Klio # 11 (131) 2017





Minyar-Beloroutcheva A.P. (Moscow). Linguistic worldview of the historical past……………………………………13

ALLA PETROVNA MINYAR-BELOROUTCHEVA — Doctor of Philological Sciences, Dr. Habil., Professor, Professor of the Department of Foreign Languages, History Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119992, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosov ave., 27–4–241. E-mail: ostvera@mail.ru

The article deals with the correlation of worldview and linguistic worldview that reproduce the worldview of the people of different historical epochs. Worldview, taken as a sustainable phenomenon that reflects man’s perception of the surrounding world, is incorporate in the language that changes along with the transformations that take place in the world. Linguistic worldview of the historical past, that reflects the ideas of the people in a certain period of their historical development, demonstrates the changes that occurred over centuries in society and collective consciousness of the native speakers. Linguistic worldview of the historical past is the result of the processes that have been going on in society and people’s consciousness for centuries. The challenging world of the historical past that is not given to historians in the immediate experience and perception is, in fact, a mental production created by means of language that verbalizes imperceptible phenomena and, as one of the key components of the model of the historical world, affects the perception of the world of the historical past. The ideas of the people of the historical past fixed in the concepts are expressed in words, metaphors, proverbs and stereotypes. The historian reveals features of thinking of the people of the historical past concealed in the language of specific epochs and conceptualizes what is dear to his own worldview.

Keywords: worldview, linguistic worldview, concept, the ideas of the people of the past, historical past.


Baranov A.V. (Krasnodar). Discussion issues of the subject field of Russian political history………………………….18

ANDREY VLADIMIROVICH BARANOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of the Department of Political Science and Political Management, Kuban State University. 350040, Russian Federation, Krasnodar, Stavropolskaya st., 149, office 237. E-mail: baranovandrew@mail.ru

The author of the article highlights debatable questions of Russian political history as a scientific branch of knowledge and academic discipline. The interpretation of the subject of Russian political history — the system of diachronic changes in the political sphere of society and its various components: institutions, subjects of politics, their interactions, socio-cultural phenomena (values, political cultures, identities, public opinion) is argued. The systemic approach makes it possible to classify historical and political phenomena and processes by the sphere of their manifestation, duration, degree of conflict. The author clarifies the relationship with the political history of Russia of related but not identical directions: the history of civilizations, chronopolitics, the history of the state and law. A critical analysis of the ideologization of historical research on examples of the concept of “Russian power”, modernization theories, “national history” is shown. The necessity of strict distinction between historical science and “historical policy”, as well as the specification of the main categories (power, society, state, traditions, innovations, reforms, revolutions) is substantiated.

Keywords: political history of Russia, subject field, discussion issues, historiography.





Markova A.I. (Moscow). Prize books editions of the Imperial Moscow Medical-Surgical Academy (1798–1845) as an element of education and culture of Russia in the first half of the 19th century……………………………………….26

ANNA IGOREVNA MARKOVA — Chief librarian, Department of Rare Books and Manuscripts, Scientific Library of Lomonosov Moscow State University. 103073, Russian Federation, Moscow, Mokhovaya st., 9. E-mail: anna-markova@hotmail.com

The article characterizes the practice of rewarding students with prize books at the Imperial Moscow Medical-Surgical Academy, one of the few Russian specialized medical schools in the first half of the 19th century. This practice is reconstructed with help of analysis of archival sources, normative documents and periodical press materials. It is characterized by a wide range of scientific genres published and presented in prize editions, as well as by the fact that students’ works were chosen for publication alongside the professors’ writings. The article presents all stages of prize books production: the selection of publications, the nomination of students, the design of the prize bindings, the awarding ceremony and the consequent ceremony report in the press. The practice of awarding prize books in the Academy is also set across a wider context of rewarding systems in other educational institutions in Russia and Europe.

Keywords: prize books, higher education in Russia, the Imperial Moscow Medical-Surgical Academy.


Guleva M.A. (Saint Petersburg). “Eternal exiles”: depiction of Russian emigrants in Chinese «Shidai Manhua» magazine (1934–1937)………………………………………………………………………………………………………..30

MARIIA ANATOLIEVNA GULEVA — Ph.D. in History, Senior Lecturer at International Relations Department, Institute of Humanities, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Associate Professor at Department of Theory of Social Development of Asian and African Countries, Faculty of Asian and African Studies, St. Petersburg State University. 195220, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky pr., 28, 104. E-mail: mangul@mail.ru

The paper deals with the image of Russian emigrants, who settled in China after the October Revolution, as depicted in Shanghai illustrated magazine, Shidai Manhua. The magazine was published in Chinese language throughout 1934–1937, the contents of the issues reflected all the key problems of the Republic of China at the time. Since the magazine was of entertaining and satirical nature, the publications show these problems from the unofficial point of view, with consideration of mass readership. The magazine’s colourful, albeit not numerous, references to Russian émigré life in China show which roles were allocated to Russians by Chinese and how successfully Russians coped with these roles in the eyes of Shidai Manhua’s authors. Analysing the magazine’s reports can help to fill some of the gaps in the history of Russian post-revolution emigration and in the understanding of how foreigners coexisted with Chinese populace in Republican China, as well as to add new facets to the 20th-century image of Russians in China.

Keywords: Russian emigration, Russian emigrants in China, White Russian emigrants, image of Russians in China, satire, Chinese press, Shidai Manhua, Shanghai.


