: Far East, XIX-beginning of XX century, energy policy, coal, oil, industry of the Russian Empire

Shemyakin G.P. (St. Petersburg). The struggle for the army in 1917 (on the 105th anniversary of the revolutionary events in Russia)

candidate of historical sciences, associate professor
professor of the department of philosophical and socij-economic disciplintp
Saint-Petersburg military Institute of National Guard Troops
E-mail: gennadiy.shemyakin@gmail.com.

Abstract. The article is devoted to an important aspect of the revolutionary events of 1917, which radically changed the fate of the peoples of Russia – the struggle of various political forces for the army. In the conditions of the participation of the Russian Empire in the First World War, the fate of the revolution and the future of the country largely depended on the position of the military. They played a key role in overthrowing the autocracy and carrying out revolutionary transformations. Therefore, various political forces waged a fierce struggle for influence on the personnel of the army and navy. In the whirlwind of revolutionary events, politicians destroyed the very foundations of military construction, undermined the principles of unity of command and military discipline. The army turned from a pillar of the state into a revolutionary force that first crushed the monarchy, and then the Provisional Government. Thus, it signed its own death sentence. Shortly after the victory of the October Revolution of 1917, the old army and navy were liquidated. The author of the article set himself the task of analyzing the essence and main stages of the struggle of the main political forces of that time for the army from February to November 1917, to identify the historical lessons of events more than a century ago for the current stage of the military development of the Russian Armed Forces.
Keywords: World War I, revolutionary events of 1917, Russian army and Navy, Provisional Government, Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies, struggle for the army, soldiers’ committees, the principle of unity of command, demobilization of the Russian army

Lapina I.Yu., Kargapoltsev S.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Decommunization of public consciousness as a necessary condition for the complementarity of civil-patriotic upbringing of young students at the present stage of domestic sociogenesis (part 4)

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. The publication analyzes one of the main problems of civil-patriotic education of young students in the current reality of domestic life: the continuing romanticization in the educational and methodological literature of the ideas and adherents of the revolutionary reorganization of the world (Jacobins, sans-culottes, Decembrists, Narodovol´tsy (People’s Will), Social Revolutionaries and Bolsheviks). This phenomenon hinders the formation of a full-fledged anti-terrorist ideology and the prevention of the popularization of extremist activities in the poly-ethnic student environment. Further ignoring of this problem can have severe socio-political consequences in the short term. The article draws attention of the readership to the achievements of the Russian Empire in recent years, which depended not only on the economic sphere, but also on the humanitarian field. The authors believe that this country had a high potential for development and was competitive in relation to other European powers. A clear vision by the Russian leadership of ways to implement domestic and foreign policy plans is noted. The authors express the opinion that the glorification and romanticization of the revolutionary past of the country slows down the process of modern development of Russian society. The presented material is supported by a set of quotations and statistical data with links to primary sources, regulatory framework and representative literature.
The beginning was published in the journal Klio No. 7, 2022, pp. 98-111; the 2nd part – Klio No. 8, 2022, pp. 73-87; the 3rd part – Klio No. 9, 2022, pp. 96-114.
Keywords: Civil-patriotic upbringings, educational-methodical process, revolutionary violence, bolshevism, terrorism, extremism, repression

Dianova E.V. (Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia). Literary representation of the public catering system of the early Soviet period

doctor of historical sciences,
associate professor at the Department of National history,
Institute of history, political and social sciences,
Petrozavodsk state university,
185910, Russian, Republic of Karelia, Petrozavodsk,
Lenin Ave., 33. е-mail: elena-dianowa@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article is devoted to the literary representation of the Soviet public catering system of the early Soviet period. The works of Soviet writers and poets were used as a source and means of specifying historical ideas about the material and spiritual life of society. Fiction reflected the socio-economic processes that took place in the early Soviet society, including the formation and development of catering enterprises. The literary representation of the Soviet public catering embodied the economic realities of various eras (the policies of “war” communism, NEP, the first five-year plans). The analysis of works of art was carried out on the basis of a chronotopic approach, which makes it possible to establish the relationship between time and space, on the basis of geographical landmarks (city advertising, signs) to reveal the signs of everyday life of the population in specific historical eras. Literary works present public catering establishments from the time of the “war communism” policy, various catering enterprises during the New Economic Policy and at the beginning of the first five-year plans. A. V. Amfiteatrov, M. A. Bulgakov, V. P. Kataev, M. E. Koltsov, I. A. Ilf and E. P. Petrov, E. G. Bagritsky, S. Ya. Marshak, V. V. Mayakovsky, M. A. Svetlov and other authors paid some attention to the topic of food supply and public catering establishments. They noted the advantages and disadvantages of establishments intended for the manufacture and sale of ready-made food products to the population.
Keywords: fiction, representation, catering, Soviet catering system, chronotope, chronotopic approach

