Klio # 11 (143) 2018





Kozcaz Umit (Sanliurfa, Turkey). German Attack on the Soviet Union and its influence on the Turkish press (from June 22 to July 9, 1941)………………………………………………………………………13

UMIT KOZCAZ — Postgraduate student, Department of Russian History of the 20th‒21st centuries, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Pr., 27. Türkiye: Ekpiyar caddesi 4144 No: 5/20 Karakopru Şanlıurfa. Turkey: District Akyar St. 4144 No: 5/20 Karakopru Sanliurfa. E-mail: umitkozcaz@yandex.com

The article is devoted to the transformation of relations between Turkey and the Soviet Union, as well as between Turkey and Germany in the early days of the Great Patriotic War. The subject of the study is the military actions of Germany on the Soviet Union and its influence on the Turkish press. In addition, the article focuses on the perception of ongoing events by Turkish Newspapers in the period from June 22 to July 9, 1941. The chronological framework of the work was chosen by the author in accordance with the fact that in those days news of the German attack on the Soviet Union was intensively discussed in the Turkish press. The purpose of this study is to show how Turkish mass media perceived German attack on the Soviet Union. As the object of the research were chosen some Turkish printed publications: “Ulus (People)”, “Cumhuriyet (Republic)”, “İkdam (Promotion)”, “Tan (Dawn)”, “Akşam (Evening)”, “Vakit (Time)”, “Vatan (Homeland)”, “Yeni Sabah (New Morning)” и “Tasvir-i Efkâr (Presentation of Ideas)”. In the course of the work, the author used comparative analysis, on the basis of which most of the article was built, as well as analysis and synthesis. The article is based on Turkish Newspapers and bibliography in Russian and Turkish. The novelty of the research lies in the very formulation of the topic: the author seeks to show how Germany’s attack on the Soviet Union was perceived in the Turkish press in the early days of the war. The main conclusion of the study is that the period from June 22 to July 9, 1941 was the most important in determining Turkey’s future political line.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, USSR, Germany, Turkey, mass media, Turkish foreign policy, neutrality of Turkey.





Shashakhmetov D.V. (Moscow). Historiographic reasoning of the forming conception of studying and teaching history in Soviet State (1918 — late 1930s)…………………………………………………18

DANIIL VIKTOROVICH SHASHAKHMETOV — Postgraduate student of the 3rd year, Department of Russian history of the 20th–21st centuries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky pr., 27/4. E-mail: danilka24101993@mail.ru 

The article is devoted to historiographical interpretation of the problem of teaching history in the higher school of the USSR in 1918 – late 1930s. There are six periods that historians distinguish in the historiography of this issue. They are characterized by the own features. The history and principles of its teaching and learning have become an important issue for the Bolsheviks since the first months of the existence of the new government. They viewed history as an instrument of ideology. It is not by chance that prominent Bolshevik politicians and ideologists asked the vector of the development of scholarship in the first years of the existence of the Soviet state. In the 1960s scholars showed their interest in exploring this conception. In the 1990s scholars denied the legacy of soviet historiography.

Keywords: History, historiography, teaching history, the Socialist Academy, historical materialism, Istpart, high school, public education.


Stepanov M.G. (Abakan, Republic of Khakassia). Ethnic deportations as a form of forced migrations to the USSR (1941–1945): historiographical aspect…………………………………………………………………………………………..26

MIKHAIL GENNADJEWICH STEPANOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of Russian history, Katanov State University of Khakassia. 655010, Russian Federation, Republic of Khakassia, Abakan, Torgovaya St., 1–73. E-mail: StepanowM@yandex.ru

The article explores a topic that has received only fragmentary coverage in historiography. In particular, various approaches to the definition of the concept of “ethnic deportations” and the classification of forced migrations of “punished peoples” are shown. In addition, the article in the historiographical context analyzes the following problems of ethnic deportations of the period of the Great Patriotic War: the causes of ethnic deportations; deportation of Germans, Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingushes and other peoples; the extent and complexity of determining legal status. The summary of the article focuses the conclusions of researchers on the following problems: 1) the deportations of peoples had a definite impact on the population of the territory where they were forcibly resettled; 2) the deportations of peoples partly contributed to the solution of problems related to the shortage of labor in the field; 3) despite all the negative effects of ethnic deportations, one should not underestimate their positive influence on the territory of forced migration.