Lyapin D.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). “Voluntary-compulsory”. Conducting subscription campaigns for state loans of the USSR on the eve of the Great Patriotic War (according to the party documents of Gorky shipbuilding plants)…………………………………………38

DMITRY ALEKSANDROVICH LYAPIN — Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History and Politics, N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. 603950, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarin ave., 23. E-mail: dmitrij.liapin@yandex.ru

In the prewar years, one of the most important political campaigns in the USSR was the subscription to loans of the Soviet five-year plans. The loans were almost mandatory, so they were called “voluntarily-compulsory”. Studying the process of these campaigns helps to better understand the mechanisms of the political system of the Soviet Union. At the head of these campaigns were the organizations of the VKP(b), production (party committees, party bureau) and territorial (regional committees, city committees, district committees). The management of the subscription was carried out vertically: tasks for amounts, control over the progress of the subscription was carried out by higher party bodies. The main methods of influencing the population were agitation and propaganda, and the best effect was given by individual work with people. At the same time, the subscription identified problems and contradictions in the work collectives (poor supply, the difference in the remuneration of employees, unwillingness to subscribe to the loan in general).

Keywords: agitation, loan, collective, party organization, subscription, propaganda.





Sukhanov S.V. (Saint Petersburg). Historiography of the issue of training a military-trained reserve for the Red Army with a non-method during the Second World War………………………………………………………………………….41

SERGEI VLADIMIROVICH SUKHANOV — Head of the Faculty of Mikhaylovskaya Artillery Military Academy. 195009, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Komsomol st., 22.

This article is devoted to the historiography of the issue of training a military-trained reserve for the Army and Navy with a non-method in one of the most difficult periods of existence of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Organization of interaction of state bodies, public organizations, and securing funds and opportunities for such work during the period of state on the military situation is of great interest to modern historians and social scholars.

The author distinguishes three stages in the historiography of the studied problems, which cover the chronological period from the late 1920s to the present. This work introduces us to publications and studies previously little used in the study of the preparation of reserves for the Red Army (later the Soviet Army), the conclusion about their value for in-depth study is on the topic.

The author confirms the relevance of the holistic research on the issue of state policy in the field of preparation of military-trained reserves.

Keywords: defense reserves, state protection, patriotic education, militarization of the population, defense capability.





Voloshchak V.I. (Vladivostok). The establishment of the Republic of Korea’s missile program in 1970–1980s…………………………..49

VALENTIN IGOREVICH VOLOSHCHAK — Postgraduate student on History and Archeology (General history), School of Humanities, Far Eastern Federal University. 690000, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Sukhanova st., 8. E-mail: vvoloshchak@gmail.com

The military capacity of Republic of Korea is largely a product of close cooperation with foreign partners, but indigenous military and technical developments are no less significant for building national defense system. This article is a study of the development of initial NHK and Hyunmoo ballistic missile projects in 1970 – 1980s, when a basis of South Korean missile industry was established. The missile program development process and the political course of South Korean leaders aimed at strengthening the military industry are analyzed in this research.

President Park Chung-hee’s desire to maintain self-reliant national defense of South Korea in the context of growing threat posed by Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and deterioration of relations between ROK and USA is perceived as a key missile program build-up factor. The article is based on scholarly and analytical papers of Russian, American and South Korean authors (V. Evseev, P. Hayes, Joo Jung-youl and others), materials of Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), South Korean mass media reports.

Keywords: military capacity, Republic of Korea, missile program, Hyunmoo, military industry, Park Chung-hee.





Abukov S.N. (Donetsk). The Marriage of Dmitry Donskoy in Kolomna………………………………………………….54

SERGEY NAVIL’EVICH ABUKOV — Ph.D. in History, Senior Lecture of the Department of Historiography, Source Studies, Archeology and Methods Teaching History, Donetsk National University. 83015, Donetsk, Universitetskaya st., 24, II building, room № 21. E-mail: legusha@list.ru

The article is devoted to the marriage of the Grand Prince of Vladimir and Moscow Dmitry Donskoy and Suzdal and Nizhny Novgorod Princess Evdokia Dmitrievna, which became a key dynasty event in North-Eastern Rus in the third quarter of the 14th century and played an important role in the political relations of that time. The author analyzes the causes that led to the marriage and the interests of the parties, the circumstances, and its consequences for Moscow. For the first time complex characteristic of this marriage is given.

Keywords: Dmitry Donskoy, Evdokia Dmitrievna, Moscow, Nizhniy Novgorod, Kolomna, marriage, political alliance, 14th century.


Petrikov K.A. (Moscow). Free Economic Society in 1797–1801: Status and social structure…………………………60

KONSTANTIN ALEKSANDROVICH PETRIKOV — Postgraduate student at the Department of Russian History up to the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovskii pr., 27, 4. E-mail: konpetrk@gmail.com

This article examines the dynamics of the Free Economic Society social structure in years 1797–1801. The research is based on an analysis of the list of newly-joined members. Since the very existence of a public association in the Russian Empire depended on emperor’s patronage, the article raises the question of the relationship between the change in the status of the Free Economic Society after Catherine II death in 1796 and the decrease in the number of newly-admitted members in subsequent years. After Paul I in the1799 granted the Free Economic Society a right to use imperial symbols, and the Alexander I rescript of 1801, which guaranteed the public association patronage and funding, there was a new increase in the number of newcomers. Nevertheless, the author argues that the change in status can be regarded only as one of the factors. Characterizing the social status of the newly-joint members of the Free Economic Society, the author notes that the majority of the latter belonged to generalitet and nobility of 5–8 ranks.