Akhmadullina Zh.V. (Penza). All-Union meetings of the representatives by the Council for religious affairs as a means of growing the efficiency of the organization

postgraduate student of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Penza State University of Architecture and Construction”,
440028, Penza Region, Penza, Germana Titova Street, 28 109382,
researcher of the Moscow Islamic Institute,
Moscow, Proezd Kirova 12, Russian Federation
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0092-7511,
e-mail: lintuvvvv@mail.ru

Abstract. The creation of the Council for Religious Affairs under the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR (SDRK) at the final stage of the Great Patriotic War was caused by the need to coordinate the activities of religious organizations by the authorities. The organization of the work of the representatives of this Council, its representatives in the most diverse regions of the Soviet state – republics, territories, districts and regions, took place with great difficulties. This was due to many reasons: the specifics of the work of the system of the Council for Religious Affairs, the lack of experience in working with religious organizations and their leaders among the vast majority of persons appointed to the positions of representatives, the low educational level of the majority of representatives, inattention to their work by local authorities, etc. A significant contribution to the organization of the work of the representatives of the Council, the improvement of their professional culture was made by the chairman of the SDRK – I.V. Polyansky. It was he who was able to understand that meetings of various levels should become an effective way to prepare the commissioners for the performance of their functional duties and the legal solution of current tasks. He considered the All-Union Conferences of SDRK representatives to be the most ambitious of them. For various reasons, such meetings of the commissioners began to be held only after the death of I.V. Polyansky. These meetings were able, to some extent, to positively influence the growth of the qualifications of the commissioners.
Keywords: Council for Religious Affairs, representatives of the Council, All-Union Conferences, religious policy, religious policy of the Soviet state

Bai Xue (Vladivostok). Russian theater in Harbin

postgraduate student of the department of history and archeology
Far Eastern Federal University,
senior lecturer at Heihe University.
690922, Russia, Vladivostok, Ajaks, 10.
Email: baixue8560@126.com

Abstract. Since its founding in 1898 and the start of construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER), Harbin has developed rapidly. Accordingly, a large number of cultural and mass institutions, in particular theaters, functioned in it. With the end of the Civil War, the Russian population of the city increased significantly, and Harbin quickly turned into an international center. Theatrical business in Harbin developed rapidly until 1931 (before the Japanese occupation of northeast China). The spread of Russian theaters not only significantly stimulated the development of Russian culture and art, but also enriched the leisure and entertainment life of the Russian residents of Harbin and, accordingly, introduced the Chinese to Russian culture. The article provides an overview of the activities of the main Russian theaters in Harbin in the first half of the 20th century. The publication uses materials from foreign collections and rare literature in Russian and Chinese, as well as the results of field research in Harbin (April 2021).
Keywords: Harbin, Russian theaters, theatrical business, theatrical life, Russian leisure in Harbin

Usov A.V. (Vladivostok). Red banner Special Expedition for Underwater Works (EPRON) in the Pacific Ocean: the main areas of combat training (1941−1942)

Cand. in History,
Vladivostok branch of the Far Eastern Law
Institute of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, Associate Professor
690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotel’nikova St., 21;
e-mail: epronhist@ya.ru

Abstract. The article considers the main areas of combat training carried out in the Special Expedition for Underwater Works (EPRON) in the Pacific Ocean in 1941–1942. The study is based on materials from the Branch of the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation (Navy Archive, Gatchina). It is especially noted that with the outbreak of World War II, the EPRON became the basic organization for the creation of the Navy Emergency Rescue Service on the scale of the USSR Union, and the Pacific Expedition of EPRON, which grew out of the Separate Far Eastern Party, − the basis for the Emergency Rescue Service of the Pacific Fleet. The main attention is paid to emergency rescue and experimental exercises, among which were the descent of a diver in the presence of chemical warfare agents in the atmosphere. Issues of diving training are being considered, as well as the interaction of EPRON’s cadres with the Pacific Fleet. Examples of successful experimental exercises and training are given. Persons encouraged by the results of combat training were noted. The author comes to the conclusion that after the start of World War II, the specifics of the tasks of the EPRON Pacific Expedition have changed, in connection with which special attention was paid to consolidating skills that meet the needs of the fleet in wartime conditions.
Keywords: Special Expedition for Underwater Works, Great Patriotic War, combat training, cadres, salvor, special service, diver, ship salvaging