Keywords: historiography, repressions, ethnic deportations, Stalinism, German deportation, Kalmyk deportation, Chechen deportation, Ingush deportation, Caucasus, Crimea.


Stаrovoytova E.O. (Saint Petersburg). Yihetuan movement and the policy of Tsarist Russia towards China in the late 19th – early 20th centuries in the works of modern Chinese scholars…………………………………………………….34

ELENA OLEGOVNA STАROVOYTOVA — Assistant Lecturer, Department of Theory of Social Development of Asian and African Studies, Faculty of Asian and African Studies, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 11. E-mail: e.starovoytova@spbu.ru

The Boxer rebellion (Yihetuan movement) became the most vivid example of the anti-foreign movement in Late Qing China. The movement was directed, among other things, against Chinese Christians, residents of the embassy quarter in Beijing, and also caused significant damage to the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER). This forced the armed forces of the Russian Empire to participate in the suppression of the uprising in China as part of an international coalition. During the 20th century these events elicited a broad response in the social thought of Russia, China and the Western states. Today, Chinese scholars continue to actively study the Boxer rebellion. This article highlights the view of modern Chinese scholarship on the events of the Yihetuan movement and the participation of Tsarist Russia in its suppression. The main material for the preparation of the article were publications on the subject of research, published in the PRC in the last two decades.

Keywords: Sino-Russian relations, Yihetuan movement, the policy of Tsarist Russia, modern Chinese scholars, evaluation of events.





Barinov D.A., Petukhov I.P. (Saint Petersburg). The Socialist Revolutionaries and Student Movement in the Russian Empire (the late 19th – early 20th centuries)…………………………………………………………………………………41

DMITRIY ANDREEVICH BARINOV — Ph.D. in History, Researcher, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5. E-mail: barinovdima1990@yandex.ru

IVAN PAVLOVICH PETUKHOV — Senior Researcher, the State Museum of Political History of Russia. 197046, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Kuibysheva St., 2–4. E-mail: ivanpet1007@mail.ru

The article examines the Socialist Revolutionary Party and its predecessors’ attitude to such important fact of Russian social and political life in the late 19th – early 20th centuries as a student movement. The authors note that the Socialist Revolutionaries highly appreciated the role of students and intelligentsia in the Russian revolutionary movement. Close attention to the student movement and government policy regarding the higher school in the party publications confirmed it. The article provides a review of the Socialist Revolutionaries’ journalistic activities on these topics. The Socialist Revolutionaries aimed to give the student movement the political direction and include it in the general flow of the revolutionary movement in Russia. According to their opinion, one of the main tasks of the student movement was to prepare revolutionary fighters. Scrutinizing the polemics of the Socialist Revolutionaries and Social Democrats on the student movement, the authors come to the conclusion that the Socialist Revolutionaries attached significance to it as an independent phenomenon.

Keywords: Socialist Revolutionary Party, Socialists-Revolutionaries, the SRs, revolutionary movement, student movement, history of the higher school.


Podolsky S.I. (Saint Petersburg). New approaches to the study of grain monopoly and cooperation in Russia 1917………………………………………………………….49

SERGEY IGOREVICH PODOLSKY — Ph.D. in History, Assistant of the Department of history, St. Petersburg mining University. 194356, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Pr. Engelsa 134/1–129. Email: octet@yandex.ru

The article focuses on some new approaches to the study of Russian cooperation in a turning-out 1917 year. They are reflected in the works of Professor A.Yu. Davydova; on their definition the author has concentrated in this work. First of all, emphasis is placed on substantiating the leading role of cooperation in overcoming the food crisis in this period in the protagonist’s works. Alexander Yurievich proceeds from the fact that the cooperatives have done their utmost to save the young Russian democracy, first of all by filling up one mistake of the new government with his busy activity. Unlike some researchers, he consistently pursues the idea of the perniciousness of the bread monopoly proclaimed by the democratic Provisional Government; according to Davydov, there was no possibility of holding it (there was no strong state organization) and the need for it (in contrast to Germany, the products were in sufficient quantities). As a result, a contradictory fact is revealed: the food policy of the February revolutionaries gave birth to very serious problems and mobilized the army of co-operators to overcome them. Alexander Yurievich convincingly argues the thesis: the active and energetic activity of the grain procurements in 1917 compensated for the negative consequences of adopting perverse economic decisions. A red thread through all the texts of A.Yu. Davydov goes through the idea that the cause of the October (1917) crisis was not the famine, but exclusively the factors of the party-political properties.