Keywords: Free economic society, economic societies, Paul I, self-organization, civic associations, history of agriculture, nobility, history of science.


Maskevich E.D. (Saint Petersburg). «Be ready!». Activities of scout organizations of Petrograd in 1917………………68

EKATERINA DMITRIEVNA MASKEVICH — Postgraduate student, Department State and Municipal Government Management, North-West Institute of Management branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. 192102, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Strel’bishchenskaya st., 27, apt. 7. E-mail: spb-collects@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the history of scouting organizations of Petrograd and Tsarskoye Selo in 1917. The author has reconstructed the historical vicissitudes in the development of scouting in the eve of the revolutionary events of 1917 in Petrograd. The author pays special attention to role of the Petrograd and Tsarskoye Selo units of boy scouts from February 28 to March 4, 1917.

The researcher introduces into historical circulation historical facts in the study of the Scout movement in Petrograd, proving that during the period of 1917, the scout organization of Petrograd was actively involved in the work of district commissariats, police and ambulance stations.

Based on the documents and sources found and studied from the archive of the Federal Security Service in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region, the author analyzed the political and ideological factors that influenced the sharp change in attitude towards scouting as a method of educating the youth, after the October Revolution in 1917.

Keywords: scouting, revolution, youth movements, Petrograd, Tsarskoye Selo, congress of the Komsomol, system of education, October revolution, 1917.


Ezhova G.V., Ezhov M.V. (Saint Petersburg). Petersburg-Petrograd-Leningrad: the struggle for power in Bolshevik Party elite in 1924………………………………………………………………………………………………………………72

GALINA VASILJEVNA EZHOVA — Doctor of historical sciences, Professor, Department of State and municipal management, North-West Institute of Management, branch of RANEPA. Russia, Saint Petersburg, Sredniy prospect 57/43. E-mail: petrosovet2@mail.ru

MIKHAIL VIKTOROVICH EZHOV — Doctor of historical sciences, Professor. St. Petersburg Institute of Foreign Economic Relations, Economics and Law. St. Petersburg, Liteyny Ave, 42 . E-mail: petrosovet@mail.ru

The article is devoted to one of the pages of the struggle of the leadership of the Bolshevik party for power after Lenin’s death. Even the renaming of the city from Petrograd to Leningrad was an episode in the quest of former Lenin”s companions to occupy a leading position in the RCP (b.)

Today, we often impose the idea that the perpetuation of the memory of Lenin was spontaneous, of ill-conceived character. Obviously, the authors of such statements transferred to earlier period the historical events that occurred somewhat later in the second half of the 20-ies. But in fact, it then became a normal practice of cupping, falsification of Lenin”s ideas. In 1924, renaming of Petrograd to Leningrad respond to the thoughts and aspirations of the majority of the Petrograd workers, reflecting their desire and dreams of a better Communist future. Unfortunately, they never come true.

Keywords: the struggle for power, the leaders of the Bolshevik party, opposition, Vladimir Lenin, the leader of the party, falsification, Zinoviev, the workers of Petrograd, the Petrosovet.


Polynov M.F. (Saint Petersburg). Economic reforms in the USSR in the years of perestroika: from acceleration policy to economic crisis. 1985–1991………………………………………………………………………………………………75

MATVEI FEDOROVICH POLYNOV — Doctor of Historiсal Sciences, Professor at the Department Modern History of Russia, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya l., 5. E-mail: mfistoria@mail.ru

The article highlights the content of economic reforms in the USSR in the perestroika years. It is revealed main stages of the reforms. The first stage covered 1985–1986. The tasks in the framework of this policy had not been implemented. The second stage of economic policy started with the June 1987 Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee. The implementation of the reform had led to the fact that the wage growth of workers and employees in the industry began to outpace the growth of labor productivity and production volume. This led to inflation and trade deficit. The third stage of the economic reform started in December 1989, when at the Second Congress of People’s Deputies of the Soviet Union was officially embarked on the building of a market economy. However, it was failed to develop a unified all Union concept of transition to a market economy. Two programs were developed: in general, for the USSR and for the RSFSR. The attempt of transition to a market economy led to a serious economic crisis, which generally was one of the reasons for the destruction of the USSR.

Keywords: perestroika, acceleration, economic reforms, market economy, M.S. Gorbachev, the Ryzhkov-Abalkin Program, the 500 Days Program.





Kovalskaya S.I. (Astana, Kazakhstan), Lyubichankovsky S.V. (Orenburg). Preferences to Orthodox Christianity as part of the religious policy of the Russian Empire in the Kazakh steppe……………………………………………..…85

SVETLANA IVANOVNA KOVALSKAYA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of History of Kazakhstan, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University. 010008, Kazakhstan, Astana, Zhumabayeva, H.12, Aprt.16. E-mail: skovalsk@mail.ru

SERGEI VALENTINOVICH LYUBICHANKOVSKY — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of History of Russia, Orenburg State Pedagogical University.460036, Russian Federation, Orenburg, Karagandinskaya, H. 104, Aprt.66. E-mail: svlubich@yandex.ru

The religious situation in the world has a clear trend towards complication in recent years. The transition from one religion to another, as a rule, is condemned and considered a sin. There are many examples of the change of confession for a variety of reasons, from personal to violent nature. This article is devoted to the analysis of one of the directions of the religious policy of the Russian Empire in relation to the Kazakhs in the imperial period – attempts to Christianize the nomads by offering various privileges and concessions for the purpose of religious acculturation.