Lyaskina N.V. (Khabarovsk). Children’s receivers distributors in the NKVD system during the period the Great Patriotic War (based on the materials of the Far East)

Associate of the Far Eastern Law Institute of the
Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation
680000, Russia, Khabarovsk, per.15 Kazarmenny street,
E-mail: Lnv2412@list.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the activities of children’s receivers-distributors of the NKVD during the Great Patriotic War. This article is based on documentary central and regional sources, a significant part of which is being introduced for the first time. The article analyzes and summarizes the historical experience of receiver-distributors.

It is emphasized that thanks to the functioning of the DPR of the NKVD during the Great Patriotic War, children who found themselves in a difficult social situation were sent to orphanages, employed in enterprises, industry, agriculture, or sent for re-education and social adaptation to labor educational colonies for minors, or were handed over to wanted parents.

It is concluded that, despite all the difficulties faced by children’s distribution receivers in wartime conditions, they continued to fulfill their tasks of preventing and suppressing homelessness and neglect of minors.
Keywords: scientific research, children’s receivers distributors, NKVD, police, homelessness, neglect, juvenile delinquency, Far East, Great Patriotic war, Russia

Nikitina A.A. (Moscow). Formation of a two-level local self-government system in the Rostov region

postgraduate student, School of Public Administration,
Lomonosov Moscow State University,
GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, Russian Federation, 119991
E-mail: annanikitina.78@mail.ru

Abstract. The article discusses the experience of organizing a two-level system of local self-government in the Rostov region in the process of implementing the municipal reform in the mid 2000s. The defining role of local self-government in the socio-economic development of Russia and its regions at the present stage determines the relevance of the topic. The study of the historical experience of the organization and development of local self-government makes it possible to contribute to the reflection of the history of the development of public authorities in Russia and to contribute to the further improvement of the institution of local self-government. As a result of using an historical and systematic research methods in the work, it was possible to establish the stages of the formation of a two-level system of local self-government, to identify the main trends in the formation of a single territorial structure of local self-government, institutions of local self-government at the settlement level. It is concluded that in the Rostov region a new level of legitimate municipal government was formed and a two-level system of local self-government was organized in full accordance with the current federal and regional legislation.
Keywords: Reform of local self-government, municipality, two-level system, settlement elections, Rostov region

Pozdnyakova V.I. (Vladivostok). Patriotic education of employees of the internal affairs bodies of Russia in the process of studying the national history

Senior lecturer
Department of Humanitarian Disciplines
Vladivostok branch of Far Eastern
Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs of the Russian Federation
690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikova st., 21,
E-mail: anitnelav1711@mail.ru

Abstract. In modern society, the concept of “patriotism” is regaining great importance. This is a deeply social feeling, the core of which is love for one’s homeland, devotion to one’s people, pride in its historical past and present, concern for its future. This is the desire to protect the interests of the state both inside and outside the country. Patriotic education of employees of internal affairs bodies is the basis of state and public security of the Russian Federation. The article discusses the main forms of patriotic education of employees of the internal affairs bodies in the process of studying the history of the Fatherland. Special attention is paid to the role of educational organizations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in this process, in particular, the Vladivostok branch of the Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, in which the professional, personal, moral formation of the future specialist takes place. It is concluded that the successful experience of implementing patriotic education in the study of disciplines.
Keywords: patriotic education, police officer, Russia, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Far East

Krasnokutskiy V.S., Krasnokutskaya L.I. (Zheleznovodsk). Projects of the All-Russian Congress on the improvement of domestic medical places in the formation of conditions for the rehabilitation of soldiers in the resorts of the Tersk region (1915)

East. associate Professor of the Department of historical and philological disciplines of the branch of Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute in Zheleznovodsk
Russia, Zheleznovodsk, Inozemtsevo 357430
e-mail: kurasnokutsky.v@mail.ru