Keywords: Cooperation, February Revolution of 1917, Provisional Government, grain monopoly, grain procurements, State meeting.


Glazov А.А. (Moscow). Organization of Spanish editorial office of Radio Moscow performance during Great Patriotic War……………………………………………………………………55

ALEKSANDR ANDREEVICH GLAZOV — Independent Researcher. 125167, Russian Federation, Moscow, Planetnaya St., 29. E-mail: viadelcorso@yandex.ru

This article is focused on consideration of the performance of Spanish editorial office of Radio Moscow during the Great Patriotic War, at the time when the radio was the major instrument of propaganda. This is the first research work on the issue within the framework of national and international historiography. The author determines the place of Spanish editorial office in the organizational structure of Radio Moscow and analyzes its performance within 1941–1945. For this purpose the author studied a number of unpublished documents of Radio Moscow, as well as the documents of the ECCI, he also analyzed memories of the Spanish employees from the editorial office of the war period. As a result, the author concluded that in consideration of organization of the working process prevailing in 1941–1945, it was difficult for the Spanish editorial office to achieve high level of adaptation of the broadcasts to the national and political peculiarities of Spain.

Keywords: Radio Committee, Radio Moscow, Great Patriotic War, Francisco Franco, Spain.


Baev E.V. (Moscow). The mechanism for resolving conflicts between the State Planning Committee of the USSR and the branch ministry (1945–1953)…………………………………………………… 59

EVGENII VIKTOROVICH BAEV — Postgraduate student, Department of History of State and Municipal Administration, Faculty of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119234, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskiye Gory, 1, DS MSU, D-340. E-mail: BaevEV@spa.msu.ru

The article on the basis of archival materials examines the mechanism for resolving conflicts between the State Planning Committee of the USSR and the branch ministry. The following questions are posed: “What was the cause of conflicts between the State Planning Committee and the branch ministries? What was the essence of these conflicts? How did these agencies defend their interests? What mechanisms existed for resolving the conflict?” The reasons for the disagreements that have arisen are explored. The functions of the bodies that participated in the adjustment of the planned tasks are analyzed. The role of “departmental lobbyism” of ministries, expert opinions of the State Planning Committee and interdepartmental arbitration carried out by the branch bureaus under the USSR Council of Ministers is discussed. The article shows that the essence of the disagreements between the branch ministries and the State Planning Committee was overestimated, in the opinion of the ministries, the planned tasks of the State Planning Committee and, in their opinion, the understated investments, which are not enough to fulfill the plan. It is shown that the main role in resolving conflicts was played by the chairmen of the branch bureau at the Council of Ministers of the USSR, which carried out interdepartmental arbitration and made efforts to reach a reasonable compromise.

Keywords: command-administrative system, economic planning, state administration, interdepartmental conflicts, interdepartmental arbitration, investments, Council of Ministers of the USSR, State Planning Committee of the USSR.





Gladina A.Y. (Tula). The use and organization of work of prisoners at the Tula Arms Plant in the second half of the 18th — first half of the 19th centuries…………………………………………………64

ALEXANDRA YUREVNA GLADINA — Postgraduate student of the Department of History of the State and Law, Tula State University, Tula State Museum of Weapons. 300002, Russian Federation, Tula, Oktyabrskaya St., 2. E-mail: gladex@mail.ru

The article attempts to analyze the features of the organization and further use of the work of prisoners at the Tula Arms Plant in the second half of the 18th — first half of the 19th centuries, by referring to archival data and research of modern historians. Particular attention is paid to the consideration of a thematically significant set of problems: the acquisition of the status of the prisoner, their participation in the work at the Tula Arms Plant, working conditions and exemption from work in the second half of 18th — first half of 19th centuries. Separately, the process of changing the status of prisoners and the action of justice in relation to this category of workers are analyzed. In the framework of this study, it is concluded that the labor contribution of prisoners in the production of weapons for the Tula Arms Plant.

Keywords: Russia, Tula, history, industry, Tula Arms Plant, categories of workers, the work of prisoners.