We tried to find out what were the true reasons for the transition to Orthodoxy of a small part of the Kazakhs. We analyzed of the published documents. The novelty of the approach lies in the formulation of the problem and the attempt to present the process of Christianization as two-sided, when each of the actors had specific goals and tasks, often exclusively utilitarian. Efforts of the Empire on the religious acculturation of Kazakhs have been particularly active since the second half of the 19th century. As a result, the process of Christianization of the Kazakhs cannot be denied, but its effectiveness was practically zero. Orthodoxy remained in the bosom of the newly baptized, while most of the neophytes tried to return to the traditional way of life and religious practices as soon as possible.

Keywords: religious policy, Russian Empire, Kazakh steppe, Orthodoxy, Kazakhs, nomads, acculturation.


Bondareva V.V. (Tikhvin, Leningrad obl.). Some aspects of the volunteer movement in Tikhvinsky Uyezd during the First World War…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..92

VERA VIKTOROVNA BONDAREVA — Postgraduate student, Department of Russian history, Herzen State Pedagogical University, The Tikhvin Historical, Memorial, Architectural and Art Museum. 187555, Russian Federation, Leningrad obl., Tikhvin, Tikhvinskaya st., 1. E-mail: tikhvinmuseum@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to analysis of the volunteer movement during the First World War in Tikhvin and Tikhvinsky uyezd in Novgorod province. There is no a synthesis work on the history of the volunteers of the First World War. This theme has many problematic issues, having the opposite evaluation of researchers. No attempts to study the Tikhvin volunteers and analysis of the factors of the emergence of volunteers have been made. The article presents the results of a deep study of the Tikhvin volunteers, conducted on a wide base of sources. The author proves that the widespread volunteer movement in the Tikhvinsky uyezd was not formed, but at the initial stage there were some performances of volunteers. Among the volunteers were teenagers. Replication the images of the volunteer-teenager in local newspapers is a reflection of the state agitation in the rear of the front. Significance of the study is seen in the most complete analysis of the volunteer’s movement on a specific area which adds another unexplored topic of Russian volunteers in the First World War. The proposed factors are universal and are suitable for research of phenomena in other areas of the country.

Keywords: Tikhvin, World War I, volunteers, hunters, adolescents, patriotism.


Kalakhanova (Borlakova) Z.M. (Stavropol). National-State Development of the Peoples of the North Caucasus in the Conditions of the Russian Revolution of 1917………………………………………………………………………….98

ZUHRA MUHTAROVNA KALAKHANOVA (BORLAKOVA) — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, head of the Department of Theory and history of state and law Stavropol Institute of cooperation (branch) Belgorod University of Cooperation, Economics and Law. 355012, Russian Federation, Stavropol, ul. Dobroliubova 4–3. E-mail: zyzy.81@mail.ru

The article explores the historical influence and consequences of the February and October Revolution, which won in the center of Russia. The national-state development of the peoples of the North Caucasus under the conditions of the revolution and civil war, the spread of the movement and the involvement of the North Caucasus, as well as other parts of the former empire, in the revolutionary political-ideological process are considered. The process of formation and work, regional national-political forces, which had different ideas about the problems and tasks facing the peoples of the North Caucasus, is traced. The complicated issues of specificity are touched, that it is impossible to distinguish between February and October in the region, as happened at the Center. The ideological and political trends personified by the two revolutions in Russia did not replace, but mutually complemented each other in the North Caucasus. The national-state context was characterized by the dialectical unity of alternative forms of national-state autonomy of the mountain peoples.

Keywords: the Union of United Mountaineers, the Mountain Republic, the Caucasian Bolsheviks, the agrarian movement, the “Kuban parliament”, the Provisional Government, the tsarist autocracy.


Yakhutl’ Y.A. (Krasnodar). Grain procurement campaigns 1927–1928 in Cossack regions of South Russia: features and historical consequences………………………………………………………………………………………………103

YURIY ASLANBYEVICH YAKHUTL’ — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of History of Russia, Kuban State University (Russia, Krasnodar). 350040, Russian Federation, Krasnodar, Stavropolskaya str., 149, 248; E-mail: culture@kubsu.ru 350066, Krasnodar, Sormovskaya str., 159. E-mail: a075ca@yandex.ru

The article defines the problems of grain procurement campaigns in the conditions of the “curtailment of the new economic policy” in the Cossack regions of the South of Russia (1927–1928). Problems in the agrarian sector of a multistructured economy required the reform of land relations, organizational and legal changes in the relationship between the state and the peasantry, including the Cossacks. The increase in the target figures for a single agricultural tax in the absence of stimulating (economic and social) factors did not contribute to solving the food tasks of the authorities. The peasants and the Cossacks had no opportunity to fulfill current tax assignments and accumulated them from year to year, which provoked the bodies of party and state authorities to use forceful methods, including sanctions of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR. The southern Cossack regions of the country were distinguished by land use peculiarities and traditional communal relations. The features of the economic, social and socio-cultural status of the Cossacks largely predetermined the radical orientation of the agrarian policy of the Bolsheviks in the South of Russia during the period of the collapse of the new economic policy in the second half of the 1920s.

Keywords: grain procurement, NEP, curtailing, South of Russia, Cossack regions, features, consequences.