East. associate Professor of the Department of historical and philological disciplines Of the branch of Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute in Zheleznovodsk
Russia, Zheleznovodsk, Inozemtsevo 357430
e-mail: karrass55@mail.ru 

Abstract. The article reveals the problem of the influence of the decisions of the All-Russian Congress on the improvement of domestic medical areas (1915) on the reconstruction of medical areas of the Tersk region in the North Caucasus. The paper analyzes the situation of medical areas at the beginning of the First World War; materials of the congress, its decisions and recommendations and their subsequent impact. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the holding of the All-Russian Congress contributed to the development of concrete solutions to improve the conditions for receiving sick and wounded soldiers in medical areas. It was established that, following the results of the congress, the Nalchik resort was added to three medical localities in the Tersk region, which allowed to increase the number of wounded taken; additional medical and hospital barracks were built at existing resorts; state measures were taken for the mountain sanitary protection of medical localities; a military inspector of sanitary and medical localities was appointed for each resort. Economic aspects are revealed.
Keywords: congress, military medical department, transformation, mining and sanitary protection, Terek region

Skurlov V.V. (St. Petersburg). Ladles, brothers, Cups – gifts from His Majesty’s Cabinet in the era of Alexander III and Nicholas II

doctor of art history, expert of the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation, scientific Secretary of the Memorial Fund Faberge (Saint Petersburg).
199406 Russia, St. Petersburg, Nalichnaya street, 37-3-47.
e-mail: valentinskurlov@mail.ru

Abstract. Gifts and awards from His Majesty’s Cabinet are an unexplored area of artistic objects of jewelry art. There are practically no such objects in the state museums of Russia, because for ideological reasons in Soviet times even the storage of such objects was considered as a counter-revolutionary activity. Such items carried the state emblem of the Russian Empire — a double-headed eagle or a royal crown, and the most valuable items — a monogram or a portrait of the emperor or empresses. 

The unknown side of the Faberge firm’s activities in cooperation with His Majesty’s Cabinet is considered. Carl Faberge became the Supplier of the Highest Court in 1885 and from that year started his “book of cabinet gifts”. In the structure of the assortment of awards, badges and gifts of the Cabinet, the group “Various precious products” appeared only during the reign of Emperor Alexander III (1881—1894). This group of items includes cups, fratins, vases, bowls, watches and similar items, mainly “Russian style”, as well as sculptural items, such as “Romanov griffins” and various prizes. As a rule, such things were very expensive and were intended for gifts not only to important persons — foreign monarchs and ambassadors, but also to such institutions as military regiments, Russian and foreign institutions. The number of items in this group during the reign of Emperor Nicholas II (1894-1917) increased 4-5 times.

A significant role in the formation of the range of highly artistic products of the group belongs to the Faberge company, its St. Petersburg and Moscow branches. A comparative analysis of the work of Faberge and other suppliers of the Highest Court (Ovchinnikov, Bolin, the Grachev Brothers and others) is made. Based on the results of the analysis, conclusions are made. The newly found archival materials will be in demand by antiquarians, collectors and museum workers dealing with the Faberge theme.
Keywords: Faberge, gifts from His Majesty’s Cabinet, various precious items, Emperor Alexander III and Nicholas II

Karpunina A.A. (Moscow). Modern approaches to the Study of Religion: Vernacular, Lived, Everyday, Tactical, Strategic and Material Religion

Postgraduate student, Lomonosov Moscow State University
119991 Russian Federation, Moscow, st. Kolmogorova, 1
Research Assistant, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninsky Ave., 32a
E-mail: anastasiia.karpunina@yandex.ru

Abstract. Recently, more and more new approaches to the study of religion have appeared in anthropology, ethnology, folklor and religious studies. This creates, on the one hand, more opportunities for a diverse study of the chosen subject of research, but also produces certain difficulties, the main of which is the problem of choosing one of the approaches or a combination of several. What is the conceptual frame to choose (i.e. what methodology to use)? One of the basic and most important issues on which the study is built. In this regard, this article is an overview of several modern approaches, such as Vernacular Religion, Lived Religion, Everyday Religion, Material Religion, Tactical and Strategic Religion. In the article, approaches are compared with each other. And the applicability of these approaches is assessed for the material that was collected by the author of the article on Buddhism Buryatia based by anthropological field work.
Keywords: Vernacular Religion, Lived Religion, Everyday Religion, Material Religion, Tactical and Strategic Religion, Buddhism in Mongolia and Buryatia