Eremeeva A.N. (Krasnodar). Development of higher education infrastructure in the Southern Russia during the First World War……………………………………………………………………………………68

ANNA NATANOVNA EREMEEVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher, Southern branch of Russian Research Institute for Cultural and Natural Heritage named after D.S. Likhachov. 350064, Russia, Krasnodar, Krasnaya, 28, of. 28. E-mail: erana@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the transformation of the higher school space on the South of Russia in the conditions of the First World War. Both implemented and unrealized projects in the field of development of higher education infrastructure are considered. It is shown that an important stimulus for organizational activity was the evacuation of higher education institutions from the Western territories of the Russian Empire. The author, based on the data of archives and wartime periodicals of the Southern Russia, reconstructs the process of competition of cities (Ekaterinodar, Stavropol, Vladikavkaz, etc.) for the right to become a “recipient” of higher schools-refugees, educational initiatives of local authorities and individuals. It is noted that during First World War Rostov-on-Don became a big University centre; the space of higher education was expanded in Novocherkassk. Projects that were not implemented for various reasons in 1914-1917 were continued in the nearest future.

Keywords: higher education infrastructure, the South of Russia, the First World War, evacuation of higher educational institutions, higher education for women, educational projects.


Mamaev A.V. (Golitcyno, Moscow region). Problems of economic development of Turkestan in the IV State Duma……………………………………………………73

ANDREY VLADIMIROVICH MAMAEV — Ph.D. in History, Senior Researcher, Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 143040, Russian Federation, Moscow region, Golitcyno, Zavodskoy Pr., 12–174. E-mail: andreydx2006@yandex.ru.

The article examines the activities of the 4th State Duma of Russia on the economic development of Turkestan. The right-liberal majority defended the comprehensive colonization of the region by wealthy immigrants, private ownership of land, the development of zemstvo, credit, transport. Cadets and Muslims demanded priority consideration of the interests of the indigenous population, against the introduction of large land ownership. The attention of the Duma to the economic development of Turkestan was not limited to resettlement and agriculture, concerning the development of transport, city economy, replacement of outdated customs with clear legal regulation. Among those discussed in the Duma: the project of withdrawal of state irrigated lands to the Russian settlers in the Hungry steppe, which caused a discussion about national and religious restrictions, the draft rules of land allocation of the Semirechensk Cossack army, the draft of regulations on the use of water in Turkestan, the project of equipment of refrigeration line Samarkand – St. Petersburg, etc. The decisions of the Duma were aimed at the economic integration of Turkestan as an agricultural region and a source of raw materials. Interests of the state and Russian settlers were placed above the indigenous population, which was also affected by radical changes. This situation created a conflict, which the majority of the Duma did not pay attention to. As a result, the uprising that broke out in 1916 dealt a powerful blow to the efforts for the economic development of the region and symbolized the crisis of the imperial model of governance.

Keywords: Russia, Turkestan, State Duma, 1912–1917, government, economy, resettlement, irrigation, legislation.





Abdullaev Y.S., Mikhailov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). The Economic Crisis as one of the Reasons for Sovietization of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918–1920)………………………………………………………………………………….. 83

YASYN SAHIB OGLY ABDULLAEV — Student of the Department of the History of Peoples of the CIS Countries, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7–9. E-mail: ragiev@list.ru

VADIM VIKTOROVICH MIKHAILOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of History and Political Science, Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation. 196105, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Sevastyanova St., 4–102. E-mail: batukom@mail.ru

The article examines the reasons for the transition of power to the Communist party of Azerbaijan in 1920. Based on the study of a significant archival and published documentary material, the authors conclude that the economic factor was crucial in the development of the political crisis in the government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, primarily due to the loss of the largest market for Baku oil as a result of the anti-Soviet policy of the British military occupation authorities in the Caucasus. The failure of the last ADR government to solve the problem of filling the budget at the expense of foreign trade led to the fact that the Bolshevik agitation received the support of the active layers of the Azerbaijani population, oil workers, as well as the trade bourgeoisie, which resulted in a bloodless transition of power in the country to the Bolshevik party, which opened the way of oil to Soviet Russia.

Keywords: Sovietization of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Baku oil industry, agrarian issue in Azerbaijan, labor movement in Baku, Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic (RSFSR).