Oleynik R.R. (Ufa, Bashkiriya). «Personnel is the key to everything»: problems of personnel policy implementation in the road economy of the Bashkir ASSR in the 1930s…………………………………………………………………110

RUFINA RUSHANOVNA OLEYNIK — Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History, Historiography and Source Studies, Bashkir State University. 450076, Russian Federation, Ufa, Zacky Validi st., 32. E-mail: timkaq1@mail.ru

Based on the archival records for the first time introduced into the scientific use the article considers personnel policy of the Bashkir ASSR road economy in the 1930s. During these years the process of personnel planning started to take into account the pattern of requirements in the staff for the road economy of the USSR, their rational placement and use. Special attention is paid to peculiarities of road personnel training in the Bashkir ASSR. The author comes to the conclusion that the personnel policy in the road economy of the Bashkir ASSR was at a stage of formation and had its own difficulties in respect of the organization and functioning of educational institutions. As for the organization, it lacked steady forms and mechanisms of implementation. The road sector was less attractive than other sectors of the national economy both in respect of living conditions and payment. Therefore, a high turnover of engineering and technical personnel was characteristic of the road sector.

Keywords: Bashkir ASSR, first five-year plans, personnel policy, road economy, engineering and technical personnel, Ufa road technical school, Tsudortrans, Glavdortrans, Avtodor, Moscow Administrative Road Inspection (MADI), the People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), Gushosdor.


Lisitsyna E.N. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Sidnenko T.I. (Saint Petersburg). Oil on the seabed (Construction of the first line of the oil pipeline Okha – Sofiysk during the Great Patriotic War)………………………………………………..115

ELENA NIKOLAEVNA LISITSYNA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Russian and World History, Sakhalin State University. 693008, Russian Federation, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Lenin st., 290. E-mail: Lisitsina1997@yandex.ru

TATYANA IVANOVNA SIDNENKO — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Philosophy and History, Vice-rector for Educational activities and Innovations, St. Petersburg Institute of Foreign Economic Relations, Economics and Law. 191014, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Liteinyi pr., 42. E-mail: sidnenko@list.ru

In 2017, the 75th anniversary of the first in the Soviet Union, the pipeline laid on the seabed. He joined the oil fields of Sakhalin Island to the oil refinery in Komsomolsk-on-Amur.

The relevance of this study is determined by the gaps that exist in the study of problems of transportation of Sakhalin oil. On the basis of archival data and information given for future research, the article presents the analysis of foreign policy and economic factors that necessitated the construction of the pipeline, the stages of construction and also shows the difficulty of construction of such facilities. Special attention is paid to the description of the first in the domestic practice method of free immersion of the pipeline on the bottom of the Nevelsky Strait. In conclusion, the article identifies the economic and socio-political results and consequences of the specified object construction.

Keywords: Sakhalin Island, historiography, oil pipeline, oil refining industry, Great Patriotic War.





Ozova F.A. (Cherkessk, Karachai-Cherkess Rep.) The role of the Institute of amanatism in the Russian-Circassian relations (1552–1864)……………………………………………………………………………………121

FATIMA ANATOLYEVNA OZOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Leading research worker of the Department of History and Archaeology of peoples of Karachay-Cherkessia Republic, The Honorary Institute of the Humanities under the government of KCR. 369000, Russian Federation, KCR, Cherkessk, Gorky st., 1 “A”. E-mail: fo77992@rambler.ru

Diplomatic hostage or amanatism was an important aspect of Russian-Circassian relations over the years 1552–1864. This topic, despite its considerable source base, was never specifically studied. It has attracted attention due to the urgent need for systematic interpretation of the history of Russian-Circassian relations.

Functioning of the institution of Amanatism was due to the nature of Russian-Circassian relations. There are two phases (periodization by G.A. Kokiev) of its existence. The first period for Western Circassia accounted for 1553–1561, and for the East — for the years 1552–1589. It was characterized by the absence of clearly expressed elements of coercion, hostages at that time were called “pupils” and remained at the royal court in Moscow. The second phase covered (discreetly) the years 1589–1864.

The article is a result of research of the Circassian and Russian ties within three hundred years. Amanatism was an element of a whole complex of diplomatic, military and political relations that allowed to see many peculiarities, regularities and transformations of these mutual relations within 1552–1864.

Keywords: diplomatic hostage, amanat, Circassian grand dukes, tsar, 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century.


Lisitsyna E.N., Shashkina O.V. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). The issue of forming up Japanese managerial bodies for Northern Sakhalin Oil Concession…………………………………………………………………………………………129

ELENA NIKOLAEVNA LISITSYNA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, professor of the department Russian and world history, Sakhalin State University. 693008, Russian Federation, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Lenin, 290. E-mail: Lisitsina1997@yandex.ru

OLGA VLADIMIROVNA SHASHKINA Ph.D. in Philology, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Japanese Philology, Sakhalin State University. 693008, Russian Federation, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Lenin, 290. E-mail: oshashkina@yahoo.com

The article is dedicated to an issue that wasn’t studied in the Russian historical science — the formation of managing bodies of the Japanese oil concession in North Sakhalin. The article covers the Japanese Government’s plan and specific measure to attract the country’s industry and population to participate in the venture.  The article emphasizes the Japanese Government’s interest in setting up the venture as well as its readiness to finance it.  The article also emphasizes that the formation of the venture was a complicated process, as the idea of the concession provoked different attitude from different members of the Japanese society including the future manager of the Sakhalin oil venture, S. Nakazato. The article focuses on the reasons to set up Oil Company North Sagaran as an intermediate structure that was necessary for both the negotiations and conclusion of the concession agreement.