Samorodov D.P. (Sterlitamak, Republic of Bashkortostan). Forerunner of alternative historiographers. Doctor of Russian History Dmitry Ivanovich Ilovaisky

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History of the Fatherland and Methods of Teaching History of the Sterlitamak Branch of the Bashkir State University
Russian Federation, Republic of Bashkortostan, Sterlitamak, Lenin Avenue, 49
e-mail: gnera@mail.ru

Abstract. In the article, an attempt was made to recreate the creative portrait of the doctor of Russian history D.I. Ilovaisky, some of whose bold ideas have turned out to be in demand today by many representatives of alternative historiography. The main milestones of his creative life are consistently stated, his early, monographic works are characterized, a balanced assessment of his educational and methodological works, history textbooks for schools and gymnasiums of Imperial Russia is given. Attention is focused on his famous book “The Formation of Russia”, in which D.I. Ilvoaisky substantiates the “southern” Black Sea version of the ethnogenesis of the Eastern Slavs, Russians with Scythians, Sarmatians, etc. Roxolans, who by the 9th century were mentioned in foreign sources under the name “Ros” (Rus). The peculiarity of his anti-Normanism is briefly highlighted, the thesis is highlighted that the Slavic Russians are the essence of the great native people who did not come from outside in the 9th century and did not call the Varangians. According to the terminology of the author of this article, D.I. Ilovaisky is reasonably categorized as an intra-academic alternative historiography.
Keywords: Professor D.I. Ilovaisky, alternative historiography, Scythian-Sarmatians, Roxolani-Salvians, Black Sea theory of the ethnogenesis of the Slavs, tribal period of Russian history

Mikhailov V.V. (St. Petersburg). Review of Volume III of the five-volume edition of The History of the Crimean Tatars (Crimean Khanate (XV-XVIII centuries)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of the St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
190000, 15 Gastello St., St. Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: batukom@mail.ru

Abstract. The article presents a review of the monograph “The Crimean Khanate (XV-XVIII centuries.)”, which is the third volume of the five-volume edition “History of the Crimean Tatars”. The methodological approaches, the scientific significance of the publication, the objectivity of the presentation of historical materials by the author’s team are analyzed. The author’s approach to substantiating the functioning and development of the Crimean Khanate for the entire time of its existence is considered. The characteristic of the level of scientific significance of the monograph is given.
Keywords: Crimean Khanate, Ottoman Empire, Russian state, Lithuania, Poland, Crimean Tatars, Nogais, Cossacks vassalage, domestic policy, foreign policy, raiding economy, slavery, slave trade, science, culture, economy, law

Ippolitov G.M. (Samara), Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg). Scholar-historian, teacher, patriot, or Reflections on Alexander Ivanovich Repinetsky in connection with his seventieth birthday

member of the editorial board of the magazine “Klio”, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Philosophy of the Volga State University of Telecommunications and Informatics (Samara).
443010, Samara, st. L. Tolstoy, 23.
Email: gippoli-tov@rambler.ru

Editor-in-Chief of the Klio magazine Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honorary Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation, Chief Researcher, Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin.
196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10.
e-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article dedicated to the seventieth anniversary of the member of the editorial board of the magazine “Klio”, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Vice-Rector for Research at the Samara State Social and Pedagogical University Alexander Ivanovich Repinetsky briefly reveals the main milestones of his life path. The creative path of the hero of the day is traced – a talented Russian historian, one of the leading specialists in the field of historical demography, the history of everyday life, the history of the Soviet punitive and repressive system. The statistics of the publisher’s activity of the hero of the day are given, which indicates that he achieved high scientific results, and thus made a significant contribution to the national historical science at the post-Soviet and modern stages of its development. Attention is drawn to the features of his scientific, scientific-pedagogical and scientific-organizational activities. The personal qualities of Alexander Ivanovich Repinetsky are stated. At the same time, it is especially emphasized that in his many-sided activities he always takes a state-patriotic position.
Keywords: Alexander Ivanovich Repinetsky, 70 years old, hero of the day, historical demography, scientific school, Department of National History and Archaeology, official opponent