Izudinova R.S. (Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan). Felt cloak products in customs and traditions of the Avarian group of the people of Dagestan…………………………………………………………91

RAISAT SAIDOVNA IZUDINOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Historical and Legal Disciplines, North Caucasus Institute (branch) of the All-Russian State University of Justice (Russian Law Academy of the Ministry of Justice). 367010, Russian Federation, Republic of Dagestan, Makhachkala, Gaidara St., 7. E-mail: aytberov@list.ru;

Reflection felt cloak products in traditional customs and traditions of the Avarian group of the people of Dagestan that live in a mountain zone shown in article. Felt from time immemorial carried out a significant role in life and economic activity of the people of mountain Dagestan whose production traces the roots back deep into of centuries. Properties of felt – good protection against cold, heat and wind, used by mountaineers for production of different types of clothes from her. The felt cloak and felt have so entered the Dagestan public and daily life that became nutrient medium for local traditions and customs.

Keywords: felt, felt cloak, Avarian group of the people of Dagestan, traditional holidays, ceremonies.


Klochkov D.A., Aranovich A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Uniformology analysis as a method of attribution of paintings and graphics on the example of images of the officers of His Imperial Majesty’s Own Escort during the reign of Nicholas I………………………………………………………………………96

DMITRII ALEKSEEVICH KLOCHKOV — Postgraduate student, Saint Petersburg State University of Industrial Technologies and Design, CEO of “Forpost” Ltd. (publishing projects). 194100, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Kapitana Voronina ul., 8‒70. E-mail: spbooihpp@peterlink.ru

ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH ARANOVICH — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of Department of History and Theory of Arts, Saint Petersburg State University of Industrial Technologies and Design, President of Saint Petersburg Society for Military History. 195252, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Karpinskogo ul., 346142. E-mail: aaranovitch@yandex.ru

This article tells about the practical application by the uniformology analysis of attribution the images of the men of His Imperial Majesty’s Own Escort in the second quarter of the 19th century, which located in the state museums of Russia, from the personal experience of the authors. The article presents the essence of this method, the history of its origin, the features of its application as an alternative to traditional methods of examination of objects of painting and drawing. The authors on the basis of knowledge about the features of the elements of the North Caucasus’s national male costume of the early 19th century as well as the differences in uniforms of the Life-Guards Caucasian-Mountain Half-Squadron and other units of His Own Imperial Majesty Escort, produce clarification in the attribution of paintings and lithographs of the artists of the first half of the 19th century: A.O. Orlovsky, G.G. Chernetsov, A.I. Ladurner, G. Schwartz.

Keywords: uniformology analysis, attribution, Russian Imperial Army, His Imperial Majesty’s Own Escort, uniform, national costume, Orlovsky, Chernetsov, Ladurner, Schwartz.





Verbovoy A.O. (Saint-Petersburg). Features of combat use of Russian river navy during the First World War………..106

ALEXEY OLEGOVICH VERBOVOY — Ph.D. in History, Scientific Worker of the Scientific-Research Department-12, The Naval Academy named after Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union N.G. Kuznetsov. 197045, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Ushakovskaya Emb., 17/1. E-mail: a.verbovoy@mail.ru

The article analyzes the combat use of Russian river fleets during the years of the Russian state’s participation in the First World War. It shows what they were created for and how they contributed to the troops operating in the riverside areas. The article also discusses examples, which resulted in the absence of these river connections when they were needed. In addition to these aspects, the article addresses issues about causes why Russian army could not be equipped all necessary things. It touched for all beginning river forces that were in operative subordination of the troops and had to support their attacks and finishing enough quantity ammunition and projectiles. All that aspects straight shown why in four years of the war Russian army could not reach victory on German troops and to what it leaded. Also, the paper contains a refutation of modern myths about the participation of Russia in the First World War as a series of victories, the fruits of which were prevented by the revolutionary events of 1917 and the Leninist government that concluded the Peace of Brest-Litovsk. In the beginning of this work there are brought causes that leaded Russia to enter in First World War without conduction of modernization and elementary improving of the economics that leaded after three years to absolute crash as the economics as a military system and the state.

Keywords: First World War, Russia, Russian army, attack, military river flotillas, Danube, Nyman, Vistula, Pripyat, Western Dvina, Aa, Riga bay, cannoned boat, ship, caterer, steam ship, trailer, barge.