Keywords: The Beijing Convention, «Oil company North Sagarana», «North Sakhalin oil joint-stock company».


Kirillova A.N. (Saint Petersburg). Bulgaria in the Ostpolitik of the chancellor Gerhard Schröder……………………133

ALEXANDRA NIKOLAEVNA KIRILLOVA — Postgraduate student of the Chair of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of the History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya 5. E-mail: hist.j.kan@gmail.com

The East European direction was always one of the main directions of foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany: It is connected with the necessity for the consolidation of the country and importance of the conducting stable relations with countries of Eastern Europe. Historical events in the late 1980s – early 1990s (Velvet revolutions and the German reunification) changed the purposes of foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany. But value of the East European region didn’t decreased: the chancellor Gerhard Schröder (1998–2005) announced development of the “New eastern policy” (Ostpolitik) as one of the leading purposes of government’s foreign policy of the “red-green” coalition. The Ostpolitik of Schröder wasn’t similar: some countries were in focus of the German interests, some – on the periphery. The article deals with the problem of the Bulgarian direction of the Ostpolitik of the federal chancellor Gerhard Schröder. The author tries to define the place of the Republic of Bulgaria in foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany at the end of XX to the beginning of the XXI centuries. Sources of article are materials of the German and Bulgarian mass media, the speech and statement of officials of Germany and Bulgaria, statistical data. Based on these sources the author researches economic and political spheres of the German-Bulgarian relations, analyses opinions of politicians of the Republic of Bulgaria and of the Federal Republic of Germany (special attention is paid to negotiations between the countries), traces milestones of development of cooperation between the countries.

Keywords: Germany, Bulgaria, German-Bulgarian relations, Ostpolitik, Gerhard Schröder.


Mamedov M.K. (Saint Petersburg). The negotiation process and the transformation of the political elites of the parties to the Cyprus conflict in 2005–2010………………………………………………………………………………………137

MAMED KOSHKAR-OGLY MAMEDOV — Postgraduate student, the School of international relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Smolny ul. 1/3. E-mail: demamaries@gmail.com

The article discusses both the positions of the parties to the conflict, and сhanges appeared in the political elites of the Turkish and the Greek communities, which influenced the negotiation process and Cyprus conflict resolution. The author analyzes the attempts of Cyprus conflict resolution by the leaders of the Turkish and the Greek communities in 2005–2010. In this period there was the growth of activity in the negotiation process on Cyprus conflict. The numerous negotiations of the leaders of the Greek and the Turkish communities demonstrated that Cyprus conflict still remains unresolved, because the Greek and the Turkish communities are not ready to make concessions and mutually acceptable decisions. Mostly it is associated with the historical controversies. Moreover the parties to the conflict could not abandon the perception of the situation through the prism of the old approaches, according to which the Greek community of Cyprus connected all problems of Cyprus resolution with Turkey, the Turkish community of Cyprus blamed Greece for the lack of progress in the negotiations.

Keywords: The Cyprus conflict, “Annan plan”, Vassiliou, M. Talat, T. Papadopoulos, international relations, Greece, Turkey, the UN, the EU, Eroglu D.





Protsenko A.S., Mukhametdinov V. I., Atnabaev N.N. (Ufa). Technical and technological analysis of Kara-Abyz ancient settlement ceramic material (preliminary results)………………………………………………………………..143

ANTON SERGEEVICH PROTSENKO — State budgetary institution of historical and cultural memorial estate «Ancient Ufa», Researcher, Department of Archeology. 450077, Russian Federation, Ufa, Mustaya Karimà st., 45. E-mail: anton.procenko@mail.ru 

VADIM ILDAROVICH MUKHAMETDINOV — Bashkir state university Engineer of the academic archaeological laboratory. 450076, Russian Federation, Ufa, Zaki Validi st., 32. E-mail: vadimufa4@rambler.ru

NIYAZ NAZIPOVICH ATNABAEV — Bashkir state pedagogical university named after M. Akmulla, Master of  Russian history chair. 450077, Russian Federation, Ufa, October Revolution st., 55. E-mail: niaz-02@bk.ru

The first set of results of technical and technological analysis of reference settlement sites of Kara-Abyz culture ceramics  are presented in the present work. The ceramics analysis was conducted in the frames of a historical and cultural approach according to the method developed by A.A. Bobrinskiy. The authors note that notwithstanding the significant historiographic material accumulated for more than one hundred years such studies have not been conducted. And, in whole, they have come to the conclusion that a few population groups took part in the formation of Kara-Abyz pottery making tradition. An increase in samples selection from settlement sites on the basis of the summary of all the obtained data on ceramics study will give a possibility to conduct the reconstruction of ethno cultural processes of the Bashkir western piedmont of the Ural Mountains during the Early Iron Age Era.

Keywords: Kara-Abyz culture, technical and technological analyses, Early Iron Age, pottery traditions, Kara-Abyz settlement.





Nikolaev D.A., Khvostova I.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). The Crimean war of 1853–1856: historical realities and socio-political myths…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………143

DMITRY ANDREEVICH NIKOLAEV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the New and Newest History Department, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod. 603024, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Belinsky st., 85–73. E-mail: dmnikolaeff@mail.ru

IRINA ALEXEEVNA KVOSTOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the New and Newest History Department, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod. 603024, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Makarov st., 4/4–49. E-mail: iri-khv@mail.ru

The article is devoted to a critical consideration of the established in the public consciousness of images and dogmas associated with key moments in the history of the Crimean war. The history of the Crimean war is quite popular in the research literature of the XIX–XXI centuries and gives a visual representation of the areas and nature study topics from a variety of historiographical discourses. The Crimean war is not just a military conflict between Russia on one side and Britain, France, and Turkey (and Sardinia), and is the largest, until the time of the First world war, a conflict that was involved, directly or indirectly, the resources and population of more than half of the globe and objectives of the war were not only to limit Russia’s geopolitical influence, but the direct dismemberment of Russia and truncating it to the borders of the XVI-XVII centuries. In this article, numerous facts from the history of the Crimean war, debunked sustainable “defeatist” concept, dominant in domestic historical and political thought, and in the mass consciousness of Russian society.

Keywords: Crimean war, struggle of empires, the Russian army, revision of historical views, weapons, information warfare.


Nalivkin L.A. (Saint Petersburg). The 1-s mine-torpedo air regiment of the 8-s airbrigade of the Baltic fleet in the summer-autumn  campaign of 1941………………………………………………………………………………………153

LEONID ALEKSANDROVICH NALIVKIN — Ph.D. in History. 196105, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Yakovlevsky per., 10–18. E-mail: Naukamusbread@mail.ru

The Mine-torpedo regiment belonged to the “flying” parts of the Baltic Fleet. It was the only kind of units in naval aviation. The tasks that were assigned to the regiment during the summer-autumn campaign of 1941 are revealed. The blows, which were inflicted by the regiment in the “Dvina epopee”, are particularly considered, and briefly describes other tasks. It is stated that the article shows the tasks that were carried out by the regiment in addition to one of the main tasks — the bombing of Berlin and other military-industrial facilities of fascist Germany. The table of the results of the activity of the regiment is presented in the period from June 22 to September 1, 1941. General conclusions are drawn about the combat activities of mine and torpedo aircraft in the summer-autumn campaign of 1941. The article describes the documents of the fund of the regiment of the Archive of the Navy.

Keywords: bombing, mine-torpedo regiment, squadron, airbrigade, the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, the summer-autumn campaign, fighting.


Kolomiets M.V. (Moscow). The contribution of armored trains in the defense of Leningrad in 1941–1944………..160

MAXIM VICTOROVICH KOLOMIETS — Researcher at the Central Museum of the Armed Forces of the RF defense Ministry. 129110, Russian Federation, Moscow, Sovietskoiy Armiy st., 2, p. 1. E-mail: 1945maks@mail.ru

Defense of Leningrad in 1941–1944 is one of the brightest and most heroic pages of the great Patriotic war. This is dedicated to the many books and articles, among which there are studies about the General course of the fighting, as well as studies on the actions of individual branches of the armed forces (Navy, artillery, tanks, etc.). Meanwhile, in the defense of Leningrad, took an active part and armored trains. And although they were few, in certain periods of hostilities they provided the army with considerable support. The operations of armored trains of the Leningrad front virtually no coverage in print except for some articles or fragments of books. In the article based on the study of documents of the Central archive of the Ministry of Defense, Russian state military archive and the available literature analyzed the manufacture of armored trains at the enterprises of Leningrad, the tactics of combat use of armored trains and their effectiveness in the fighting.

Keywords: armored train, armored field, armored steam locomotive, Leningrad defense, Leningrad front, Red Army, NKVD troops, Red Banner Baltic Fleet, main armored control.


Krasnov A.A., Podrepny Y.I. (Nizhny Novgorod). The problem of strengthening the regime of secrecy in the aircraft factories of the USSR at the beginning of the Cold War (on the materials of the plant no. 21 named after S. Ordzhonikidze)…………………………………………………………………………………165

ANTON ALEKSANROVICH KRASNOV — History teacher of the secondary school no. 43, Postgraduate student of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. 603138, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Politboiytzov st., 19–107. E-mail: oficier13@mail.ru

YEVGENY ILYICH PODREPNYI — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Politics of Russia, Institute of International Relations and World History, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. 603101, Russian, Nizhny Novgorod, Iliycha ave., 35–15. E-mail: podrepnyy@yandex.ru

The article explores poorly researched issues of labor collectives life of defense enterprises of the Soviet Union in the first post-war five-year plan. Shortly after the end of the Great Patriotic War, the issue of preserving military and state secrets connected with the outbreak of the Cold War against the USSR was sharply raised. The secrecy regime was first strengthened at factories that produced aviation equipment. During this period, the requirements of the regime of secrecy were often violated at the factories of the USSR Ministry of Aviation Industry. Secret departments of enterprises were not equipped with the necessary safes and metal cabinets for storing documents and drawings. The states of the first departments were not sufficient to carry out their tasks. Heads of secret departments carried out their work unusual for them. This hampered the effective operation of the first departments of aviation plants.

Secret correspondence was conducted by people who do not have access to this work. Employees did not comply with the requirements to hand over secret documents after the end of the working day to the first department of the plant, kept secret documents in their work desks and other places accessible to unauthorized persons. The leadership of the Ministry took measures to remedy the situation.

Keywords: documents, instruction, violation, order, mode, secret.