Lavrenov S.Y. (Moscow). Foreign military intervention began in Bessarabia………………………………………………112

SERGEY YAKOVLEVICH LAVRENOV — Doctor of political sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of political science and law, Moscow State Regional University. 117335, Moscow, Nakhimovsky prospect, 67–4–104. E-mail: lavrs2009@yandex.ru

The article examines the main trends in the development of the internal political situation in Bessarabia after The February and October revolutions (1917); shows the dynamics of the political process here from the attempt to establish a full-fledged Moldovan statehood to surrender to Romania; reveals the dubious role of the first Moldovan “Parliament” Sfatul Tseriy (the Council of the region); reveals a set of unique factors and circumstances that emerged at the end of the First world war and allowed her to carry out military intervention in Bessarabia; the role and place of the Entente countries and the Central powers in sanctioning this dubious action are determined; the reasons for the defeat of the Bolshevik forces in the confrontation of the Romanian occupation are revealed.  The facts and conclusions presented in the article allow us to state that Romania’s anti-Bolshevik campaign to Bessarabia chronologically and actually became the first act of foreign military intervention against Soviet Russia.

Keywords: Bessarabia, Romania, First world war, the Sfatul ţării, the military intervention of Romania to Bessarabia.


Kokhan A.A. (Moscow). Creation and operation of a propaganda system for the ideological treatment of Wehrmacht soldiers on the example of the 11th Army………………………………………………121

ANDREJ ALEKSEEVICH KOKHAN — Head of the Human Resources Department, Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage (Heritage Institute) named after D.S. Likhachev. 129366, Russian Federation, Moscow, Kosmonavtov St., 2. E-mail: a_kokhan@mail.ru

The article considers the interaction between the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, the Wehrmacht, the Ministry of the Occupied Eastern Territories and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the issues of “ideological indoctrination” of soldiers of Nazi Germany and the 11th Army that participated in the occupation of the Crimean Peninsula, in particular. The emphasis is made on the interaction between the Ministers of the Third Reich in the issues of propaganda activities, as well as on the aspects of interaction between the bodies responsible for conducting propaganda activities among the German troops on the example of the units operating in the Crimea in 1941–1944.

Keywords: Second World War, military propaganda, the occupation of the Crimea, J. Goebbels, Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, Wehrmacht, 11th Army.


Karpov V.B., Gabrovec I.V. (Saint Petersburg). Management theory or what the experience of military history of the 20th century teaches……………………………………………………………………126

VIKTOR BORISOVICH KARPOV — Ph.D. in Military Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of the Military Space Academy named after A.F. Mozhaisky. 197198, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya St., 13. E-mail: alenakarpova1809@yandex.ru

IGOR VALERYEVICH GABROVEC — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of the Military Space Academy named after A.F. Mozhaisky. 197198, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya St., 13.

This article deals with the problematic issues of the theory and practice of army management on the example of the initial period of the great Patriotic War and other wars of the 20th century. The analysis of the possible causes of the defeat of the red Army in the first months of the war, the failure of the previously proposed reasons for the inability of the command to adequately confront the enemy in border battles. The mechanism of decomposition of the control system of troops in the prewar years is shown. The reasons of decrease of efficiency of control system in the conditions of neglect by the theory, departure from the basic principles of management, thoughtlessness of selection of personnel are opened. The negative tendency of removal from control system of those commanders and chiefs who were capable to think outside the box and to make independent decisions is noted. It is concluded that if you do not constantly monitor the negative processes in the system, do not purposefully lead the control system to the requirements of the theory, the increase of entropy phenomena (bureaucratization) in the system disables it.

Keywords: command and control system, the initial period of the great Patriotic War, bureaucratization of the system, unity of command, initiative.





Belousov A.S. (Saint Petersburg). The first shipbuilding program of the Don Flotilla……………………………………..134

ALEKSANDR SERGEEVICH BELOUSOV — Postgraduate student, Department of the Russian history from ancient times to the twentieth century, The Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University Researcher, The State Peterhof Museum-Reserve. 199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, 199034, Mendeleevskaya line, 5.