Kharitonova A.M. (Saint Petersburg). Russian diplomat Georgy Antonovich Planson………………………………169

ANNA MIKHAILOVNA KHARITONOVA — 3rd year Postgraduate student, Department of Theory of Asian and African Social Development, Faculty of Asian and African Studies, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 11. E-mail: a.kharitonova@spbu.ru

Many blank spaces can still be found in the study of politics of Russian Empire in East Asia in the late 19th — early 20th centuries. One of the people who played a key role in those politics was a diplomat by the name of Georgy Antonovich Planson. Purpose of this paper is a reconstruction of his biography. Research is made on the basis of archival materials of the Central State Historical Archive of St. Petersburg and the State Archive of the Russian Federation, in particular personal diaries of Planson. The paper also describes some episodes that happened during his diplomatic service and provides insights into his travel notes. In-depth analysis of such materials helps to understand life of Russian diplomats who served in the region at the time, and thereby sheds the light on foreign policy of the Russian Empire in East Asia, for example, in Manchuria, China and Korea. Lastly, it was found out that Planson actively carried out not only diplomatic work, but also collected culturological material in his diary notes that can be used in contemporary research. Some of the cited archival materials are published for the first time.

Keywords: Georgy Antonovich Planson, Planson family, Manchuria, Port-Arthur, China, Portsmouth Peace Conference, Siam, Korea.


Abramov A.V. (Moscow). Socio-cultural characteristics of the top leadership of the CPSU in 1953–1985………….177

ANDREI VLADIMIROVICH ABRAMOV — Postgraduate student, Department of History of Social Movements and Political Parties, History Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, GSP-1, Lomonosovskiy ave., 27, 4. E-mail: andreyabramov1993@gmail.com

The subject of research in the article is the socio-cultural characteristics of the top leadership of the CPSU of the post-Stalin period (1953–1985). The object of research in the article is the top leadership of the CPSU in 1953–1985: members and candidate members of the Politburo (Presidium) and secretaries of the CPSU Central Committee. The author analyzes in detail the gender, social, national structure, the level and nature of education, the age characteristics of the top leadership of the CPSU. The degree of study of this issue in the Russian and the foreign historiography is insufficient now. The author uses as sources biographical directories, published archival documents and memoir literature. The novelty of the analysis is its complex character and discovery of previously unexplored patterns. These patterns make it possible to comprehend the socio-cultural characteristics of the top leadership of the CPSU of the post-Stalin period. The main conclusion of the study is the socio-cultural characteristics of the highest party leadership are the evidence of well-established social lifts in the Soviet socio-political system. These social lifts allowed people with different social, ethnic and educational backgrounds to reach the top of political power in the Party and the State.

Keywords: socio-cultural characteristics, social origin, national structure, age and gender structure, level of education, the post-Stalin period, the Politburo, the Presidium, the Secretariat, the CPSU Central Committee.





Sirota N.M., Mokhorov G.A. (Saint Petersburg). The rivalry of the USA, China and Russia as a global geopolitical conflict……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………186

NAUM MIHAYLOVICH SIROTA — Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of history and philosophy department, St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation. Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Bolshaya Morskaya ul., 67 A. E-mail: sirotanm@mail.ru

GENNADIY ANATOLYEVICH MOKHOROV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of philosophy and history department, St. Petersburg Institute of International Economic Relations, Economics and Law. Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Liteiniy pr., 42. E-mail: g.mohorov@gmail.com

The characteristics of rivalry between key global actors, the US, China and Russia as geopolitical conflict are analyzed. Authors show the balance of forces parties to the conflict and assess the prospects for its change; revealed the contents of the most acute contradictions between them which are able to “run” confrontational scenario, to cause military conflicts. Judgment about the best geo-strategy of Russia in conditions of dynamic transformation of the international environment and the emergence of new global challenges is spoken. The authors consider that the priority objectives of the world powers are non-confrontational interaction and coordination of interests on issues of global governance and development.

Keywords: USA, China, Russia, polycentricism, geopolitical conflict, “enlightened leadership”, smart power, “the Thucydides trap”.





Lapina I.Y., Kargapoltsev S.Y. (Saint Petersburg). Socio-cultural aspects of virtual communication in the educational process of the era of globalization…………………………………………………………………………………………191

IRINA YRIEVNA LAPINA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. 190005, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 2-ya Krasnoarmeyjskaya ul., 4. E-mail: mvp@spbgasu.ru

SERGEY YRIEVICH KARGAPOLTSEV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. 190005, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 2-ya Krasnoarmeyjskaya ul., 4. E-mail: flot@lan.spbgasu.ru

The actual problems and systemic distortions in the educational system of the higher school are analyzed. The balance of the productive and negative factors of the Moodle (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) distance learning system is assessed.

The authors present their approaches and achievements in the field of interactive study of the taught about the inadmissibility of further administration and the so-called reforming of the educational process and the organizational structure of higher education. The official position of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation in the target orientation of the educational process diagnosed. A causal relationship is established between the process of primitivization of educational standards and the socio-cultural degradation of a large part of the population of the Russian Federation, both the marginal and its elitist layers.

Keywords: education, Internet, Moodle system, modernization, quality management, competence approach, bonus-rating appraisal, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.





Alexander Ivanovich Repinetskiy: 65 years of the scholar-historian and the person…………………………………….198

The article is devoted to the 65 anniversary since the birth of the prominent Russian historian and organizer of science Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor A.I. Repinetskiy, who works in higher education institutions in Samara for many years.

A.I. Repinetskiy — a creator of his own school. His students are successfully working in many universities and institutions of Russia.

Keywords: A.I. Repinetskiy, Samara, Samara State Pedagogical University, editorial Board of the journal “Klio”.