The paper is enlightened to the first shipbuilding program of the Don Flotilla, which was built in Tavrov in 1723-1724 for military action against the Ottoman Empire. It was taken part in the Russo-Turkish War (Russo-Austro-Ottoman) of 1735-1739. The starting point in the history of the flotilla is revealed Through unpublished archival materials. It is determined the reasons for its creation and the role in the foreign policy of the Russian Empire in 1720s. The ship’s composition of the naval formation is analyzed, including large and small prams, half-galleys and boats. Based on the large number of sources, hypotheses are advanced about the origin of the constructed ships, which makes it possible to establish the strategic and tactical tasks of the flotilla in the alleged military conflict. Particular attention is paid to the construction features of each type of ship.

Keywords: naval, military history, Don, Azov Sea, Tavrov, Voronezh, F.M. Sklyaev, Don Flotilla, Pram, Galley, shipbuilding.





Skurlov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Court iconographer Vasily Pavlovich Guryanov (1867–1920). To the issue about biography……………………………………………………………………………………………142

VALENTIN VASIL’EVICH SKURLOV — Ph.D. in Art History, Expert of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation, Scientific secretary of the Memorial Fund Faberge (Saint Petersburg). 199406, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Nalichnaya St., 37‒3‒47. E-mail: valentinskurlov@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the unknown pages of the life and work of the outstanding artist Vasily Pavlovich Guryanov (1867‒1920) ‒ “court iconographer” of the last Russian Emperor. The documents of the Russian State Historical Archive are introduced into scientific circulation, allowing to understand for what merits Vasily Guryanov received the title of the Supplier of the Highest court, and then a very rare personal title of “court iconographer”. The researchers still drew attention to the artistic aspects of creative work of the icon painter, don’t broach the subject of the biography. Found archival data allow us to begin to create a comprehensive catalogue of the works of the artist. Before in Russia there was only one court painter Peshekhonov, 1856‒1886., and 28 years, until 1912, this title remained vacant. Vasily Guryanov worked creatively and fruitfully for his Majesty’s Cabinet, for the members of the Imperial house, and conducted a great charity and public work. The article presents information about the icons made by Guryanov and other painters by order of his Majesty’s Cabinet in the period of 1895‒1917. Guryanov’s activity was encouraged unusually richly, in comparison with other authors, gifts and awards from the Cabinet of his Majesty. In 1902‒1916 the artist received 10 such gifts (watches, bracelets, brooches, pins, rings), earned the title of hereditary honorary citizen, two orders and several medals. The article is intended for historians of religious art, as well as art historians.

Keywords: court painter, icon, biography, his Majesty’s Cabinet, gifts and rewards.





Sirota N.M., Mokhorov G.A. (Saint Petersburg). The modern world: competing centers of power…………………….153

NAUM MIHAYLOVICH SIROTA — Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of History and Philosophy Department, Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation. 190000, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Bolshaya Morskaya St., 67A. E-mail: sirotanm@mail.ru

GENNADIY ANATOLIEVICH MOKHOROV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of Humanitarian and Socio-Economic Disciplines Department, Budyonny Military Academy of the Signal Corps. 194064, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Tihoretskiy Pr., 3. E-mail: g.mohorov@gmail.com

The specificity of the existing world order and its transformation into a polycentric world order are analyzed. The main trends in the evolution of the international environment are considered: the formation of a hierarchical and asymmetric world order, the shift of the center of world development to the East and its prospects, the strengthening of global conflict. The lines of division and rivalry between the leading centers of power of the modern world – the West (the USA and Europe) and Russia, the USA and China are revealed. The authors’ vision of the role of Russia in the configuration of centers of power and long-term factors that open the prospect of reducing the intensity of the negative trend in world politics is presented. From the authors’ point of view, in the situation of escalating rivalry and interdependence between the United States and China Russia’s optimal strategy should be foreign policy maneuvering to strengthen its own positions.

Keywords: polycentric world order, international system, centers of power, world hierarchy, new bipolarity, “the Thucydides trap”.






Salmin A.K. (Saint Petersburg). Review of the dissertation of Mukhamadeyev Almaz Raisovich “Law in the system of public relations of Volga Bulgaria (8 century – first third of the 13 century” presented for the degree of Doctor of Historical Sciences, specialty 07.00.02 – National history………………………………………………………………….163

ANTON KIRILLOVICH SALMIN — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Leading Researcher, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera), Russian Academy of Sciences. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Univerrsitetskaia Emb., 3. E-mail: antsalmin@mail.ru

The publication represents the review of the official opponent of the doctoral dissertation of A.R. Mukhamadeev, devoted to legal relations in Volga Bulgaria. Chronological coverage: 8th century – first third of the 13th century.

The relevance of the dissertation work is explained by absence of monographic studies of legal issues in the system of public relations in Volga Bulgaria. The applicant is absolutely right, stating that the history of social and legal relations of the medieval states on the territory of the modern Russian Federation still remains outside the scope of studies. The system of collection of taxes and execution of duties in pre-Mongol Volga Bulgaria, as a special area of social and legal, domestic relations of the state, still remains poorly studied, although it is of considerable interest for the history Meanwhile, the state developed not only the effective and viable system of taxation that survived it, but also the general principles and methods of functioning that made it possible to collect taxes practically from heterogeneous population practically painlessly. However, absence of such unique documents in the pre-Mongol period as khan’s yarlyks, granting the tarkhan’s right and reflecting all the variety of taxes and duties, complicates the work on reconstruction of the integral picture significantly. Hereby the author of the dissertation remains within the formal framework of the specialty “07.00.02 – National History”, contemplates with historical categories.

Keywords: Volga Bulgaria, 8th century – first third of the 13th century, legal relations.





Losik A.V., Alekseev T.V. (Saint-Petersburg). About national contribution to the history of world telecommunications (Review of the book by Borisova N.A. “Russia – the homeland of “elephants” or “kulibins”? From history of telecommunication of the 1830-1930th. St. Petersburg, 2017)……………………………………………………………168

ALEXANDER VITALIAVICH LOSIK Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Senior researcher at the Military Institute Military space Academy named after A.F. Mozhaysky, Deputy Editor of the journal “Кlio”. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskii pr., 11. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

TIMOFEY VLADIMIROVICH ALEKSEEV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Social and Economic Disciplines, Military space Academy named after A.F. Mozhaysky. 197110, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya St., 13. E-mail: timofey1967@mail.ru

This review states that the monograph is devoted to a discussion question about the statement of national priorities in the field of telecommunications for nearly 100 years (from the 1830s with the invention of the electric Telegraph, to the 1930s – the beginning of the introduction of electronic television). This problem is discussed not only in scientific journals, but also at the level of publications in the media and Internet. The article analyzes the theoretical and methodological approaches of the author to the problem, discusses the history of various types of telecommunications (Telegraph, telephone, radio, broadcasting, radar, television). It is emphasized that the study of domestic historical experience on the example of telecommunications is extremely important for the formation of scientific and innovation policy of the state at the present stage.

Keywords: telecommunication, Telegraph, telephone, radio, broadcasting, radar, television, innovation, innovation cycle.


Yefremov V.Y. (Volsk,Saratov region), Repineckaya J.S. (Samara). Unordinary study of a known scientific problem (Review of the book of S. N. Poltorak “Brest-Litovsk. 100 years of the history of peace talks”. Saint Petersburg, Ostrov, 2018……………………………..173

VALERY YAKOVLEVICH YEFREMOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of humanitarian and socio-economic disciplines of the Volsky Military Institute of material support. 412903, Russian Federation, Saratov region, Volsk, Maxim Gorky St., 3. E-mail: vjefremov@mail.ru

REPINECKAYA JULIA SOLOMONOVNA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of General History and Teaching Methods, Samara State Socio-Pedagogical University. 443099, Russian Federation, Samara, M. Gorky St., 65/67. E-mail: repinetskaya@pgsga.ru

The authors of the review highly appreciate another monograph of Doctor of historical Sciences, Professor Sergei Nikolaevich Poltorak, devoted to the disclosure of a major scientific problem – the history of the negotiation process, which ended with the conclusion of the Brest peace. Its signing allowed Soviet Russia to come out of the First World War in a separate way. It is noted that the author of the study made a significant contribution to the development of historiography of the problem, focusing on the analysis of foreign publications. The reviewers emphasize that the information about the prospect of studying the sources related to the negotiation process in Brest-Litovsk deserves attention. At the same time, the review also points out some shortcomings inherent in this fundamental scientific work.

Keywords: reviewers, Brest peace, Brest-Litovsk, Soviet Russia, V.I. Lenin, L.D. Trotsky, N.I. Bukharin, historical figures, negotiation process





In memory of G.V. Ezhova……………………………………………………..177